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Vehicle Emission Solutions for China 6B and Euro 7

Umicore AutoCat (China) Co Ltd-Gu Weiwei
Umicore Autocat (China) Co Ltd-Xiangwei Meng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0654
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Combinations of TWC (CC1) and coated gasoline particulate filters (CC2) were aged by 4 mode and fuel cut aging to simulate 160K kilometers of in-use aging China and Europe, respectively. The separate combinations of catalysts were then evaluated on two low emission engines using the WLTC driving cycle. Regarding the TWC CC1 catalysts both volume and PGM were varied. With respect to the gasoline particulate filters (GPF) OSC/washcoat amounts were varied at constant PGM loading. For European applications, after fuel cut aging, Euro6D emission target can be met with any combination of TWC + GPF catalysts. However, if the gaseous regulations for Euro 7 are similar to China 6B the TWC CC1 catalyst should be >1.0L in volume in order to meet CO and NOx emissions. For the Chinese applications, after the 4-mode aging again the TWC CC1 catalyst should be >1.0L in volume and high levels of OSC are needed in the GPF to meet CO and NOx emission targets. Results imply that TWC CC1 design is most critical and more washcoat (bigger volume)…
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Gasoline particulate filter applications for plug-in hybrid and traditional cars

BYD Auto Industry Company Limited-Qinglian Zhang, Yinsheng Liao, Hongzhou Zhang
Corning (Shanghai) Company, Ltd.-Lei Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1430
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Abstract Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are considered as primary paths in China to meet corporate average fuel consumption (CAFC) credit and new energy vehicle (NEV) credit regulations. Many original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) develop PHEVs based on their internal combustion engine (ICE) base models without significant modification on engine side. Traditional ICE vehicles are solely driven by engines, while PHEVs can be driven by engine or electric motors, independently or together, depending on powertrain architecture and operating strategy. PHEVs may have more PN/PM emissions. To meet CN6 regulation, gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) are widely used for both PHEV and traditional cars. It is important to investigate the impacts of hybrid powertrain on gasoline particulate filter applications. This paper compares GPF application development for a traditional BYD Tang ICE base model and a BYD Tang PHEV model. Same aftertreatment design with slightly different layout is used to cover both models to meet PM/PN/gas emission standards. GPF soot loading and burning behavior are compared. There are more challenges on soot management on…
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Different methods to improve the exhaust gas temperature in modern stage V off-road diesel engine over transient emission cycles.

Turku University of Applied Sciences-Mika Lauren, Toomas Karhu, Miika Laivola, Jan Ekman
University Of Vaasa-Seppo Niemi, Kirsi Spoof-Tuomi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0903
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents several methods to improve the exhaust gas temperature of a modern diesel engine. A high exhaust gas temperature is needed to improve the after-treatment system efficiency and particulate filter regeneration in low engine loads. This study is based on experimental measurements of a Stage 5 level off-road diesel engine. The effect of the different heating methods determined over steady state runs and emission and performance are presented with standard emission transient test procedure (NRTC). In the first step of the study, an intake air restriction and an exhaust gas restriction method are compared. The intake restriction produces better fuel economy over the measuring cycle. However, with the exhaust restriction, higher exhaust gas temperature can be achieved in low engine loads. In the second phase of study, the intake air restriction method was implemented in the research engine. In addition, active waste gate controlling and injection retardation methods were taken in use for heating purposes. The engine performance was determined with normal calibration and with high exhaust temperature calibration. The differences to the…
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Development of a Burner-Based Test System to Produce Controllable Particulate Emissions for Evaluation of Gasoline Particulate Filters

Southwest Research Institute-NISHANT THAKRAL, Vinay Premnath, Imad Khalek, Scott Eakle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0389
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have been widely adopted by manufacturers in the light-duty market due to their fuel economy benefits. However, several studies have shown that GDI engines have higher levels of particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to Port Fuel Injected (PFI) engines and diesel engines equipped with optimally functioning Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). With stringent particle number regulations (PN) implemented in both the European Union and China, Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPF) are expected to be widely utilized to control particulate emissions. Currently, evaluating GPF technologies on a vehicle can be challenging due to a limited number of commercially available vehicles that are available, as well as the costs associated with vehicle procurement and evaluations utilizing a chassis dynamometer facility. To address these challenges, a gasoline fueled burner-based technology was retrofitted with unique hardware to replicate the engine-out emissions profiles observed with GDI applications. In the absence of a suitable vehicle, using a burner-based technology can prove to be a cost-efficient solution for rapid screening of various GPFs. This manuscript details the development of…
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Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions

Corning Inc.-Ameya Joshi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0352
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This review paper covers major regulatory and technology developments in 2019 pertinent to tailpipe emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants. Europe has proposed ambitious reductions in CO2 limits for both light- and heavy-duty sectors. The challenge is compounded with changing measurement norms and a significant shift away from fuel efficient diesels in the light-duty (LD) space. Both incremental and step changes are being made to advance internal combustion. New studies show that in-use NOx emissions from diesels can be much lower than required by the Euro 6 regulation. Discussions have already started on Euro 7 regulations, and the leading regulatory concepts and proposed technical solutions are provided. In the heavy-duty (HD) sector, the progress is outlined in improving engine and vehicle fuel efficiency through the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) SuperTruck II program and other representative studies. Common approaches among the participants include hybridization, waste heat recovery, and both open- and closed cycle incremental improvements. Emissions control focus is on evaluating pathways to achieve California’s contemplated low-NOx standards, recently also supported by the US…
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Coated Gasoline Particulate Filter Technology Development to Meet China6 PN Regulation

Corning Inc-Jian Chen, Suhao He
Kunming Sino-Platinum Metals Catalyst Co-Wenzheng Xia, Xinbo Yuan, Dongxia Yang, Gavin harle, Depeng zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0387
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the introduction of stringent particulate number (PN) limit and real driving emission (RDE) requirements, gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) are widely adopted in Europe and China. GPF can be wash-coated with different level of three-way catalyst (TWC) coating. Some applications use heavy coating (>100g/L), and some don’t use at all. Pressure drop (DP) and PN filtration efficiency (FE) are the top two design criteria for OEMs. It is important to understand how various of coating technologies work with GPF technologies for optimized FE/DP performance. To study filter and coating interaction, a big matrix of coated GPFs are prepared and tested for lab DP and vehicle PN based FE. The matrix includes a wide range of wash coating loadings (WCLs), coating technologies that enable more coating inside GPF filtration walls (in-wall coating) or more on top of walls (on-wall coating), and GPF technologies with high and low mean pore size (MPS). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to analyze microstructure of coated filter walls, and coating distribution for better understanding filter performance data. In general, DP…
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Evaluation of Fast Warm-Up Strategies for a Light-duty Gasoline Compression Ignition(GCI) Engine

Aramco Research Center-Praveen Kumar, Mark Sellnau
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0317
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent emissions regulations in automotive applications are driving advancements in after-treatment technology and emissions control strategies. Fast warm-up of the after-treatment system during the engine cold-start is essential to meet future emissions targets. In this study, a range of strategies were evaluated on a 2.2L, four cylinder, light-duty Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine with geometric compression ratio 17. The GCI engine has a single stage turbocharger and low-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) with EGR cooler bypass. . For cold-start assist, the engine is equipped with a 2.5kW electric heater. The aftertreatment system is comprised of an oxidation catalyst, followed by a particulate filter and an SCR catalyst. A detailed GT-Power model of the GCI engine system was developed for evaluations. In the first work phase, the individual and combined benefit of the engine-based strategies, such as flare speed, load, retarded CA50, intake air heater and backpressure valve throttling were evaluated for ambient cold-start. The cumulative benefit of the strategies produced estimated exhaust temperature and exhaust enthalpy of 470 degree C and 10 kW, respectively…
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Modelling the Influence of Different Soot Types on the Radio-Frequency-Based Load Detection of Gasoline Particulate Filters

OTH Regensburg-Peter Schwanzer, Hans-Peter Rabl
University of Bayreuth-Stefanie Walter, Gunter Hagen, Ralf Moos
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0360
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to the harmful health effects of ultrafine particles, emission standards for gasoline engines have been tightened in recent years with regard to particle number. In order to meet the limits, gasoline particulate filter (GPF) have become necessary, especially for engines with direct injection. As for diesel applications, GPFs can be monitored via differential pressure measurement or a radio-frequency approach (RF sensor). The latter is based on the influence of the soot conductivity on the electromagnetic field. Due to large differences in soot properties and engine operating modes (e.g., the possibility of incomplete regenerations), the behavior of both sensor systems has to be investigated in detail. For this purpose, usually complex measurements on engine test benches are required. To simplify sensor development, a simulation model was created using COMSOL Multiphysics that not only allows to calculate the loading and regeneration process of GPFs under different engine operating conditions, but also to determine the impact on both sensor systems. In order to simulate the regeneration behavior of gasoline soot accurately, an oxidation model was developed using…
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Optimization of In-cylinder parameters of a Diesel Engine using Design of Experiments Technique for Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen Emissions.

Hindustan Institute of Tech. & Science-Sasikumar Nandagopal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1356
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) emissions are considered as one of the harmful emissions globally which has a direct influence on human beings as well as the environment. This works deals about a strategy for reducing NOx pollutant from an automotive engine. Catalytic converters and particulate filters are mostly used as after treatment device for CI engines to control the limits of the pollutants from the tail pipes, but the real ingenuity lies in achieving the same effect through in - cylinder combustion. Optimization of the critical factors like Nozzle Tip Protrusion (NTP), Static Injection Timing (SIT), Bumping Clearance (BC) and Swirl Number are the most important engine design parameters in achieving the optimum combustion which might result in the release of minimal harmful pollutants. In this work, L9 Orthogonal Array (OA) table was used in designing experiments for studying the interactive model between the said factor and its levels on NOx emissions. Absolute value of NTP considering the tolerance limit is set as 3.0 mm, 3.15 mm and 3.30 mm and similarly SIT, BC and…
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Effect of engine-out soot emissions and the frequency of regeneration on gasoline particulate filter efficiency.

Umicore AG & Co KG-Ka-Fai Wong, Susanne Kunert, Joerg Michael Richter
Umicore AG & Co. KG-Frank Adam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1431
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) are an important aftertreatment system that enables gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to meet current emission standards based on non-volatile particles > 23 nm in diameter. However, the filtration efficiency of GPFs may need to improve as emission regulations tighten, and possibly include non-volatile particles down to 10 nm. The filtration efficiency of GPFs is highly dependent on the amount of soot that accumulates on the GPF during engine operation. GPFs are often ‘passively’ regenerated during vehicle operation when the exhaust is sufficiently hot and it contains sufficient oxygen. This paper explores the effect that engine-out soot emissions and the frequency of GPF regeneration have on GPF filtration efficiency. Two GPF technologies were tested on two engine dynamometers as well as two production vehicles on a chassis dynamometer. The engines span a wide range of engine-out particle emissions (a range of almost one order of magnitude). The filtration efficiency of the GPFs were measured with a regulation-compliant particle number system (non-volatile particles > 23 nm), as well as with a particle…