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Vehicle Emission Solutions for China 6b and Euro 7

Umicore AutoCat (China) Co., Ltd.-Gu Weiwei
Umicore Autocat (China) Co., Ltd.-Xiangwei Meng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0654
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Combinations of CC1 TWC and CC2 coated gasoline particulate filters (cGPF) were aged by 4-mode and fuel cut aging to simulate 200K kilometers of in-use aging in China and Europe, respectively. Separate combinations of catalysts were then evaluated on two low emission engines using the WLTC driving cycle. Catalyst volume and PGM mass were varied in the CC1. OSC/washcoat amounts were varied at constant PGM loading in the GPF. For the Chinese application, after the four-mode aging, it was found that the CC1 TWC catalyst volume should be greater than 1.0 L. High levels of OSC were needed in the GPF to meet CO and NOx emission targets. For the European application, after fuel cut aging, Euro 6d emissions were met with any combination of TWC and GPF catalysts. If the gaseous regulations for Euro 7 are similar to China 6b, the CC1 TWC catalyst should also be great than 1.0 L in order to meet CO and NOx emissions. Over all, results imply that CC1 TWC design is most critical for gaseous emissions. More…
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Gasoline Particulate Filter Applications for Plug-In Hybrid and Traditional Cars

BYD Auto Industry Co., Ltd.-Qinglian Zhang, Yinsheng Liao, Hongzhou Zhang
Corning Co., Ltd.-Lei Zhang, Suhao He
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1430
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are considered as primary paths in China to meet corporate average fuel consumption (CAFC) credit and new energy vehicle (NEV) credit regulations. Many local original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) develop PHEVs based on their internal combustion engine (ICE) base models without significant modification on engine side. Traditional ICE vehicles are solely driven by engines, while PHEVs can be driven by engine or electric motors, independently or together, depending on powertrain architecture and operating strategy. PHEVs may have more particle number or particulate matter (PN/PM) emissions. To meet CN6 regulation, gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) are widely used for both PHEV and traditional cars. It is important to investigate the impacts of hybrid powertrain on gasoline particulate filter applications.This paper compares GPF application development for a traditional BYD Tang (ICE base model) and a BYD Tang DM (PHEV model). Same aftertreatment design with slightly different layout is used to cover both models to meet PM/PN/gaseous emission standards. GPF soot loading and burning behavior are compared. In general, the…
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Different Methods to Improve the Exhaust Gas Temperature in Modern Stage V Off-Road Diesel Engine over Transient Emission Cycles

Turku University of Applied Sciences-Mika Lauren, Toomas Karhu, Miika Laivola, Jan Ekman
University of Vaasa-Seppo Niemi, Kirsi Spoof-Tuomi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0903
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents several methods to improve the exhaust gas temperature of a modern diesel engine. A high exhaust gas temperature is needed to improve the after-treatment system efficiency and particulate filter regeneration in low engine loads. This study is based on experimental measurements of two Stage 5 level off-road diesel engines. The effect of the different heating methods determined over steady state runs and emission and performance are presented with standard emission transient test procedure (NRTC). In the first step of the study, an intake air restriction and an exhaust gas restriction method are compared. The intake restriction produces better fuel economy over the measuring cycle. However, with the exhaust restriction, higher exhaust gas temperature can be achieved in low engine loads. In the second phase of study, the intake air restriction method was implemented in the research engine. In addition, active waste gate controlling, and injection retardation methods were taken in use for heating purposes. The engine performance was determined with normal calibration and with high exhaust temperature calibration. The differences to the…
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Development of a Burner-Based Test System to Produce Controllable Particulate Emissions for Evaluation of Gasoline Particulate Filters

Southwest Research Institute-Nishant Thakral, Vinay Premnath, Imad Khalek, Scott Eakle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0389
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have been widely adopted by manufacturers in the light-duty market due to their fuel economy benefits. However, several studies have shown that GDI engines have higher levels of particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to Port Fuel Injected (PFI) engines and diesel engines equipped with optimally functioning Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). With stringent particle number regulations (PN) implemented in both the European Union and China, Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPF) are expected to be widely utilized to control particulate emissions. Currently, evaluating GPF technologies on a vehicle can be challenging due to a limited number of commercially available vehicles that are available, as well as the costs associated with vehicle procurement and evaluations utilizing a chassis dynamometer facility. To address these challenges, a gasoline fueled burner-based technology was retrofitted with unique hardware to replicate the engine-out emissions profiles observed with GDI applications. In the absence of a suitable vehicle, using a burner-based technology can prove to be a cost-efficient solution for rapid screening of various GPFs. This manuscript details the development of…
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Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions

Corning, Inc.-Ameya Joshi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0352
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This review paper covers major regulatory and technology developments in 2019 pertinent to tailpipe emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants. Europe has proposed ambitious reductions in CO2 limits for both light- and heavy-duty sectors. The challenge is compounded with changing measurement norms and a significant shift away from fuel efficient diesels in the light-duty (LD) space. Both incremental and step changes are being made to advance internal combustion. New studies show that in-use NOx emissions from diesels can be much lower than required by the Euro 6 regulation. Discussions have already started on Euro 7 regulations, and the leading regulatory concepts and proposed technical solutions are provided. In the heavy-duty (HD) sector, the progress is outlined in improving engine and vehicle fuel efficiency through the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) SuperTruck II program and other representative studies. Common approaches among the participants include hybridization, waste heat recovery, and both open- and closed cycle incremental improvements. Emissions control focus is on evaluating pathways to achieve California’s contemplated low-NOx standards, recently also supported by the US…
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Coated Gasoline Particulate Filter Technology Development to Meet China6 PN Regulation

Corning Inc-Jian Chen, Suhao He
Kunming Sino-Platinum Metals Catalyst Co-Wenzheng Xia, Xinbo Yuan, Dongxia Yang, Gavin harle, Depeng zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0387
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the introduction of stringent particulate number (PN) limit and real driving emission (RDE) requirements, gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) are widely adopted in Europe and China. GPF can be wash-coated with different level of three-way catalyst (TWC) coating. Some applications use heavy coating (>100g/L), and some don’t use at all. Pressure drop (DP) and PN filtration efficiency (FE) are the top two design criteria for OEMs. It is important to understand how various of coating technologies work with GPF technologies for optimized FE/DP performance. To study filter and coating interaction, a big matrix of coated GPFs are prepared and tested for lab DP and vehicle PN based FE. The matrix includes a wide range of wash coating loadings (WCLs), coating technologies that enable more coating inside GPF filtration walls (in-wall coating) or more on top of walls (on-wall coating), and GPF technologies with high and low mean pore size (MPS). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to analyze microstructure of coated filter walls, and coating distribution for better understanding filter performance data. In general, DP…
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Calibration and Parametric Investigations on Lean NOx Trap and Particulate Filter Models for a Light Duty Diesel Engine

IIT Madras-A Ramesh, Anand Krishnasamy
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-S. Suresh Bagavathy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0657
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To comply with the stringent future emission mandates of light-duty diesel engines, it is essential to deploy a suitable combination of emission control devices like diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF) and DeNOx converter (LNT or SCR). Arriving at optimum size and layout of these emission control devices for a particular engine through experiments is both time and cost-intensive. Thus, it becomes important to develop suitable well-tuned simulation models that can be helpful to optimize individual emission control devices as well as arrive at an optimal layout for achieving higher conversion efficiency at a minimal cost.Towards this objective, the present work intends to develop a one-dimensional Exhaust After Treatment Devices (EATD) model using a commercial code. The model parameters are fine-tuned based on experimental data. The EATD model is then validated with experiment data that are not used for tuning the model. Subsequently, the model was used for studying the effects of geometrical parameters of the after-treatment devices like diameter and length on the conversion efficiency and the pressure drop. The experimental investigations…
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Dimensional Optimization of Key Parameters Using DoE Technique to Achieve Better NOX Emission Values in Mass Production of Single Cylinder Small Diesel Engines for 3 Wheeler Applications

Hindustan Institute of Technology & Science-Jaganathan Ramalingam, Prabakaran B, Sasikumar Nandagopal, Hariram Venkatesan, Jaikumar Mayakrishnan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1356
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) emissions are considered as among the most harmful emissions globally having a direct influence on human beings and the environment. This work deals with a strategy to arrive at achieving lower NOx values consistently in mass production of single cylinder automotive diesel engines meeting BS IV Emission standards using the DoE technique for dimensional optimization of critical parameters. Catalytic converters and particulate filters are mostly used as after - treatment devices for compression Ignition (CI) engines for bringing down the limits (Values) of the pollutants from the tail pipes. But the real ingenuity lies in achieving the same effect through optimization of in - cylinder combustion. Optimization of the critical factors like Nozzle Tip Protrusion (NTP), Static Injection Timing (SIT), Bumping Clearance (BC) and Swirl Number (SN) are considered as the most important engine design parameters for ensuring the optimum combustion which help release of minimal harmful pollutants. In this work, a standard L9 Orthogonal Array (OA) table was used in designing experiments for a study of the interactive model between…
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Effect of engine-out soot emissions and the frequency of regeneration on gasoline particulate filter efficiency.

Umicore AG & Co. KG-Frank Adam, Ka-Fai Wong, Susanne Kunert, Joerg Michael Richter
University of Alberta-Jason Olfert
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1431
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) are an important aftertreatment system that enables gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to meet current emission standards based on non-volatile particles > 23 nm in diameter. However, the filtration efficiency of GPFs may need to improve as emission regulations tighten, and possibly include non-volatile particles down to 10 nm. The filtration efficiency of GPFs is highly dependent on the amount of soot that accumulates on the GPF during engine operation. GPFs are often ‘passively’ regenerated during vehicle operation when the exhaust is sufficiently hot and it contains sufficient oxygen. This paper explores the effect that engine-out soot emissions and the frequency of GPF regeneration have on GPF filtration efficiency. Two GPF technologies were tested on two engine dynamometers as well as two production vehicles on a chassis dynamometer. The engines span a wide range of engine-out particle emissions (a range of almost one order of magnitude). The filtration efficiency of the GPFs were measured with a regulation-compliant particle number system (non-volatile particles > 23 nm), as well as with a particle…
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Parametric Representation of the Entire Pressure Drop Evolution during Particulate Filter Loading

CERTH/CPERI-Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos
Synest-Rozina Metallinou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1433
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Improved understanding and compact descriptions of the pressure drop evolution of Particulate Filters (both for diesel and gasoline powered vehicles) are always in demand for intelligent implementations of exhaust emission system monitoring and control. In the present paper we revisit the loading process of a particulate filter focusing on a parametric description of the deep bed-to-cake transition in the light of recent progress in the understanding of soot deposit structure, growth dynamics and evolution. Combining experimental data, simulation models and information theoretic concepts we provide a closed-form representation of the entire evolution of pressure drop (from the initial clean state up to the evolving linear cake growth regime) parameterized in terms of the physical parameters of the system (filter and particle structure/geometry and flow properties). The representation is shown to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data and it opens the door for improved on-board monitoring/control of particulate filter systems.