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Engine Exhaust Noise Optimization Using Sobol DoE Sequence and NSGA-II Algorithms

Tafe Motors and Tractors Limited-Ishwinder Pal Singh Sethi, Devendra Nene, Anand Shivajirao Patil
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Exhaust muffler is one of the most important component for overall vehicle noise signature. Optimized design of exhaust system plays a vital role in engine performance as well as auditory comfort. Exhaust orifice noise reduction is often contradicted by increased back pressure and packaging space. The process of arriving at exhaust design, which meets packaging space, back pressure and orifice noise requirements, is often manual and time consuming. Therefore, an automated numerical technique is needed for this multi-objective optimization.In current case study, a tractor exhaust system has been subjected to Design of Experiments (DoE) using Sobol sequencing algorithm and optimized using NSGA-II algorithm. Target design space of the exhaust muffler is identified and modeled considering available packaging constrain. Various exhaust design parameters like; length of internal pipes, location of baffles and perforation etc. are defined as input variables. Performance objective of back pressure and sound pressure level has also been defined in simulations workflow.Exhaust orifice noise has been reduced with significant reduction in overall simulations time. The optimal design is achieved satisfying all constrains leading…
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PACKING, PREFORMED - MS28775 O-RING

A-6C2 Seals Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS28775A
  • Current
Published 2019-06-03 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Approximating Convective Boundary Conditions for Transient Thermal Simulations with Surrogate Models for Thermal Packaging Studies

Oakland University-Laila Guessous
ThermoAnalytics Inc.-Jon Rene Juszkiewicz
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The need for transient thermal simulations in vehicle packaging studies has grown rapidly in recent years. To date, the computational costs associated with the transient simulation of 3D conjugate heat transfer phenomena has prohibited the widespread use of full vehicle transient simulations. This paper presents results from a recent study that explored a method to circumvent the computational costs associated with long transient conjugate heat transfer simulations.The proposed method first segregates the thermal structural and fluid physics domains to take advantage of time scale differences. The two domains are then re-coupled to calculate a series of steady state conjugate heat transfer simulations at various vehicle speeds. The local convection terms are then used to construct a set of surrogate models dependent on vehicle speed, that predict the local heat transfer coefficients and the local near wall fluid temperatures. These surrogate models are then coupled to the thermal structural simulation to simulate the wall temperature history.Results from transient conjugate heat transfer simulations of several vehicle test cycles were compared to simulations performed with the method described…
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Aerodynamic Development of the 2019 Chevrolet Corvette C7 ZR1

General Motors-Alexander Nastov, David Caples
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an overview of the aerodynamic development of the 2019 Chevrolet Corvette C7 ZR1. Extensive wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics simulations were completed to engineer the ZR1’s aerodynamics to improve lift-to-drag efficiency and track capability over previous Corvette offerings. The ZR1 architecture changes posed many aerodynamic challenges including increased vehicle cooling, strict packaging demands, wider front track width, and aggressive exterior styling. Through motorsports-inspired aerodynamic development, the ZR1 was engineered to overcome these challenges through the creation of new devices such as a raised rear wing and front underwing. The resulting Standard ZR1 achieved a top speed of 212 mph making it the fastest Corvette ever [1]. Optionally, the ZR1 with the ZTK Performance Package provides the highest downforce of any Corvette, generating approximately 950 pounds at the ZTK’s top speed [1].
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Reliability Physics Approach for High-Density Ball Grid Arrays in Autonomous Vehicle Applications

DfR Solutions-Maxim Serebreni, Gil Sharon, Nathan Blattau, Craig Hillman
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Integration of advanced sensing systems in autonomous vehicles is possible due to high performance processors that utilize high-density ball grid array (HD-BGA) packaging. The configuration of advanced sensors within autonomous vehicles requires the placement of processing modules within non-conventional vehicles compartments that can drastically influence the reliability of HD-BGAs. Durability of HD-BGAs to different loads depend on their location within the vehicle as well as the form factor of the package itself. Reliability Physics Approach (RPA) combines simulation tools and empirical models to predict the reliability of advanced electronic packages under complex environmental and operational loads by identifying the susceptibility of electronic components to the dominant failure mechanism. In this paper, the reliability of an electronic module will be investigated under various vibration loads at different vehicle compartments and the influence of mounting configuration of electronic module to housing under thermal loads. In addition, the BGA form factor will be investigated to demonstrate the implementation of RPA early in the design process to develop such mitigation techniques as underfill selection to improve the reliability of…
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Advances in Tank Heaters Based on PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) Plastic Nanomaterials

Eltek Group-Marco Pizzi, Mauro Zorzetto, Alberto Barbano, Luca Costa, Luca Vercellotti, Marco Bizzarro, Massimo Zanin, Vito Scannicchio
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The global trend on emission reduction is leading to a wider diffusion of SCR systems for diesel engines and to the introduction of WI (water injection) systems in gasoline engines. Cars are equipped with tanks for water and urea solutions (AD-blue). Both liquids can freeze in the car operative temperature range: the tanks must be equipped with heaters to guarantee a sufficient amount of additives in liquid form in any condition. We propose solutions based on plastic PTC (in the following nanoPTC) effect nanomaterials for thermal management of those liquids. The proposed heaters can be molded in any shape, following the specific constraints of each tank, in carpet like shapes for a distributed heating of the tank, or in bulky components integrating sensors housings, pipes, pumping systems or in the packaging of other components. The PTC effect is distributed avoiding overheating in parts with poor thermal exchange (dry condition). The advantages on existing technologies can be summarized as follows: higher efficiency, safer operation, no additive damage (urea is decomposed if overheated), arbitrary shape design, low…
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Duct Shape Optimization Using Multi-Objective and Geometrically Constrained Adjoint Solver

Ford Motor Company-Jee-Whan Nam, Sunil Patil
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the recent years, adjoint optimization has gained popularity in the automotive industry with its growing applications. Since its inclusion in the mainstream commercial CFD solvers and its continuously added capabilities over the years, its productive usage became readily available to many engineers who were previously limited to interfacing the customized adjoint source code with CFD solvers. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate using an adjoint solver a method to optimize duct shape that meets multiple design objectives simultaneously. To overcome one of the biggest challenges in the duct design, i.e. the severe packaging constraints, the method here uses geometrically constrained adjoint to ensure that the optimum shape always fits into the user-defined packaging space. In this work, adjoint solver and surface sensitivity calculations are used to develop the optimization method. The development is carried out within commercial CFD solver settings, and a java macro is then utilized to automate the developed optimization cycles. The issues during the optimization process, mostly related to the morphing of mesh, are addressed and the solutions to…
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Transparent Test Patch Determines Food Contamination

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34174
Published 2019-04-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A transparent test patch, printed with harmless molecules, signals food contamination as it happens. The patch can be incorporated directly into food packaging, where it can monitor the contents for harmful pathogens such as E. coli and Salmonella. The new technology has the potential to replace the traditional “best before” or expiration date on food and drinks.

 

Nissan Leaf finally gets more range

Automotive Engineering: April 2019

Kami Buchholz
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP04_17
Published 2019-04-01 by SAE International in United States

The 2019 Leaf Plus has a longer driving range and provides quicker acceleration than its platform-sharing counterpart, the second-generation Leaf, thanks to a higher-output motor and additional battery cells. Nissan's most-powerful electric car yet claims a 226 mi (321 km) driving range, outpacing the standard Leaf's 150 mi (241-km) driving range. The Leaf Plus is in league with other longer-range EVs, including the Chevrolet Bolt, Hyundai Kona and Tesla Model 3.

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Laser Measurement Sensors Solve High-Speed Package Profiling

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34152
Published 2019-04-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Banner Engineering Plymouth, MN