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Instantaneous PLII and OH* Chemiluminescence Study on Wide Distillation Fuels, PODEn and Ethanol Blends in a Constant Volume Vessel.

CNPC Ji Chai Power Company Limited-Dong Liu
Tsinghua Univ-Longxi Cui, Yue Ma, Xiao Ma, Shijin Shuai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0340
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The combustion characteristics and soot emissions of three types of fuels were studied in a high pressure and temperature vessel. In order to achieve better volatility, proper cetane number and high oxygen content, the newly designed WDEP fuel was proposed and investigated. It is composed of wide distillation fuel (WD), PODE3-6 mixture (PODEn) and ethanol. For comparison, the test on WD and the mixture of PODEn-ethanol (EP) are also conducted. OH* chemiluminescence during the combustion was measured and instantaneous PLII was also applied to reveal the soot distribution. Abel transformation was adopted to calculate the total soot of axisymmetric flame. The results show that WDEP has similar ignition delays and flame lift-off lengths to those of WD at 870-920 K. But the initial ignition locations of WDEP flame in different cycles were more concentrated, particularly under the condition of low oxygen atmosphere. Comparing with WD, the soot amount of WDEP decreased for 55% and 27% at 870 K and 920 K. For the case of 920 K and 15.8% of ambient oxygen, the soot amount…
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Investigation of the operating conditions on the water and thermal management for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell by one-dimensional model

Tongji Universtiy-Xuhui Wang, Yaqian Dong, Sichuan Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0856
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Water and thermal management is an essential issue that influences performance and durability of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Water content in membrane decides its ionic conductivity and membrane swelling favors the ionic conductivity, resulting in decreases in the membrane’s ohmic resistance and improvement in the output voltage. However, if excessive liquid water can’t be removed out of cell quickly, it will fill in the pores of catalyst layer (CL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) then flooding may occur. It is essential to keep the water content in membrane at a proper level. In this work, a transient isothermal one-dimensional model is developed to investigate effects of the relative humidity of inlet gas and cell temperature on performance of a PEMFC. Comprehensive physical and chemical phenomenon inside the cell is included, especially the mass transfer of hydrogen, oxygen, vapor and liquid water in gas channels, GDL and CL and non-frozen membrane water in ionomer. Phase change between vapor and liquid water is also considered. The cell’s performances at the conditions of the different…
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Potential Analysis and Virtual Development of SI Engines Operated with Synthetic Fuel DMC+

FKFS-Cornelius Wagner, Michael Grill, Mahir-Tim Keskin
FKFS / University of Stuttgart-Michael Bargende
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0342
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
On the way to emission-free mobility, future fuels must be CO2 neutral. To achieve this, synthetic fuels are being developed. In order to better assess the effects of the new fuels on the engine process, simulation models are being developed that reproduce the chemical and physical properties of these fuels. In this paper, the fuel DMC+ is examined. DMC+ (a mixture of DMC and MeFo mainly, characterized by the lack of C-C Bonds and high oxygen content) offers advantages with regard to evaporation heat, demand of oxygen and knock resistance. Furthermore, its combustion is almost particle free. With the aid of modern 0D/1D-Simulation methods, an assessment of the potential of DMC+ can be made. It is shown that the simulative conversion of a state-of-the-art gasoline engine to DMC+ (a mixture of DMC and MeFo mainly, characterized by the lack of C-C Bonds and high oxygen content) fuel offers advantages in terms of efficiency in many operating points even if the engine design is not altered. This is mainly due to the higher knock resistance and…
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Effects of n-Butanol Additions on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of HTL and Diesel blends

Beijing Institute of Technology-Ziming Yang
Univ of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign-Timothy Lee, Chia-Fon Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0393
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Biocrude diesel converted from wet biowaste via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is drawing increased attention in recent years due to its wide range of raw materials (algae, swine manure, and food processing waste). However, from the previous experiments done in a constant volume chamber, it was observed that the presence of 20% of HTL in the blend produced as much soot as pure diesel at the ambient oxygen ratio of 21%, and even more soot at low oxygen ratios. It was also observed that n-butanol additions could reduce the soot emissions of diesel significantly under all tested conditions. In this work, the spray and combustion characteristics of HTL and diesel blends with n-butanol added were investigated in a constant volume chamber. The ambient temperature and oxygen ranged from 800 to 1200 K and 13% to 21%, respectively, covering both conventional and low-temperature combustion (LTC) regimes. Time-resolved images of the spray and natural flame luminosity (an indicator of soot) were captured by a high-speed camera coupled with a copper vapor laser beam. The experiments revealed that n-butanol…
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Study on the effects of fuel reforming on fuel properties and the following potential influences on ICEs

CATARC-Feng Yan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1315
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A high temperature and no oxygen atmosphere fuel reforming has been proposed for the purpose of exergy saving by theoretical analyzing the detailed exergy loss events of combustion process, the correctness and feasibility of this fuel reforming have been verified through experiments. The exergy behaviors of high temperature and no oxygen atmosphere fuel reforming have been extensively studied, and many benefits had been observed including: (1) simplifying the reforming device where catalysts are not necessary; (2) improving the total chemical exergy while effectively converting large moleculae to small moleculae; (3) improving the mixture’s ratio of specific heat that can promote work-extraction; and (4) lengthening the ignition delay that buys time for better mixing process. All of these benefits are conducive to a better organized HCCI combustion that may improve the engine second law efficiency.
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Spark Assisted Compression Ignition Engine with Stratified Charge Combustion and Ozone Addition

Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550-Sayan Biswas, Isaac Ekoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2253
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Performance and emissions characteristics for stratified charge spark assisted compression ignition (SACI) with 30 ppm of added ozone (O3) were explored in a single-cylinder, optically accessible, spray-guided, research engine. For the present study, intake pressure and temperature were fixed at 1.0 bar and 42°C respectively, with a range of engine loads (1.5 – 5.5 bar indicated mean effective pressure) and speeds (800 – 1600 revolutions per minute) explored. Fuel stratification achieved by a late-cycle injection of ~ 10–25% of the total fuel was used to maintain stable operation at lower engine loads. For each condition spark timing, second injection SOI, and fuel split ratio between the main and second injection were optimized to maximize engine performance while maintaining nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx) below 5 g/kg-fuel.Ozone addition was found to decrease specific fuel consumption by up to 9%, with across the board improvement in combustion stability relative to similar conditions without O3. The effect of O3 addition was most substantial for the lowest loads. Moreover, because a higher fraction of the fuel burned was due to…
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Investigation of Particulate Matter Formation in a Diesel Engine Using In-Cylinder Total Sampling and Thermal Desorption-GCMS/Carbon Analysis

Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd.-Shinya Furukawa, Hirotaka Suzuki, Keiko Shibata, Hiroaki Saito, Kazuya Miyashita, Yoshinori Ishii, Naoki Shimazaki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2276
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In-cylinder total sampling technique utilizing a single-cylinder diesel engine equipped with hydraulic valve actuation system has been developed. In this study, particulate matter (PM) included in the in-cylinder sample gas was collected on a quartz filter, and the polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) component and soot were subsequently quantified by thermal desorption-gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) and a carbon analyzer, respectively. Cylinder-averaged histories of PAHs and soot were obtained by changing the sampling timing. It was found that decreasing intake oxygen concentration suppresses in-cylinder soot oxidation, and the fuel with higher aromatic and naphthenic contents accelerates soot production.
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Study on PAHs and PM Formed by Benzene Pyrolysis

Tokyo Denki University-Koki Kashiwa, Masataka Arai, Yoshihiro Kobayashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2275
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The main component of PM (particulate matter) formed in the combustion field is soot. Soot is formed by pyrolysis, polymerization and partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel. In this experimental research, the effects of temperature and oxygen on PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and PM formed from benzene-oxygen mixture were investigated by independent control of temperature (Tf = 1,073 K, 1,173 K, 1,273 K, and 1,338 K) and oxygen concentration (ϕ = ∞, 6.2, and 2.8). In order to investigate the growth processes of PAHs, mass concentrations of naphthalene, biphenyl, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene were measured. As the result, it was found that mass concentration of biphenyl (two-ring PAH, nC = 12) was higher than naphthalene (two-ring PAH, nC = 10) under benzene-N2 mixture condition (without oxygen condition:ϕ = ∞). Mass concentrations of biphenyl and naphthalene were almost same levels under ϕ = 6.2 condition. Furthermore, under ϕ = 2.8 condition, mass concentration of naphthalene was higher than that of biphenyl. Biphenyl and naphthalene concentration change was obvious at 1,250±20 K. Under low temperature condition of 1,190…
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Measurements and modeling of ozone enhanced compression ignition in a rapid compression machine and optically-accessible engine

Laboratoire PRISME, Université d’Orléans, INSA CVL, 8 rue Lé-Nicolas Seignour, Fabrice Foucher, Bruno Moreau
Sandia National Laboratories, MS 9053, PO Box 969, Livermore-Isaac Ekoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2254
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
For the present study, an ultraviolet light absorption diagnostic was used to measure O3 concentration during the compression stroke of a rapid compression machine and an optically-accessible research engine. Charge oxygen concentration, initial temperature, and equivalence ratio were varied; neat iso-octane was used for fueled experiments. Measurements were compared to single-zone chemical kinetic simulation results. Rapid thermally induced O3 decomposition was observed near top dead center. Ozone decomposition advanced when the charge temperature was increased, oxygen concentration was reduced, or fuel was added. While the model well-captures the experimental trends, for unfueled conditions the temporal prediction of O3 decomposition is generally too far retarded.
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Potassium-Oxygen Battery Stores Clean Energy

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35692
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Researchers have developed a more efficient, more reliable potassium-oxygen battery with a cathode that stores the energy produced by a chemical reaction in a metal-oxygen or metal-air battery. The battery could make renewable energy sources like solar and wind more viable options for the power grid through cheaper, more efficient energy storage.