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Investigation of the Operating Conditions on the Water and Thermal Management for a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell by One-Dimensional Model

Tongji Universtiy-Xuhui Wang, Yaqian Dong, Sichuan Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0856
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Water and thermal management is an essential issue that influences performance and durability of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Water content in membrane decides its ionic conductivity and membrane swelling favors the ionic conductivity, resulting in decreases in the membrane’s ohmic resistance and improvement in the output voltage. However, if excessive liquid water can’t be removed out of cell quickly, it will fill in the pores of catalyst layer (CL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) then flooding may occur. It is essential to keep the water content in membrane at a proper level. In this work, a transient isothermal one-dimensional model is developed to investigate effects of the relative humidity of inlet gas and cell temperature on performance of a PEMFC. Comprehensive physical and chemical phenomenon inside the cell is included, especially the mass transfer of hydrogen, oxygen, vapor and liquid water in gas channels, GDL and CL and non-frozen membrane water in ionomer. Phase change between vapor and liquid water is also considered. The cell’s performances at the conditions of the different…
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Experimental Investigation of Multiple Injection Strategies on Combustion Stability, Performance and Emissions in a Methanol-Diesel Dual Fuel Non-Road Engine

Indian Institute of Technology-Kasinath Panda, A. Ramesh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0308
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this work methanol was port injected while diesel was injected using a common rail system in a single cylinder non-road CI engine. Experiments were conducted with single (SPI) and double (DPI - pilot and main) injection of the directly injected diesel at 75% load and at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The effects of methanol to diesel energy share (MDES) and injection scheduling on combustion stability, efficiency and emissions were evaluated. Initially, in the SPI mode, the methanol to diesel Energy Share (MDES) was varied, while the injection timing of diesel was always fixed for best brake thermal efficiency (BTE). Increase in the MDES resulted in a reduction in NOx and smoke emissions because of the high latent heat of vaporization of methanol and the oxygen available. Enhanced premixed combustion led to a raise in brake thermal efficiency (BTE). Coefficient of variation of IMEP, peak pressure and BTE were deteriorated which limited the usable MDES to 43%. DPI of diesel i.e. early pilot for enhancing the reactivity of the charge along with main…
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Effect of n-Butanol Addition on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of HTL and Diesel Blends

Beijing Institute of Technology-Ziming Yang
University of Illinois-Timothy Lee, Chia-Fon Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0393
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
HTL is a kind of biodiesel converted from wet biowaste via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), which has drawn increasing attention in recent years due to its wide range of raw materials (algae, swine manure, and food processing waste). However, from the previous experiments done in a constant volume chamber, it was observed that the presence of 20% of HTL in the blend produced as much soot as pure diesel at in chamber environment oxygen ratio of 21%, and even more soot at low oxygen ratios. It was also observed that n-butanol addition could reduce the soot emission of diesel significantly under all tested conditions. In this work, the spray and combustion characteristics of HTL and diesel blends with n-butanol added were investigated in a constant volume chamber. The in-chamber temperature and oxygen ranged from 800 to 1200 K and 21% to 13%, respectively, covering both conventional and low-temperature combustion (LTC) regimes. Time-resolved images of the spray and natural flame luminosity (an indicator of soot) were captured by a high-speed camera coupled with a copper vapor laser…
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Study on the effects of fuel reforming on fuel properties and the following potential influences on ICEs

CATARC-Feng Yan, Tieqiang Fu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1315
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A high temperature and no oxygen atmosphere fuel reforming has been proposed for the purpose of exergy saving by theoretical analyzing the detailed exergy loss events of combustion process, the correctness and feasibility of this fuel reforming have been verified through experiments. The exergy behaviors of high temperature and no oxygen atmosphere fuel reforming have been extensively studied, and many benefits had been observed including: (1) simplifying the reforming device where catalysts are not necessary; (2) improving the total chemical exergy while effectively converting large moleculae to small moleculae; (3) improving the mixture’s ratio of specific heat that can promote work-extraction; and (4) lengthening the ignition delay that buys time for better mixing process. All of these benefits are conducive to a better organized HCCI combustion that may improve the engine second law efficiency.
new

Oxygen Sensor for Sick Infants

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36156
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Researchers at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) are developing a sensor the size of a Band-Aid that will measure a baby’s blood oxygen levels, a vital indication of the lungs’ effectiveness and whether the baby’s tissue is receiving adequate oxygen supply. Unlike current systems used in hospitals, this miniaturized wearable device will be flexible and stretchable, wireless, inexpensive, and mobile — possibly allowing the child to leave the hospital and be monitored remotely. The sensor measures blood gases diffusing through the skin and reports the data wirelessly.

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Aircraft Oxygen Replenishment Coupling for Civil Transport Aircraft (Design Standard)

A-10 Aircraft Oxygen Equipment Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS1219A
  • Current
Published 2020-02-28 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Design Standard defines a coupling, which is installed in a high pressure (1850 to 2000 psig) oxygen system of a civil transport aircraft for the purpose of mating to ground oxygen replenishment facilities. Dimensions developed from AND10089, Detail Specification Sheet for Fitting End, Design Standard, For Cone Connection.
Annotation ability available

Evaluation of the Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide on Common Aircraft Electrical Materials

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36058
Published 2020-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Among all of the large-scale disinfection and/or decontamination technologies available, vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP®) is of particular interest due to its rapid sterilization, easy usage, intrinsic environmental friendliness (i.e. simple by-products composed of only water and oxygen), and compatibility with many materials and systems.

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Titanium Alloy, Forgings 10V - 2Fe - 3Al Consumable Electrode Melted, Single-Step Solution Heat Treated and Overaged 140 ksi (965 MPa) Tensile Strength

AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4987F
  • Current
Published 2020-01-14 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of forgings 4.00 inches (101.6 mm) and under in nominal cross-sectional thickness and of forging stock of any size.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
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Titanium Alloy Bars, Forgings and Forging Stock 7.0Al - 4.0Mo Annealed

AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS6915C
  • Current
Published 2020-01-14 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of bars up through 6.000 inches (152.40 mm) inclusive, in nominal diameter or least distance between parallel sides, forgings of thickness up through 6.000 inches (152.40 mm), inclusive and stock for forging of any size.
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Titanium Alloy Sheet 6Al - 4V Driver Sheet

AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4932D
  • Current
Published 2019-12-27 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of sheet.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available