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Development of a Dedicated CNG Three-Way Catalyst Model in 1-D Simulation Platforms

FPT Industrial SpA-Stefano Golini, Francesco Giovanni Rutigliano
Istituto Motori CNR-Carlo Beatrice, Valentina Fraioli
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
A growing interest towards heavy-duty engines powered with NG, dictated by stringent regulations in terms of emissions, has made it essential to study a specific Three-Way Catalyst (TWC). Oxygen storage phenomena characterize the catalytic converter efficiency under real world driving operating conditions and, consequently, during strong dynamics in Air-to-Fuel ratio (AFR).A numerical “quasi-steady” model has been set-up to simulate the chemical process inside the reactor. A dedicated experimental campaign has been performed in order to evaluate the catalyst response to a defined λ variation, thus providing the data necessary for the numerical model validation. In fact, goal of the present research activity was to investigate the effect of very fast composition transitions of the engine exhaust typical of the mentioned driving conditions (including fuel cutoffs etc.) on the catalyst performance and on related emissions.A surface reactions kinetic mechanism, representing CH4, CO, H2 oxidation and NO reduction, has been appropriately calibrated in steady-state operation, using a step-by-step procedure all over the engine operating conditions at different AFRs. Then transient conditions were numerically reproduced, through cyclical and…
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Visualizing Motion of Water Molecules for Liquid-Based Electronics

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34892
Published 2019-08-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering technique was used to measure the strong bond involving a hydrogen atom sandwiched between two oxygen atoms. This hydrogen bond is a quantum-mechanical phenomenon responsible for various properties of water, including viscosity, that determine a liquid's resistance to flow or to change shape.

Endovascular Variable Aortic Control Catheter

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34900
Published 2019-08-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The Air Force has developed improved devices for hemostatic management of patients with life-threatening blood loss from an arterial wound or surgery. Current aortic occlusion devices successfully stem aortic blood loss, but result in hypoxia below the occlusion device. These devices, by blocking blood flow and oxygen delivery, severely limit the amount of time that such resuscitative measures can be taken before other medical complications arise.

Graphene Coating Takes Oxygen Out of Lithium Battery Fires

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34601
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Lithium batteries allow electric vehicles to travel several hundred miles on one charge. Their capacity for energy storage is well known — so is their tendency to occasionally catch on fire. This “thermal runaway” occurs most frequently when the batteries overheat or cycle rapidly.

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Titanium Alloy, Forgings 10V - 2Fe - 3Al Consumable Electrode Melted, Single-Step Solution Heat Treated and Aged 180 ksi (1241 MPa) Tensile Strength

AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4983G
  • Current
Published 2019-05-28 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of forgings 1.00 inch (25.4 mm) and under in nominal cross-sectional thickness and of forging stock of any size.
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Titanium Alloy Forgings 10V - 2Fe - 3Al Consumable Electrode Melted, Solution Heat Treated and Aged 173 ksi (1193 MPa) Tensile Strength

AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4984G
  • Current
Published 2019-05-28 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of forgings 3.000 inches (76.20 mm) and under in nominal cross-sectional thickness and of stock for forging of any size.
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Chemical Check Analysis Limits Titanium and Titanium Alloys

AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS2249J
  • Current
Published 2019-04-05 by SAE International in United States
This specification defines limits of variation for determining acceptability of the composition of cast or wrought titanium and titanium alloy parts and material acquired from a producer.
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Titanium Alloy Bars, Forgings and Forging Stock 6.0Al – 6.0V – 2.0Sn Solution Heat Treated and Aged

AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS6935C
  • Current
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of bars up through 4.000 inches (101.60 mm) in nominal diameter or least distance between parallel sides, inclusive, forgings of thickness up through 4.000 inches (101.60 mm), inclusive, with bars and forgings having a maximum cross-sectional area of 32 in2 (204.46 cm2), and stock for forging of any size (see 8.7).
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Effect of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction on Spray Combustion: A Large Eddy Simulation Study

Dalian University of Technology-Ming Jia
Tianjin University-Junqian Cai, Tianyou Wang, Kai Sun, Zhen Lu, Gang Xiao, Shiquan Shen
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Although turbulence plays a critical role in engines operated within low temperature combustion (LTC) regime, its interaction with chemistry on auto-ignition at low-ambient-temperature and lean-oxygen conditions remains inadequately understood. Therefore, it is worthwhile taking turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) into consideration in LTC engine simulation by employing advanced combustion models. In the present study, large eddy simulation (LES) coupled with linear eddy model (LEM) is performed to simulate the ignition process in n-heptane spray under engine-relevant conditions, known as Spray H. With LES, more details about unsteady spray flame could be captured compared to Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS). With LEM approach, both scalar fluctuation and turbulent mixing on sub-grid level are captured, accounting for the TCI. A skeletal mechanism is adopted in this numerical simulation, including 41 species and 124 reactions. Validations is carried out and numerical results show good agreement with experimental data. It is found that, Damköhler number (Da) at the onset of high temperature reaction evidently decreases as ambient temperature and oxygen reduces. Consequently, combustion mode varies from flamelet regime to slow chemistry regime,…
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Titanium Alloy, Forgings 10V - 2Fe - 3Al Consumable Electrode Melted, Single-Step Solution Heat Treated and Overaged 160 ksi (1103 MPa) Tensile Strength

AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4986F
  • Current
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of forgings 4.0 inches (101.6 mm) and under in nominal cross-sectional thickness and of forging stock.
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