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How Well Can mPEMS Measure Gas Phase Motor Vehicle Exhaust Emissions?

Ford Motor Company-Diep Vu, Joseph Szente, Michael Loos, Matti Maricq
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0369
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
“Real world emissions” is an emerging area of focus in motor vehicle related air quality. These emissions are commonly recorded using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) designed for regulatory application, which are large, complex and costly. Miniature PEMS (mPEMS) is a developing technology that can significantly simplify on-board emissions measurement and potentially promote widespread use. Whereas full PEMS use analyzers to record NOx, CO, and HCs similar to those in emissions laboratories, mPEMS tend to use electrochemical sensors and compact optical detectors for their small size and low cost. The present work provides a comprehensive evaluation of this approach. It compares measurements of NOx, CO, CO2 and HC emissions from five commercial mPEMS to both laboratory and full regulatory PEMS analyzers. It further examines the use of vehicle on-board diagnostics data to calculate exhaust flow, as an alternative to on-vehicle exhaust flow measurement. The evaluations include two vehicle types, gasoline direct injection and diesel, and employ the US EPA Federal Test Procedure and Worldwide Harmonized Light duty test cycles. The results show that two classes…
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Evaluation of an On-Board, Real-Time Electronic Particulate Matter Sensor Using Heavy-Duty On-Highway Diesel Engine Platform

EmiSense Technologies LLC-Patrick Thompson, Leta Woo
Southwest Research Institute-Vinay Premnath, Imad Khalek
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0385
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
California Air Resources Board (CARB) has instituted requirements for on-board diagnostics (OBD) that makes a spark-plug sized exhaust particulate matter (PM) sensor a critical component of the OBD system to detect diesel particulate filter (DPF) failure. Currently, non-real-time resistive-type sensors are used by engine OEMs onboard vehicles. Future OBD regulations are likely to lower PM OBD thresholds requiring higher sensitivity sensors with better data yield for OBD decision making. The focus of this work was on the experimental evaluation of a real-time PM sensor manufactured by EmiSense Technologies, LLC that may offer such benefits. A 2011 model year on-highway heavy-duty diesel engine fitted with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a catalyzed DPF followed by urea-based selective catalytic reducer (SCR) and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts was used for this program. With the aid of an exhaust bypass, sensors were examined for their accuracy and variability at emission level of ~ 0.02 g/hp-hr (mid-way between Laboratory and OBD thresholds) using multiple repeats of various transient drive cycles. Seven sensors were benchmarked simultaneously against state-of-the-art laboratory particle…
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In-vehicle diagnostic system for prognostics and OTA updates of automated / autonomous vehicles.

Softing Automotive Electronics GmbH-Peter Subke, Muzafar Moshref, Julian Erber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1373
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The E/E architecture of a modern passenger car consist of a central connectivity gateway that comes with an interface to the legally required OBD connector (SAE J1978), to domain controllers and to a Telematic Control Unit (TCU). The TCU supports 4G or 5G and provides the wireless connection to the cloud. The domain controllers are connected to the gateway via 2-wire Ethernet with a star topology, whereby the domain controllers act as gateways to CAN FD bus systems. The interface to the wired OBD connector supports both OBD/UDS on CAN and UDS on IP. The new E/E system comes with increased self-diagnostic capabilities. They automatically perform tests, log diagnostic data and push such data for prognostics purposes to the cloud. They also support over-the-air (OTA) updates. This paper describes the components of an E/E system that is equipped with an in-vehicle diagnostic tester. The tester consists of standardized components, including MVCI D-Server (ISO 22900), ODX (ISO 22901), OTX (ISO 13209) and UDS on IP (ISO 14229-5). The paper includes a description of cybersecurity measures to…
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Test Method for the SAE J3138 Automotive Cyber Security Standard

DG Technologies-Mark Zachos
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0142
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper will provide an Overview of Automotive Cyber Security Standards related to the Vehicle OBD-II Data Link. The OBD-II Connector Attack Tree is described with respect to the SAE J3138 requirements for Intrusive vs. non-Intrusive Services. A proposed test method for SAE J3138 is described including hardware and software scripting. Finally, example test results are reviewed and compared with a potential threat boundary.
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Unsettled Technology Opportunities for Vehicle Health Management and the Role for Health-Ready Components

VHM Innovations LLC-Steve Holland
  • Research Report
  • EPR2020003
Published 2020-03-17 by SAE International in United States
Game-changing opportunities abound for the application of vehicle health management (VHM) across multiple transportation-related sectors, but key unresolved issues continue to impede progress. VHM technology is based upon the broader field of advanced analytics. Much of traditional analytics efforts to date have been largely descriptive in nature and offer somewhat limited value for large-scale enterprises. Analytics technology becomes increasingly valuable when it offers predictive results or, even better, prescriptive results, which can be used to identify specific courses of action. It is this focus on action which takes analytics to a higher level of impact, and which imbues it with the potential to materially impact the success of the enterprise. Artificial intelligence (AI), specifically machine learning technology, shows future promise in the VHM space, but it is not currently adequate by itself for high-accuracy analytics. The recent push for health-ready components offers hope in resolving some of the issues slowing the implementation of VHM technology. Health-ready components are those components that provide the necessary functionality or information to allow them to be gracefully integrated into…
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Permanently or Semi-Permanently Installed Diagnostic Communication Devices, Security Guidelines

Vehicle E E System Diagnostic Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3005-2_202003
  • Current
Published 2020-03-04 by SAE International in United States

The scope of the document is to define the cyber-security best practices to reduce interference with normal vehicle operation, or to minimize risk as to unauthorized access of the vehicle's control, diagnostic, or data storage system; access by equipment (i.e., permanently or semi-permanently installed diagnostic communication device, also known as dongle, etc.) which is either permanently or semi-permanently connected to the vehicle's OBD diagnostic connector, either SAE J1939-13, SAE J1962, or other future protocol; or hardwired directly to the in-vehicle network. This document only specifies requirements and guidance for those diagnostic communication devices and not for the vehicle. Refer to SAE J3138 for requirements for the vehicle side.

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Sensor Integrated Substrate for Future Exhaust System of Two Wheelers

Vitesco Technologies Japan. K.K., Vitesco Technologies Emite-KOSAKU ITO, SVEN SEIFERT, FRANCOIS JAYAT, THOMAS CARTUS
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0617
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
By upcoming new global two wheelers emission legislation, it is expected that it will become more and more challenging to control exhaust emissions. Therefore, not only optimized catalyst specifications to meet OBDII or RDE, but also new components will be required for future applications in two-wheeler exhaust systems. In such applications, beneath applying new components, it is necessary to ensure mountability while maintaining vehicle design but improving function of the exhaust system at the same time. As exhaust system layout of two wheelers is generally strongly limited by many factors, such as steeply bended exhaust pipes and catalysts which are hard to resize, one of the most challenging tasks is the positioning of sensor behind the catalyst, due to two wheelers unique exhaust design. In order to overcome the challenge, this work describes designs like the catalyst with integrated lambda sensor, which is developed to contribute to high efficient future two wheelers exhaust systems.
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Bosch On Board Diagnostic solutions for Motorcycles

Robert Bosch GmbH, Robert Bosch Engineering and Business Sol-H. Jessen, A. Kushal, A. Sabu, S. Hande, M. Tappe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0513
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
EU OBD legislation requirements will bring new challenges for motorcycle engine control from 2020 and 2024 respectively. This paper gives a perspective on the Bosch solutions for On Board Monitoring functions to implement the legislation requirements. Specifically the approach and validation results for the monitor for Secondary Air Injection (SAI) will be highlighted. OBD is well established e.g. for passenger car systems in worldwide markets with Bosch solutions covering different system configurations and legislation requirements. While a large portion of the required OBD monitors for motorcycles can be carried over from passenger car solutions with modifications and enhancements where needed, some specific monitors had to be developed from scratch. These new monitors are required for subsystems and components which do not exist in the passenger car environment, e.g. a controlled valve between the intake manifold and engine outlet of the motorcycle to implement secondary air injection. Special focus of this presentation is on the OBD monitoring of the secondary air injection control valve, where robustness is a challenge given the boundary conditions of only binary…
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Research on Method of Sensor Fault Detection for OBD-II Compliant Motorcycles Based on Temperature Estimation

Keihin Corporation-Atsushi Watanabe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0568
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
On-Board Diagnostics II (OBD II), which will be to be introduced into motorcycles in Europe and India, requires that the engine oil and cooling water temperatures be monitored in a rational manner. The rationality of the sensors for engine oil and coolant temperatures (TW sensors) is derived from the ability to detect failure modes such as offset or fixation of unintended output voltage in addition to circuit continuity checks such as sensor harness disconnection and short circuit.The OBD II technology for 4-wheeled vehicles cannot be easily converted to motorcycles with their multiple cooling systems (air-cooled and water-cooled) and multiple heat dissipation structures (full fairings, naked structures, etc.). In previous studies, failures of the TW sensor were detected by estimating the water temperature with high accuracy based on the calorific value of the engine and the amount of heat dissipated. However, in studies considering the implementation of electronic control units (ECUs), it has been reported that such estimations are vulnerable to disturbance (especially from a heater or blower) because it was difficult to estimate water temperature…
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Study of OBD stageII Misfire Detection System for Small Motorcycles

Aisan Industry Co., Ltd.-Satoshi MIWA, Yuki IIBOSHI, Hirotaka FUKUTA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0511
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In recent years, the shift to Fuel Injection (FI) system for motorcycles has been accelerated in response to the enhancement of exhaust emission regulations and the improvement of fuel efficiency for global environmental protection. In addition, On Board Diagnostics (OBD) was introduced to inform users of vehicle abnormalities and failures and prevent from emission failure in the market. OBD stageII requires enlargement of requirements and threshold detection. Seven items are presented in the EU5, Bharat Stage 6 (BS6). The misfire detection in small motorcycles has several problems.First, for the small motorcycle, a single-cylinder engine is the main and its combustion behavior cannot be compared with other cylinders. Consequently, it is difficult to detect misfire. For misfire detection, we focused on the difference in crank angular velocity during combustion stroke between normal combustion and misfire. The greatest gap was in crank angular velocity occurs at 0-180° crank angle [°CA]. With that, misfire detection control is established.We confirmed from the above control that misfire could be detected in the whole engine speed or load within the regulation.…