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The Navigator

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: May 2019

Sam Abuelsamid
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP05_03
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

Lessons from the 737 Max-8 Debacle

It's always a tragedy when people die as a result of a machine malfunctioning. It's even more tragic if we fail to learn from that failure to make future machines safer.

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Stapp Car Crash Journal Vol. 62, 2018

  • Book
  • B-STAPP2018
Published 2019-04-30 by The Stapp Association in United States
This title includes the technical papers developed for the 2018 Stapp Car Crash Conference, the premier forum for the presentation of research in impact biomechanics, human injury tolerance, and related fields, advancing the knowledge of land-vehicle crash injury protection. The conference provides an opportunity to participate in open discussion about the causes and mechanisms of injury, experimental methods and tools for use in impact biomechanics research, and the development of new concepts for reducing injuries and fatalities in automobile crashes. The topics covered this year include: • Effect of restraints on chest deflection • Thoracic response in dynamic front loading • Side impact assessments and comparisons • Front airbag deployment rates and implications • Reanalysis of experimental brain strain data • Modeling pedestrian impacts • Short communications o New data on the biomechanics of injury and human tolerance, new methods and tools to study the biomechanics of injury, new developments in occupant protection systems, and new concepts on the biomechanics of injury based on experimental and analytical studies.
 

Effects of Innovation in Automated Vehicles on Occupant Compartment Designs, Evaluation, and Safety: A Review of Public Marketing, Literature, and Standards

Exponent Inc.-Anton Filatov, John M. Scanlon, Alexander Bruno, Sri Sai Kameshwari Danthurthi, Jacob Fisher
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, the discussion around the advent of highly automated vehicles has shifted from “if” to “when.” Commercially available vehicles already incorporate automated vehicle (AV) technologies of varying capability, and the eventual transition to fully automated systems, at least within certain predefined Operational Design Domains, is largely considered inevitable. While the full ramifications of this shift and the eventual depreciation of human driver control are still under intense debate, there is broad agreement on one issue -the advent of driverless systems will remove several constraints on the design of vehicle interior spaces, creating the opportunity for innovation. Even at this early stage, ambitious design concepts of purpose specific vehicles - mobile gyms, offices, bedrooms - have been proposed. More grounded designs, such as rotating passenger seats, have also been put forward. However, there are two other points on which general agreement exists - future AVs will still carry human passengers, and crashes will still occur, however infrequent or less severe. The uncertainty of the future occupant compartment design and crash population will introduce a…
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A Software Tool for Injury Analysis of Blast and Crash Data

US Army TARDEC-Darryl Bryk, Craig Foster
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In recent years the U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) has been investigating the survivability and injury mechanisms of underbody blast and crash, and their effects on personnel, with the use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD), or crash test dummies. Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARV) for crash have been researched for decades, and the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL), some years ago, also developed IARVs for underbody blast for the Hybrid III 50th percentile ATD. More recently, TARDEC extended these IARVs for the 5th and 95th percentile. With the advent of TARDEC’s Occupant Protection Laboratory large amounts of data were accumulated, which brought an interest in automating the analysis, and so a software tool was developed. The interactive in-house written software, called ICalc, allows the user to open test data files acquired from blast testing, drop tower testing, and crash testing. Data can be automatically bias corrected (zeroed), filtered, and graphed with pertinent IARV functions automatically applied. Data from multiple sensor channels and multiple files may be graphed together for comparison and…
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Development of Parametrically Integrated Software Platform for Passenger Car Brake System

Wuhan University of Technology-Xuexun Guo, Wei Zhou, Xiaofei Pei, Hao Pan
Zhejiang Wanxiang Precision Industry Co.-Jin Pan, Jie Zhang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The hydraulic servo brake system for passenger car plays a central role in occupant protection, which directly affects the automotive active safety and road handling. In this paper, an integrated parameterized software platform of hydraulic servo brake systems is proposed to realize fast and efficient braking system development. At first, according to the structure and working principle of the hydraulic servo brake system, the relationship among amount of fluid required for brake caliper, pedal feel and performance of the brake system is analyzed. Then, based on kinematics and dynamics of the hydraulic servo brake system, a simulation model for analyze pedal feel and amount of fluid required for brake caliper is built in AMESim, which is composed of brake pedal, vacuum booster, brake master cylinder, brake hoses and brake calipers, etc. In addition, the accuracy of the simulation model is verified by bench tests, and the significantly influential factors on the amount of fluid required for brake calipers are analyzed through orthogonal experimental design. The ranking of their influence is diameter of brake wheel cylinder…
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Evaluation of Occupant Loading in Low- to Moderate-Speed Frontal and Rear-End Motor Vehicle Collisions

Exponent, Inc.-Megan Toney-Bolger, Ian Campbell, Bruce Miller, Mathieu Davis, Jacob Fisher
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Low- to moderate-speed motor vehicle collisions are common roadway occurrences that are generally associated with low rates of reported injury. While such complaints are generally infrequent, claims of injuries resulting from low- to moderate-speed motor vehicle collisions persist. A limited body of literature using quantitative techniques and full-scale crash tests is available to assess the injury potential associated with such collisions. Prior studies have analyzed occupant kinematics and kinetics as well as human injury risk in low- to moderate-speed collisions with older vehicle vintages but do not assess the effects of updated vehicle interior designs and occupant protection devices reflective of efforts to optimize occupant kinematics and reduce occupant loading and injury risk in more modern vehicles. This study was conducted to evaluate the injury potential for occupants of vehicles with modern design elements involved in low- to moderate-speed inline motor vehicle collisions. We expected to find that occupants in modern vehicles would demonstrate low potential for injury in such collisions.Four full-scale inline (collinear) crash tests were conducted to assess occupant loading during frontal and…
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Crew Rest Facilities

S-7 Flight Deck Handling Qualities Stds for Trans Aircraft
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP4101/3A
  • Current
Published 2019-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This document recommends criteria for the design and installation of flight crew rest facilities (FCRF) on transport category aircraft when operations with an augmented flight crew are performed. NOTE: Within this ARP, the term “must” will indicate items required for compliance with outside known government regulations, especially 14 CFR Part 117. “Shall” describes sections which are required if this ARP is used as a means of compliance. The term “should” will indicate optional requirements, preferences, and recommendations of the approving SAE committee. Wherever noted and bracketed as [FAA] or [EASA], this document includes agency regulations for reference that are not otherwise evaluated herein.
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AS36100 Background and Development Record

AGE-2 Air Cargo
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR36108
  • Current
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a record of the development by SAE AGE-2A Air Cargo Sub-Committee of Aerospace Standard AS36100, Air Cargo Unit Load Devices — Performance Requirements and Test Parameters, published 2005-02, and its revision A published 2006-04, intended as a technical reference for airworthiness approval of air cargo unit load devices (pallets, nets and containers) to be loaded with either baggage or freight on board civil transport aircraft, and to partly supersede previously used NAS 3610, Cargo unit load devices - Specification for — [ Revision 10, 1990, referenced in TSO C90(c) ].
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Performance Standard for Passenger Smoke and Toxic Fumes Respiratory Protective Equipment

A-10 Aircraft Oxygen Equipment Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS8048
  • Current
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the performance requirements for equipment to be used by untrained cabin occupants for protection from toxic and irritant atmospheres while on board and during evacuation of an aircraft.
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Air Cargo Unit Load Devices - Use of Airworthiness Reference Documents

AGE-2 Air Cargo
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR36106A
  • Current
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides instructions for intended proper use of Aerospace Standard AS36100A, published 2006-04 [TSO pending], as the technical reference for airworthiness approval of air cargo unit load devices (pallets, nets and containers) to be loaded on board civil transport aircraft. For consistency and cross-checking purposes, it also includes instructions for proper use of previous NAS 3610 [Revision 10, 1990, referenced in TSO C90c], as commonly understood by the industry.
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