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Multi-objective Restraint System Robust and Reliability Design Optimization with Advanced Data Analytics

ESTECO North America-Zhendan Xue
Ford Motor Company-Guosong Li, Kevin Pline, Zhenyan Gao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0743
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle restraint system design optimization is important for occupant protection and achieving high score in NCAP rating of five-Star. The target is to minimize the Relative Risk Score (RRS), defined by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NTHSA)'s New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). The design input includes restraint feature options (e.g., some specific features on/off) as discrete design variables, as well as continuous restraint design variables, such as airbag firing time, airbag vent size, inflator power level, etc. The optimization problem is constrained by injury criteria involve HIC, chest deflection/acceleration, neck tension/compression, etc., which ensures the vehicle meeting or exceeding all Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 208 requirements. Considering the local variability of input variables such as manufacturing tolerances, the robustness and reliability of nominal designs were also taken into account in optimization process. Genetic Algorithms (GA) based optimization methods were applied because these methods can handle discrete and continuous design variables simultaneously, as well treat such highly nonlinear optimization problems in a robust manner In this study, frontal impact modes were used…
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Evaluation of Corpuscular Particle Method (CPM) in LS-DYNA for airbag modeling

FCA US LLC-Neeharika Anantharaju, Kalu Uduma, Yibing Shi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0978
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a systematic study performed to assess the maturity of Corpuscular Particle Method (CPM) to accurately predict airbag deployment kinematics and its overall responses. The critical phases of the study involved, firstly, an assessment of correlation of CPM predicted inflator characteristics to closed tank tests. Secondly, a correlation assessment of CPM for deployment characteristics, airbag pressure and reaction force for a static deployment test of a Driver Airbag (DAB). Lastly, the impactor force predicted by CPM was correlated against physical drop tower tests. All these studies were repeated using traditionally used Uniform Pressure Method (UPM), to compare the numerical methods for their accuracy in predicting the physical test, computational cost, and applicability. The results from these studies suggest that CPM satisfies the fundamental energy laws, and accurately captures the realistic airbag deployment kinematics, especially during the early deployment, unlike UPM. For a fully deployed DAB, the airbag pressure, reaction force, and the impactor force are accurately predicted by both CPM and UPM. Additionally, the computational cost of CPM was observed to be on…
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Structural Performance Comparison between 980MPa Generation 3 Steel and Press Hardened Steel Applied in the Body-in-White A and B-Pillar Parts

General Motors LLC-Andre Pereira, Adam Ballard, Rajmouli Komarivelli, Haoming Li
United States Steel Corp.-Vasant Pednekar, Guofei Chen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0537
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Commercially available Generation 3 (GEN3) advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have inherent capability of replacing press hardened steels (PHS) using cold stamping processes. 980 GEN3 AHSS is a cold stampable steel with 980 MPa minimum tensile strength that exhibits an excellent combination of formability and strength. Hot forming of PHS requires elevated temperatures (> 800ºC) to enable complex deep sections. 980 GEN3 AHSS presents similar formability as 590 DP material, allowing engineers to design complex geometries similar to PHS material; however, its cold formability provides implied potential process cost savings in automotive applications. The increase in post-forming yield strength of GEN3 AHSS due to work and bake hardening contributes strongly toward crash performance in energy absorption and intrusion resistance. The viability of using cold stamped 980 GEN3 AHSS as a replacement for PHS has often been challenged due to concerns about formability and capability to meet final crash performance targets. To address these concerns, A-pillar and B-pillar parts were successfully cold stamped using U. S. Steel 980 GEN3 AHSS and assembled in a prototype mid-size…
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Occupant Dynamics During Low, Moderate, and High Speed Rear-End Collisions

Vollmer-Gray Engineering Laboratories-Mohammad Atarod
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0516
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Numerous studies have evaluated occupant kinematics and dynamics in “low-speed” rear-end impacts. Occupant biomechanics during “moderate-to-high” speed rear impacts (delta-V ≥ 15 mph), however, has not been thoroughly examined. This study characterized the motions and forces experienced by the occupant head, neck, torso, hip, and left/right femur during these collisions. The publicly available NHTSA rear-end crash test data were examined. More specifically, the FMVSS 301 Fuel System Integrity tests were used. The test procedure involved a 30 mph moving barrier impacting the rear of the vehicles. Instrumented 50th percentile male Hybrid III ATDs were positioned in the left front driver seat. Occupant data including head accelerations, upper/lower neck shear and axial forces, upper/lower neck moments, lower neck acceleration, torso accelerations, torso deflection, hip accelerations, and left/right femur axial forces were measured and compared to published IARV tolerance data. The vehicle accelerations, vehicle delta-Vs, occupant position data, seat angular velocity, seat rotation and seatbelt forces were also evaluated during these crash tests. The occupant data for the “low-speed” rear-end impacts were extracted from the literature. The…
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A primary study on the restraint system of self-driving car

Hunan University-Binhui Jiang, Hongze Ren, Zhonghao Bai
The Johns Hopkins University-Feng Zhu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1333
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to the variation of compartment design and occupant’s postures in the self-driving car, there is a new and major challenge for occupant protection. In particular, the studies on occupant restraint systems used in the self-driving car has significantly delayed compared to the development of the autonomous technologies. In this paper, a numerical study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of the mainstream restraint systems (3-points belt with airbag or 4-points belt with airbag) on the driver in three different scenarios (driving with a seat angle of 110°, half-reclining resting with a seat angle of 135°, and reclining resting with a seat angle of 160°) . It can be found that in the simulation results: 1. All the restraint systems are capable of providing effective protection for the driving driver and the restraint system with 4-points belt has advantages due to its better protective effect on the occupant thorax; 2. When the driver is half-reclining or reclining resting, the head HIC36, neck Nij and chest compression are about 827-958, 0.62-0.88, and 66-68 mm, respectively;…
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Resolution 751/18 - Implementation of WorldSID in Side Impact Protocols in Brazil

Applus IDIADA-Maria de Odriozola Martínez, Genís Mensa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0201
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
On the 20th December 2018 DENATRAN (Departamento Nacional de Trânsito) published a new resolution that establishes future vehicle performance requirements in pole side Impacts in Brazil (Resolution 751/18). This new resolution gives the option to comply with Annex II (equivalent to UN R.135) or Annex III (equivalent to FMVSS 214). Although this will be applicable to new vehicle registrations from the 1st January 2030, it is possible to anticipate its total or partial adoption.This paper will focus on the effect of implementing UN R.135 and, specifically, on the differences found by using the WorldSID (World Side Impact Dummy) 50th Percentile Dummy instead of its predecessor (EuroSID-II) for this test.The above-mentioned side impact test will consist of a side impact test at 32 km/h against a rigid pole. The tested vehicle will be rotated 75° from the direction of impact and the only vehicle occupant will be a WorldSID dummy in the driver position.WorldSID is the latest generation side impact dummy. Unlike EuroSID-II, WorldSID has an excellent level of biofidelity, replicating human kinematics and sensitivity to…
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Performance Standard for Child Restraint Systems in Transport Category Airplanes

Aircraft SEAT Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS5276/1
  • Current
Published 2019-10-31 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines minimum performance standards and related qualification criteria for add-on child restraint systems (CRS) which provide protection for small children in passenger seats of transport category airplanes. The AS is not intended to provide design criteria that could be met only by an aircraft-specific CRS. The goal of this standard is to achieve child-occupant protection by specifying a dynamic test method and evaluation criteria for the performance of CRS under emergency landing conditions.
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The Navigator

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: May 2019

Sam Abuelsamid
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP05_03
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

Lessons from the 737 Max-8 Debacle

It's always a tragedy when people die as a result of a machine malfunctioning. It's even more tragic if we fail to learn from that failure to make future machines safer.

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Stapp Car Crash Journal Vol. 62, 2018

  • Book
  • B-STAPP2018
Published 2019-04-30 by The Stapp Association in United States
This title includes the technical papers developed for the 2018 Stapp Car Crash Conference, the premier forum for the presentation of research in impact biomechanics, human injury tolerance, and related fields, advancing the knowledge of land-vehicle crash injury protection. The conference provides an opportunity to participate in open discussion about the causes and mechanisms of injury, experimental methods and tools for use in impact biomechanics research, and the development of new concepts for reducing injuries and fatalities in automobile crashes. The topics covered this year include: • Effect of restraints on chest deflection • Thoracic response in dynamic front loading • Side impact assessments and comparisons • Front airbag deployment rates and implications • Reanalysis of experimental brain strain data • Modeling pedestrian impacts • Short communications o New data on the biomechanics of injury and human tolerance, new methods and tools to study the biomechanics of injury, new developments in occupant protection systems, and new concepts on the biomechanics of injury based on experimental and analytical studies.
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Effects of Innovation in Automated Vehicles on Occupant Compartment Designs, Evaluation, and Safety: A Review of Public Marketing, Literature, and Standards

Exponent Inc.-Anton Filatov, John M. Scanlon, Alexander Bruno, Sri Sai Kameshwari Danthurthi, Jacob Fisher
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, the discussion around the advent of highly automated vehicles has shifted from “if” to “when.” Commercially available vehicles already incorporate automated vehicle (AV) technologies of varying capability, and the eventual transition to fully automated systems, at least within certain predefined Operational Design Domains, is largely considered inevitable. While the full ramifications of this shift and the eventual depreciation of human driver control are still under intense debate, there is broad agreement on one issue -the advent of driverless systems will remove several constraints on the design of vehicle interior spaces, creating the opportunity for innovation. Even at this early stage, ambitious design concepts of purpose specific vehicles - mobile gyms, offices, bedrooms - have been proposed. More grounded designs, such as rotating passenger seats, have also been put forward. However, there are two other points on which general agreement exists - future AVs will still carry human passengers, and crashes will still occur, however infrequent or less severe. The uncertainty of the future occupant compartment design and crash population will introduce a…
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