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Effect of Fuel Type and Tip Deposits on Gasoline Direct Injection Fuel Injector End of Injection Spray Characteristics

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Mark Meinhart
Michigan Technological University-Robert A. Schroeter, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2600
To be published on 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
There has been a great effort expended in identifying causes of Hydro-Carbon (HC) and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions resulting from poor spray preparation, leading to characterization of fueling behavior near nozzle. It has been observed that large droplet size is a primary contributor to HC and PM emission. Imaging technologies have been developed to understand the break-up and consistency of fuel spray. However, there appears to be a lack of studies of the spray characteristics at the End of Injection (EOI), near nozzle, in particular, the effect that tip deposits have on the EOI characteristics. Injector tip deposits are of interest due to their effect on not only fuel spray characteristics, but also their unintended effect on engine out emissions. Using a novel imaging technique to extract near nozzle fuel characteristics at EOI, the impact of tip deposits on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel injectors at the EOI is being examined in this work. Additionally, the impact of the test fuel used will also be evaluated. This work will present the large influence of fuel…

Investigations on Dimensional Analysis of Fused Filament Fabrication of Wax Filament by Taguchi Design

Vellore Institute of Technology-Aditya Chandrakant Yadav, Nattudurai Navin Kumar, Kumar Raja, Chooriyaparambil Damodaran Naiju
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0133
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Experimental investigations were carried out on machinable wax filament using FDM 3D printing process. The printer used for conducting the experiments was Flash Forge guider 2. The filament material used for this study was machinable wax filament of 1.75 mm diameter. Experimental trials were carried out as per Taguchi L9 orthogonal array to determine optimum process parameter combination. The dimensional analysis of test samples were carried out in terms of change in volume of samples which is result of combine effect of deviations in all dimensions of test sample. Four factors each at three levels was used to obtain optimum printing parameters for better dimensional accuracy and proper printing. The four important printing parameters were taken as factor and set to analyze the significant factor affecting on printing. The complexity in printing of wax filament is taken in to consideration during the experimental study. The main effect plot for S/N ratio was plotted and ANOVA was carried out to determine the significant factor that was affecting dimensional accuracy of t printed test samples. The results…

Application of Response Surface Method to optimize Waterjet cutting process parameter of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer matrix laminates

VIT-Savitoj Singh Aulakh, Dhanush Patil, Renold Elsen, Sangeet Aggarwal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0153
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Waterjet machining is an advanced machining technique because of its versatile unconventional cutting for wider range of materials. Waterjet machining is especially useful in precise cutting of advanced materials like Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRPs) comparative to conventional machining methods. The conventional machining methods results in release of high amount glass fiber dust which leaves the work environment unsafe for the workers. If the material dust inhaled can lead to respiratory diseases as well. An analysis of the cutting performance of Waterjet machining is presented based on an experimental investigation on fiberglass reinforced laminates fabricated using hand layup technique. It is shown that with a good combination of cutting parameters such as nozzle traverse speed, waterjet pressure and Stand-off distance a cutting performance can be achieved. Plausible trends of kerf quality and machining time with respect to the waterjet pressure, nozzle traverse speed and nozzle stand-off distance are analyzed. The kerf quality and machining time will be optimized using DOE techniques for achieving a proper machining characteristics and faster completion of the work. The RSM a…

Effect of Injector cone angle and NTP on performance and emissions of CRDe engine for BS6 compliance

Mahindra Research Valley-Anbarasu Muthusamy, Vagesh Shangar Ramani, Pranav Kumar Sinha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0108
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The quality of combustion is affected by factors like engine components design, combustion chamber design, EGR, after treatments systems, engine operating parameters etc. The role of fuel injector is crucial on achieving the desired engine performance and emissions. Efficient combustion depends on the quantity of fuel injected, penetration, atomization and optimum injection timing. The nozzle through flow, cone angle, no of sprays and nozzle tip penetration are the factors which decide the selection of perfect injector for an engine. This paper focuses on the selection of the best fit injector suiting the BS6 application on evaluating the performance and emission characteristics. Injectors used were with varying cone angles and NTP which was varied by changing the sealing washer thickness. With all the above injector configuration, the performance and emission were thoroughly analysed at each level. Final configuration was selected based on the Power & Torque, Fuel consumption, smoke, exhaust temperatures.

Design and analysis of De-laval restrictor with throttle body for formula Vehicle

Force Motors Limited-Pradeep Chandrasakaran
Sri Krishna College of Engg. and Tech.-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Aswin Sriram Thiyagarajan, Sathishkumar Kuppuraj
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0009
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Design and analysis of De-laval restrictor with throttle body for formula Vehicle Dr Soundararajan SKECT , Mr. Pradeep C, Force Motors , Mr. Ashwin Sriram, SKECT. Abstract Restrictor is a component which controls the mass flow of air passing to the engine. The proposed work focuses on design and analysis of air intake restrictor of Duke 390cc engine which is used in formula vehicles. As a constraint of this system, the air flows through a single circular throat of diameter 20mm. In past decades conventional venturi nozzles were used as a restrictor but it leads to nominal press drop. The main objective is to utilize De-Laval Nozzle for the minimal pressure drop. The change in pressure will increases the engine power output. The analysis is done by varying design conditions such as three levels of convergent (12,14 and 16 degree) and three levels of divergent angles (4, 6 and 8 degree) are taken into consideration. After numerous CFD Simulations it is inferred that the optimal angles of 14 and 4 degree for convergent and divergent…

Experimental Characterization of Methane Direct Injection From an Outward-Opening Poppet-Valve Injector

Istituto Motori CNR-Maurizio Lazzaro, Francesco Catapano, Paolo Sementa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0135
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The in-cylinder direct injection of natural gas represents a further step towards cleaner and more efficient internal combustion engines (ICE). However, the injector design and its characterization, either experimentally or from numerical simulation, is challenging because of the complex fluid dynamics related to gas compressibility. In this work, the underexpanded flow of methane from an outward-opening poppet-valve injector has been experimentally characterized by Schlieren and Shadowgraph high-speed imaging. The jet evolution was also followed through Mie-scattering imaging using n-heptane droplets as a tracer. The investigation has been performed at ambient temperature and pressure and different nozzle pressure ratios (NPR) ranging from 10 to 17. The gaseous jet has been characterized in terms of its macroscale parameters.

Development of a CFD Solver For Primary Diesel Jet Atomization in FOAM-Extend

King Abdullah Univ of Science & Tech-Hong Im
Universita degli Studi di Perugia-Michele Battistoni
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0128
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
High fidelity CFD framework for the simulation of primary atomization of a high pressure diesel jet is presented in this work. The numerical model is based on a second order accurate, polyhedral Finite Volume method implemented in foam-extend, a community driven fork of the OpenFOAM software. A geometric VOF method isoAdvector is used for accurate interface advection, while the Ghost Fluid Method (GFM) is used to handle the discontinuity of the pressure and the pressure gradient at the interface between the two phases: n-dodecane and air in the combustion chamber. The discontinuities are a direct consequence of different densities and viscosities, and surface tension effects between the phases. In order to obtain highly resolved interface while minimizing computational time, an Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) strategy for arbitrary polyhedral cells is employed in order to refine the parts of the mesh near the interface and within the nozzle. The developed numerical framework is tested on the Spray D geometry. The unstructured, mostly hexahedral mesh is used with the base cell size of 40 micrometres. Five refinement…

In Situ Injection Rate Measurement to Study Single and Split Injections in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

King Abdullah University of Science & Te-Bassam S. E. Aljohani, Moez Ben Houidi, Rafig Babayev, Khalid Aljohani, Bengt Johansson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0136
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The split injection strategy holds a potential for high pressure combustion engines. One advantage of such strategy is the capability to control the heat release rate, which also implies the use of multiple split-injections with relatively short dwell intervals. Most injection rate measurement techniques require installment of the injector on a dedicated test rig. However, these techniques fail to accurately reproduce real-engine operating conditions. Using the spray impingement method, this paper investigates the injection rate of a high flow-rate solenoid injector while being operated on the engine. The aim is to have an experimental configuration as similar as possible to the real engine in terms of the acoustics and the fuel temperature within the injection system. The assumption of spray force proportional to the spray momentum is used here to measure the injection rate. The spray momentum is measured while the injector is mounted on the Volvo D13 engine and connected to the in-series fuel rail and pump. A high-natural-frequency piezoelectric pressure transducer is mounted perpendicularly at 4 mm from one of the nozzle holes.…

A Fundamental Study on Combustion Characteristics in a Pre-Chamber Type Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine

Waseda University-Masashi Tanamura, Shintaro Nakai, Mahoko Nakatsuka, Shota Taki, Kohei Ozawa, Beini Zhou, Ratnak Sok, Yasuhiro Daisho, Jin Kusaka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0123
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Pre-chamber spark ignition technology can stabilize combustion and improve thermal efficiency of lean burn natural gas engines. During compression stroke, a homogeneous lean mixture is introduced into pre-chamber, which separates spark plug electrodes from turbulent flow field. After the pre-chamber mixture is ignited, the burnt jet gas is discharged through multi-hole nozzles which promotes combustion of the lean mixture in the main chamber due to turbulence caused by high speed jet and multi-points ignition. However, details mechanism in the process has not been elucidated. To design the pre-chamber geometry and to achieve stable combustion under the lean condition for such engines, it is important to understand the fundamental aspects of the combustion process. In this study, a high-speed video camera with a 306 nm band-pass filer and an image intensifier is used to visualize OH* self-luminosity in rapid compression-expansion machine experiment. The results show that the OH* self-luminosity is observed in outer edge of the jet, while the luminosity in the jet temporarily weakens because the turbulent jet is exposed to low temperature surrounding in…

Assessing Viscosity in Hydro-Erosive Grinding Process via Refractometry

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

UTFPR, Brazil-Bárbara R. Heidemann, Gustavo Scherpinski, Luís Fabris, Marcia Muller, José L. Fabris, Giuseppe Pintaude
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0012
Published 2019-08-22 by SAE International in United States
The manufacturing of diesel injector nozzles requires precision processing to produce multiple micro-holes. An abrasive fluid containing a mixture of mineral oil and hard particles is used for rounding them, ensuring the hydrodynamics of the injection. As verified in a previous investigation, the viscosity of the fluid undergoes uncontrolled changes during hydro-erosive (HE) grinding. Such undesired viscosity changes are detrimental to the process and difficult to assess. The current investigation aims to study the possibility of using the refractive index of the oils used in the HE grinding for assessing their viscosities. A calibration curve correlating the refractive index and viscosity was obtained from the analysis of samples produced by mixing two distinct mineral oils in different proportions. The determined calibration curve was tested with 45 samples of filtered oil, collected directly from the tanks during the HE grinding. The results showed that refractometry is a potential technique for online control of grinding efficiency.