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Aircraft Fueling Adapter Wear Limits

AE-5C Aviation Ground Fueling Systems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5298
  • Current
Published 2019-05-15 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines the wear limits allowed on certain features of Pressure Fuel Servicing Adapters which are crucial for safe interfacing of Pressure Fuel Servicing Nozzles and Pressure Caps. Wear limits as described herein represent the maximum amount of wear on certain features of the Adapter beyond which use of the Adapter for these purposes may contribute to an unsafe condition. Such wear is the result of the normal use of the Adapter for aircraft refueling and also, in some cases, for Nozzle stowage on refueling vehicles.
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Dispenser Nozzle Spouts for Liquid Fuels Intended for Use with Spark Ignition and Compression Ignition Engines

Fuel Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J285_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-29 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice provides standard dimensions for liquid fuel dispenser nozzle spouts and a system for differentiating between nozzles that dispense liquid fuel into vehicles with spark ignition (SI) engines and compression ignition (CI) engines for land vehicles. Current legal definitions only distinguish between “Unleaded Fuel” and “All Other Types of Fuel.” These definitions are no longer valid. This document establishes a new set of definitions that have practical application to current automobile liquid fuel inlets and liquid fuel dispenser nozzle spouts.
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Fuel Tank Filler, Capless Closure

Fuel Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3144_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-24 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice was developed primarily for passenger car and truck applications, but it may be used in marine, industrial, and similar applications.
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Fuel Tank Filler Cap and Cap Retainer Threaded

Fuel Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1114_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-24 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice was developed primarily for passenger car and truck applications, but it may be used in marine, industrial, and similar applications.
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Fuel Tank Filler Cap and Cap Retainer

Fuel Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J829_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-24 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard was developed primarily for passenger car and truck applications for the sizes indicated, but it may be used in marine, industrial, and similar applications.
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Investigation of Maximum Temperature Rise on High Pressure Common Rail Injector Nozzle

Harbin Engineering University-Jianhui Zhao, Kebiao Wei, Pengfei Yue
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The heat that a nozzle generates under the multi-cycle working conditions and the large pressure difference at the orifice cause the temperature of the nozzle to rise, which affects the injection characteristics. Therefore, an infrared thermal camera was used in this study to examine the temperature distribution in a Bosch common rail injector and the variations of the nozzle maximum temperature rise. The results showed that transient temperature at the nozzle of the injector and the steady-state temperature rise with the increase in the injection pressure and frequency. The effect of the injection pressure was the most significant, and the effect of the injection frequency was small. At different injection frequencies and injection pressures, the maximum temperature rise at the nozzle increased rapidly in the first 10 min, after which it slowly increased. The temperature at the nozzle reach the equilibrium after 30 min of injector operation.
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Nozzle Flow Simulation of GDi for Measuring Near-Field Spray Angle and Plume Direction

Universitat Politecnica de Valencia-Raul Payri, Jaime Gimeno, Pedro Marti-Aldaravi, María Martínez
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Experimental visualization of current gasoline direct injection (GDi) systems are even more complicated especially due to the proximity of spray plumes and the interaction between them. Computational simulations may provide additional information to understand the complex phenomena taking place during the injection process. Nozzle flow simulations with a Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) approach can be used not only to analyze the flow inside the nozzle, but also the first 2-5 mm of the spray. A methodology to obtain plume direction and spray angle from the simulations is presented. Results are compared to experimental data available in the literature. It is shown that plume direction is well captured by the model, whilst the uncertainty of the spray angle measurements does not allow to clearly validate the developed methodology.
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Compensation Strategies for Aging Effects of Common-Rail Injector Nozzles

Technical University of Munich-Sebastian Schuckert, Mark Huthmacher, Georg Wachtmeister
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The thermal and emission efficiency of diesel engines depends to a large extent on the quality of fuel injection. However, over engine lifetime, injection rate and quality will change due to adverse nozzle aging effects, such as coking or cavitation. In this study, we discuss the influences of these effects on injection and heat release rate. The injection rates of previously unused nozzles and a nozzle that had been operated in a vehicle engine were compared in order to clarify the impact of aging effects. The key to the detection of alterations of injection nozzles is the identification of strongly correlating parameters. As a first step, an instrumented injector was set up to measure fuel pressure inside the feed line of the injector and the lift of the control piston. Different nozzles showed a distinguishable control piston motion depending on their different geometric specifications, which also affect the injection rates. In a second step, engine simulations were performed to investigate the impact of nozzle aging on heat release rate and engine performance of a single-cylinder…
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Effect of Injection Pressure on Nozzle Internal Flow and Jet Breakup under Sub-Cooled and Flash Boiling Test Conditions

Shanghai Jiao Tong University-Shangze Yang, Xuesong Li, Min Xu
UM-SJTU JI, Shanghai Jiao Tong University-David L.S. Hung
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Injection pressure plays a vital role in spray break-up and atomization. High spray injection pressure is usually adopted to optimize the spray atomization in gasoline direct injection fuel system. However, higher injection pressure also leads to engine emission problem related to wall wetting. To solve this problem, researchers are trying to use flash boiling method to control the spray atomization process under lower injection test conditions. However, the effect of injection pressure on the spray atomization under flash boiling test condition has not been adequately investigated yet. In this study, quantitative study of internal flow and near nozzle spray breakup were carried out based on a two-dimensional transparent nozzle via microscopic imaging and phase Doppler interferometery. N-hexane was chosen as test fluid with different injection pressure conditions. Fuel temperature varied from 112°C to 148°C, which covered a wide range of superheated conditions. Injection pressure was varied from 3MPa to 5MPa. The effect of injection pressures on nozzle internal flow and jet breakup is analyzed experimentally. As a result, decreasing injection pressure leads to smaller droplet…
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Durability Study of a High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System Using Lubricity Additive Dosed Gasoline-Like Fuel - Additional Cycle Runtime and Teardown Analysis

Aramco Research Center - Detroit-Tom Tzanetakis, Michael Traver, Vincent Costanzo
Argonne National Laboratory-Katarzyna Matusik, Brandon Sforzo, Alan Kastengren, Christopher Powell
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This study is a continuation of previous work assessing the robustness of a Cummins XPI common rail injection system operating with gasoline-like fuel. All the hardware from the original study was retained except for the high pressure pump head and check valves which were replaced due to cavitation damage. An additional 400 hour NATO cycle was run on the refurbished fuel system to achieve a total exposure time of 800 hours and detect any other significant failure modes. As in the initial investigation, fuel system parameters including pressures, temperatures and flow rates were logged on a test bench to monitor performance over time. Fuel and lubricant samples were taken every 50 hours to assess fuel consistency, metallic wear, and interaction between fuel and oil. High fidelity driving torque and flow measurements were made to compare overall system performance when operating with both diesel and light distillate fuel. Injector rate shapes were measured as a function of time, and high resolution x-ray imaging of the nozzle tips was performed as part of the final teardown analysis.…
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