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Effect of Fuel Type and Tip Deposits on End of Injection Spray Characteristics of Gasoline Direct Injection Fuel Injectors

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Mark Meinhart
Michigan Technological University-Robert A. Schroeter, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2600
Published 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
There has been a great effort expended in identifying causes of Hydro-Carbon (HC) and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions resulting from poor spray preparation, leading to characterization of fueling behavior near nozzle. It has been observed that large droplet size is a primary contributor to HC and PM emission. Imaging technologies have been developed to understand the break-up and consistency of fuel spray. However, there appears to be a lack of studies of the spray characteristics at the End of Injection (EOI), near nozzle, in particular, the effect that tip deposits have on the EOI characteristics. Injector tip deposits are of interest due to their effect on not only fuel spray characteristics, but also their unintended effect on engine out emissions. Using a novel imaging technique to extract near nozzle fuel characteristics at EOI, the impact of tip deposits on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel injectors at the EOI is being examined in this work. Additionally, the impact of the test fuel used will also be evaluated. This work will present the large influence of fuel…
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Investigations on Dimensional Analysis of Fused Filament Fabrication of Wax Filament by Taguchi Design

Vellore Institute of Technology-Aditya Chandrakant Yadav, Nattudurai Navin Kumar, Kumar Raja, Chooriyaparambil Damodaran Naiju
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Experimental investigations were carried out on the machinable wax filament using the fused deposition modelling (FDM) rapid prototyping process. The printer used for conducting the experiments was Flash Forge guider 2. The filament material used for this study was machinable wax filament of 1.75 mm diameter. Experimental trials were carried out as per Taguchi L9 orthogonal array to determine the optimum process parameter combination. The dimensional analysis of test samples were carried out in terms of change in volume of samples which is result of combine effect of deviations in all the dimensions of test sample. Four factors each at three levels was used to obtain the optimum printing parameters for better dimensional accuracy and proper printing. The four important printing parameters were taken as factor and set to analyse the significant factor affecting on printing. The complexity in printing of wax filament is taken in to consideration during the experimental study. The main effect plot for S/N ratio was plotted and ANOVA was carried out to determine the significant factor that was affecting the…
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Application of Response Surface Method to Optimize Waterjet Cutting Process Parameter of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Laminates

VIT-Savitoj Singh Aulakh, Dhanush Patil, Renold Elsen, Sangeet Aggarwal
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Waterjet machining is a widely used advanced machining technique because of its versatility in removal of material for a wider range of materials. Waterjet machining is particularly advantageous in the precise cutting of advanced materials like Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRPs) comparative to conventional machining methods. The conventional machining methods result in the release of high amount of glass fiber dust which leaves the work environment unsafe for the workers. The material dust if inhaled can lead to acute respiratory diseases. In this work an analysis was done on the cutting performance of Waterjet machining and is presented based on an experimental investigation on fabricated fiberglass reinforced laminates. It is shown that with a good combination of cutting parameters such as nozzle traverse speed, waterjet pressure, and Stand-off distance a cutting performance can be achieved. Plausible trends of kerf quality and machining time with respect to the waterjet pressure, nozzle traverse speed and nozzle stand-off distance are analysed. The surface roughness and machining time has been optimized using DOE techniques for achieving proper machining characteristics and…
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Design and Analysis of De-Lavel Restrictor with Throttle Body for Formula Vehicle

Force Motors Limited-Pradeep Chandrasakaran
Sri Krishna College of Engg. and Tech.-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Aswin Sriram Thiyagarajan, Sathishkumar Kuppuraj
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The restrictor is a component which controls the mass flow of air passing to the engine. The proposed work focuses on design and analysis of air intake restrictor of Duke 390cc engine which is used in formula vehicles. As an constrain of this system, the air flows through a single circular throat of diameter 20mm. In past decades conventional venture nozzles were used as a restrictor but it leads to nominal press drop. A de lavel nozzle is a tube pinched in the middle, making an asymmetric hourglass shape. It is used to accelerate a higher supersonic speed in the axial direction. The main objective is to utilize De-Laval Nozzle for the minimal pressure drop. The change in pressure will increases the engine power output. The analysis is done by varying design conditions such as three levels of convergent (12,14 and 16 degrees) and three levels of divergent angles (4, 6 and 8 degrees) are taken into consideration. After numerous CFD Simulations, it is inferred that the optimal angles of 14 and 4 degrees for…
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Development of a CFD Solver for Primary Diesel Jet Atomization in FOAM-Extend

King Abdullah Univ of Science & Tech-Hong Im
Universita degli Studi di Perugia-Michele Battistoni
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Ongoing development of a CFD framework for the simulation of primary atomization of a high pressure diesel jet is presented in this work. The numerical model is based on a second order accurate, polyhedral Finite Volume (FV) method implemented in foam-extend-4.1, a community driven fork of the OpenFOAM software. A geometric Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method isoAdvector is used for interface advection, while the Ghost Fluid Method (GFM) is used to handle the discontinuity of the pressure and the pressure gradient at the interface between the two phases: n-dodecane and air in the combustion chamber. In order to obtain highly resolved interface while minimizing computational time, an Adaptive Grid Refinement (AGR) strategy for arbitrary polyhedral cells is employed in order to refine the parts of the grid near the interface. Dynamic Load Balancing (DLB) is used in order to preserve parallel efficiency during AGR. The combination of isoAdvector-GFM-AGR-DLB presents a unique framework for diesel jet atomization. The developed numerical framework is preliminarily tested on the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray D geometry and conditions. The unstructured, mostly…
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In Situ Injection Rate Measurement to Study Single and Split Injections in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

King Abdullah University of Science & Te-Bassam S. E. Aljohani, Moez Ben Houidi, Rafig Babayev, Khalid Aljohani, Bengt Johansson
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The split injection strategy holds a potential for high pressure combustion engines. One advantage of such strategy is the capability to control the heat release rate, which also implies the use of multiple split-injections with relatively short dwell intervals. Most injection rate measurement techniques require installment of the injector on a dedicated test rig. However, these techniques fail to accurately reproduce real-engine operating conditions. Using the spray impingement method, this paper investigates the injection rate of a high flow-rate solenoid injector while being operated on the engine. The aim is to have an experimental configuration as similar as possible to the real engine in terms of the acoustics and the fuel temperature within the injection system. The assumption of spray force proportional to the spray momentum is used here to measure the injection rate. The spray momentum is measured while the injector is mounted on the Volvo D13 engine and connected to the in-series fuel rail and pump. A high-natural-frequency piezoelectric pressure transducer is mounted perpendicularly at 4 mm from one of the nozzle holes.…
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A Fundamental Study on Combustion Characteristics in a Pre-Chamber Type Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine

Waseda University-Masashi Tanamura, Shintaro Nakai, Mahoko Nakatsuka, Shota Taki, Kohei Ozawa, Beini Zhou, Ratnak Sok, Yasuhiro Daisho, Jin Kusaka
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Pre-chamber spark ignition technology can stabilize combustion and improve thermal efficiency of lean burn natural gas engines. During compression stroke, a homogeneous lean mixture is introduced into pre-chamber, which separates spark plug electrodes from turbulent flow field. After the pre-chamber mixture is ignited, the burnt jet gas is discharged through multi-hole nozzles which promotes combustion of the lean mixture in the main chamber due to turbulence caused by high speed jet and multi-points ignition. However, details mechanism in the process has not been elucidated.To design the pre-chamber geometry and to achieve stable combustion under the lean condition for such engines, it is important to understand the fundamental aspects of the combustion process. In this study, a high-speed video camera with a 306 nm band-pass filer and an image intensifier is used to visualize OH* self-luminosity in rapid compression-expansion machine experiment. The results show that the OH* self-luminosity is observed in outer edge of the jet, while the luminosity in the jet temporarily weakens because the turbulent jet is exposed to low temperature surrounding in the…
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Experimental Characterization of Methane Direct Injection from an Outward-Opening Poppet-Valve Injector

Istituto Motori CNR-Maurizio Lazzaro, Francesco Catapano, Paolo Sementa
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The in-cylinder direct injection of natural gas can be a further step towards cleaner and more efficient internal combustion engines (ICE). However, the injector design and its characterization, both experimentally and by numerical simulation, is challenging because of the complex fluid dynamics related to gas compressibility and the small length scale. In this work, the under-expanded flow of methane from an outward-opening poppet-valve injector has been experimentally characterized by high-speed schlieren imaging. The investigation has been performed at ambient temperature and pressure and different nozzle pressure ratios (NPR) ranging from 10 to 18. The gaseous jet has been characterized in terms of its macroscale parameters. A scaling-law analysis of the results has been performed. The gas-dynamic structure at the nozzle exit has been also investigated.
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Nozzle Flow and Spray Development One-Way Coupling Methodology for a Multi-Hole GDi Injector

AKKA-Stefano Bergamini
Toyota Motor Corp-Jun Miyagawa, Kazuhiro Uehara, Yasushi Noguchi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0031
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The use of predictive models in the study of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) allows reducing developing cost and times. However, those models are challenging due to the complex and multi-phase phenomena occurring in the combustion chamber, but also because of the different spatial and temporal scales in different components of the injection systems. This work presents a methodology to accurately simulate the spray by Discrete Droplet Models (DDM) without experimentally measuring the injector mass flow rate and/or momentum flux. Transient nozzle flow simulations are used instead to define the injection conditions of the spray model. The methodology is applied to a multi-hole Gasoline Direct injection (GDi) injector. Firstly, the DDM constant values are calibrated comparing simulation results to Diffused Back-light Illumination (DBI) experimental technique results. Secondly, transient nozzle flow simulations are carried out. The computational values of mass flow rate and momentum flux (therefore, the discharge and velocity coefficients) of the nozzle are obtained. Afterwards, they are used as an input for the spray DDM calculations. These computational spray results are again compared against the…
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Assessing Viscosity in Hydro-Erosive Grinding Process via Refractometry

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

UTFPR, Brazil-Bárbara R. Heidemann, Gustavo Scherpinski, Luís Fabris, Marcia Muller, José L. Fabris, Giuseppe Pintaude
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0012
Published 2019-08-22 by SAE International in United States
The manufacturing of diesel injector nozzles requires precision processing to produce multiple micro-holes. An abrasive fluid containing a mixture of mineral oil and hard particles is used for rounding them, ensuring the hydrodynamics of the injection. As verified in a previous investigation, the viscosity of the fluid undergoes uncontrolled changes during hydro-erosive (HE) grinding. Such undesired viscosity changes are detrimental to the process and difficult to assess. The current investigation aims to study the possibility of using the refractive index of the oils used in the HE grinding for assessing their viscosities. A calibration curve correlating the refractive index and viscosity was obtained from the analysis of samples produced by mixing two distinct mineral oils in different proportions. The determined calibration curve was tested with 45 samples of filtered oil, collected directly from the tanks during the HE grinding. The results showed that refractometry is a potential technique for online control of grinding efficiency.
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