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Aging Effect on Disc Pad Properties

Compact International (1994) Co., Ltd.-Meechai Sriwiboon, Kritsana Kaewlob, Nipon Tiempan
SKR Consulting Inc.-Seong K. Rhee
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
One low-copper formulation and one copper-free formulation were made into disc pads, and both of them were cured under 4 different conditions. These pads had no backing layer and no scorched layer. Pad thickness, dynamic modulus and natural frequencies were continuously monitored over a period of 12 months. After 12 months at room temperature, pad thickness, dynamic modulus and natural frequencies all increased to higher values. The low-copper formulation increased relatively rapidly during the first 60 days and the copper-free formulation increased relatively rapidly for the first 90 days, and then slowly thereafter. Two competing processes are found to be taking place simultaneously; internal stress relief leading to pad expansion and cross-linking of the resin leading to pad shrinkage. As the pad properties are changing continuously, the timing of property measurement becomes an important issue for quality assurance. Implications of these changing properties are discussed for friction, wear, brake squeal and squeal modeling/simulation, and simple non-destructive test methods are recommended for checking pad quality consistency.
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Fast Accurate Non-Destructive Measurement of Absorber Impedance and Absorption

3M Company-Jon Alexander
Bruel & Kjaer Sound and Vibration A/S-Jason Kunio, Flemming Larsen
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Cabin acoustic comfort is a major contributor to the potential sales success of new aircraft, cars, trucks, and trains. Recent design challenges have included the increased use of composites, and the switch to electrically powered vehicles, each of which change the interior noise spectral content and level. The role of acoustic absorption in cabins is key to the optimisation of cabin acoustic comfort for modern vehicles, with acoustic impedance data needed in order to assess and optimise the impact of each component of a given lay-up.Measurements of absorbing interior trim are traditionally performed using either sample holder tests in a static impedance tube (impedance and absorption), or through tests in reverberation rooms (absorption only). Both of these procedures present challenges. In-tube absorption and impedance measurements are destructive, requiring highly accurate sample cutting and sealing. Reverberation room absorption measurements are subject to the effects of varying room diffusion, along with the impact of edge diffraction, sample geometry, and location. Finally, while non-destructive methods using hand-held probes also measure absorption, they are not able to measure impedance…
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Getting the Most Out of Industrial CT Scanning

Aerospace & Defense Technology: June 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP06_12
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

Industrial CT analysis software uncovers aerospace manufacturing defects that scanning alone might miss.

Quality assurance and flight certification of critical aerospace parts and assemblies have reached new levels of sophistication in recent years. Leading aerospace and defense manufacturers worldwide now consider computed tomography (CT) scanning to be an essential part of their non-destructive testing (NDT) toolkit. Far more powerful than the CT used to scan the human body, industrial CT can penetrate almost every material, from superalloys to lead, revealing hidden details that previously could only be found by cutting and destroying finished parts.

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Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of Structures Using Transient and Lock-in Thermography

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34627
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Researchers at NASA’s Johnson Space Center improved their Flash Thermography capabilities by incorporating transient and lock-in thermography. By adding the transient thermography method that detects flaws on thicker parts faster than other methods, and the lock-in thermography method that uses a sinusoidal power cycle to provide a better flaw resolution, the Flash Thermography NDE Technology Suite has expanded its applicability to other commonly used infrared thermography techniques.

Getting the Most Out of Industrial CT Scanning

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34544
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Quality assurance and flight certification of critical aerospace parts and assemblies have reached new levels of sophistication in recent years. Leading aerospace and defense manufacturers worldwide now consider computed tomography (CT) scanning to be an essential part of their non-destructive testing (NDT) toolkit. Far more powerful than the CT used to scan the human body, industrial CT can penetrate almost every material, from superalloys to lead, revealing hidden details that previously could only be found by cutting and destroying finished parts.

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Steel Castings, Vacuum Melted, Vacuum Cast, Investment, Corrosion-Resistant 13Cr - 8.0Ni - 2.2Mo - 1.1Al 195 ksi (1344 MPa) Tensile Strength (Condition H1000) Homogenized, Solution, and Precipitation Heat Treated

AMS F Corrosion Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS5412B
  • Current
Published 2019-05-10 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a corrosion-resistant steel in the form of investment castings.
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Insulation Sleeving, Electrical, Heat Shrinkable, General Specification for

AE-8D Wire and Cable Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS23053A
  • Current
Published 2019-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This specification establishes the requirements for various types and colors of electrical insulating sleeving that will shrink to a predetermined size upon the application of heat. This specification includes provisions for demonstrating compliance with qualification requirements (see Section 4 and 7.3), in process inspection, and statistical process control inspections (see 4.4). The continuous operating temperature ranges for the sleeving classes covered by this specification are from -112 to +482 °F (-80 to +250 °C). The continuous operating temperature range for each sleeving class is given in the applicable detail specification.
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A Novel Method to Nondestructively Measure the Shear Edge Properties for Edge Cracking Evaluation with Advanced High Strength Steels

EWI Forming Center-Nikky Pathak, Jiahui Gu, Hyunok Kim
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques are widely used in the manufacturing industry to control the quality of materials or final products. In the automotive industry, eddy current (EC) testing is one of the most extensively used NDE techniques for automatic in-line inspection of ferrous materials such as advanced high strength steels (AHSS). In addition, shearing is a very common forming operation in the automotive industry. With the increase of shearing clearance, the sheared-edge experiences significant work-hardening that normally decreases the formability of the sheared edge. In this paper, a novel, real-time monitoring NDE method based on the EC sensor was developed to characterize variations in shear edge quality for a DP980 steel. The developed NDE method was applied to scan the edges sheared at various clearances between 5% and 25% of the material thickness. The signal received was correlated with pre-straining introduced during the shearing process at various clearances. Microhardness measurements were taken to compare the trends obtained from the NDE tool with the hardness values. To evaluate the edge formability, half-specimen dome testing (HSDT) was…
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Multi-Wavelengths Michelson Interferometer Based Spatial Phase Shift Shearography with Color Camera

University of Applied Science Trier-Christopher Petry, Michael Schuth
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The paper describes the use of a color camera for spatial phase shift shearography according to the carrier frequency method, whereby the focus is on measurement stability and practical usability. The basics are derived from the simple and extremely robust Michelson interferometer setup with spatial aperture and quality criteria are formulated according to the achievable result quality. The state of research of Multi-Wavelengths application is shown in general as well as in a publication, which serves as a further basis for comparison. The use of three laser sources and a Bayer-Matrix RGB color camera is considered to be the most effective method for the following development. For this purpose, the 3 out-of-plane illumination arrangement is used, which provides the three separate results in the spatial directions in only one measurement (for shear direction in x). The conditions and the special features of the spatial phase shift with a color camera are discussed and theoretical comparisons to the classical application with a black and white camera are made. On an experimental test, the high-resolution quality and…
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Insert, Screw Thread, Non-Locking, UNS S66286, Locked in, Key Locked Procurement Specification for

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS4976A
  • Current
Published 2019-03-18 by SAE International in United States
This procurement specification covers inserts made from A286 alloy of the type identified under the Unified Numbering System as UNS S66286 which have non-locking internal threads and integrated locking keys to positively secure the insert against rotation when properly installed in threaded holes.
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