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Proposed Standards and Methods for Leak Testing Lithium-Ion Batteries with Empirically Derived Rejection Limits

Inficon GmbH-Daniel Wetzig, Maximillian Reismann
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0448
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lithium-ion batteries are a highly suitable energy source for many applications, particularly in the automotive sector due to their high energy density and low self-discharge rate. During the production of battery cells, rapid detection of leaks is absolutely essential to achieve necessary lifetime and safety requirements. This applies particularly to small leaks that cannot be detected electrically immediately after the cell has been manufactured. Remarkably, for pouch cells there has been no reliable method available to detect small leak channels. This paper examines a spectrum of leak scenarios for cylindrical, prismatic and pouch lithium-ion batteries. Rejection limits for lithium-ion batteries have not been codified. Fact-based rejection limits now have been empirically established. This presentation will discuss how small leaks—down to the 10e-6 mbar l/s range—can be detected reliably and quantitatively on potentially leaking battery cells through detection of escaping liquid electrolyte vapors, typically DMC (dimethyl carbonate). The test system is applicable to non-rigid pouch cells and rigid prismatic or cylindrical cells, which permits non-destructive testing of any lithium-ion battery cell.
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Experimental characterization of piezoelectric transducers for automotive composite structural health monitoring

Politecnico di Torino-Massimiliana Carello, Alessandro Ferraris, Andrea Giancarlo Airale, Alessandro Messana, Lorenzo Sisca, Henrique de Carvalho Pinheiro, Simone Reitano
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0609
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Composite materials are a natural choice for engineering applications where mechanical performance and lightweight are required, as in state-of-the-art components in the automotive field. Nevertheless, close attention should be paid to defects present in this kind of structure. Several innovative ways to investigate the failure mode of structures in composite material has been developed in time. This paper presents the experimental characterization of piezoelectric transducers as a Structural Health Monitoring System: a continuous acquisition system of data in order to real time detect the presence of faults inside automotive components under analysis. Several tests have been executed over a PI-DuraAct piezoceramic patch coupled to a host structure, characterizing the acquisition and transmission of a signal. Contribution about bonding quality, shape wave distortion of imposed signal and best frequency for transmission have been evaluated. Furthermore, the damage was created in a controlled drop-dart tower and its intensity analyzed with a C-scan non-destructive test. An algorithm has been then implemented in MATLAB to obtain detection of defects and their intensity, by processing the data acquired. Two case…
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Titanium Alloy, Round Bar and Wire 3Al - 8V - 6Cr - 4Mo - 4Zr Consumable Electrode Melted Solution Heat Treated and Cold Drawn

AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4957G
  • Current
Published 2020-01-14 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of round bar and wire, 0.625 inch (15.88 mm) and under in nominal diameter or thickness.
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Dynamic Mechanical Strain-Induced Temperature Gradient Coating

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35811
Published 2020-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Evaluating components for discontinuities without damaging the part or system remains a priority for diverse industries and research fields. Low-cost techniques such as fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) are used widely by major industries, such as aviation and aerospace, despite limited defect detection and the need for complex, multi-step operations in highly controlled conditions. Nondestructive methods such as sonic infrared (SIR) testing apply ultrasound waves to identify surface defects and cracks. These techniques hold promise for widespread use but stand to improve in the detection of false positives.

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Marking of Electrical Insulating Materials

AE-8A Elec Wiring and Fiber Optic Interconnect Sys Install
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS5942
  • Current
Published 2019-12-27 by SAE International in United States
This specification establishes the performance requirements for the identification of wire and cable by indirect markings that have been applied to electrical insulating materials including heat shrink sleeving, wrap around labels and “tie-on” tags as well as any other types of materials used for indirect marking. This specification covers the processes used to mark these materials, including impact ink marking, thermal transfer, hot stamp, and lasers, etc. This specification does not cover the direct marking on insulated electrical wires and cables.
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Tips for Reducing Error When Using Eddy Current Measuring Techniques

Aerospace & Defense Technology: December 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP12_02
Published 2019-12-01 by SAE International in United States

Inductive eddy current technology is an extremely versatile non-contact method for measuring an object's position, distance, or vibration. Unaffected by environmental contaminants or target finish characteristics, these sensors can operate in a vacuum or in fluids, so they work well for dirty applications, like those with oil or dust present. To get the most out of eddy current sensors, follow these tips for reducing errors that can affect a measurement's accuracy.

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Sensing Applied Load and Damage Effects in Composites with Nondestructive Techniques

Aerospace & Defense Technology: December 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP12_08
Published 2019-12-01 by SAE International in United States

Comparing and correlating piezoelectrically induced guided waves, acoustic emission, thermography, and X-ray imaging to determine the effects of applied load on a composite structure.

Composite materials are desirable for aeronautical and aerospace applications for many reasons including their high strength-to-weight ratios, fatigue and corrosion resistance, design adaptability, and performance capabilities in harsh environments. Because of these qualities, composites are useful in many applications such as in armor, helmets, and helicopters, and as structural components.

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Sensing Applied Load and Damage Effects in Composites with Nondestructive Techniques

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35672
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Composite materials are desirable for aeronautical and aerospace applications for many reasons including their high strength-to-weight ratios, fatigue and corrosion resistance, design adaptability, and performance capabilities in harsh environments. Because of these qualities, composites are useful in many applications such as in armor, helmets, and helicopters, and as structural components.

Nondestructive Measurement of Residual Strain in Connecting Rods Using Neutrons

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Honda R&D Co., Ltd., Japan-Tomohiro Ikeda, Ryuta Motani, Hideki Matsuda, Tatsuya Okayama
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA-Bunn R. Jeffery, Christopher M. Fancher
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-03-0018
Published 2019-10-15 by SAE International in United States
Increasing the strength of materials is effective in reducing weight and boosting structural part performance, but there are cases where the residual strain generated during the process of manufacturing of high-strength materials results in a decline of durability. It is therefore important to understand how the residual strain in a manufactured component changes due to processing conditions. In the case of a connecting rod, because the strain load on the connecting rod rib sections is high, it is necessary to clearly understand the distribution of strain in the ribs. However, because residual strain is generally measured by using X-ray diffractometers or strain gauges, measurements are limited to the surface layer of the parts. Neutron beams, however, have a higher penetration depth than X-rays, allowing for strain measurement in the bulk material. The research discussed within this article consists of nondestructive residual strain measurements in the interior of connecting rods using the Second Generation Neutron Residual Stress Mapping Facility (NRSF2) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), measuring the Fe (211) diffraction peak position of the ferrite…
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Aging Effect on Disc Pad Properties

Compact International (1994) Co., Ltd.-Meechai Sriwiboon, Kritsana Kaewlob, Nipon Tiempan
SKR Consulting Inc.-Seong K. Rhee
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
One low-copper formulation and one copper-free formulation were made into disc pads, and both of them were cured under 4 different conditions. These pads had no backing layer and no scorched layer. Pad thickness, dynamic modulus and natural frequencies were continuously monitored over a period of 12 months. After 12 months at room temperature, pad thickness, dynamic modulus and natural frequencies all increased to higher values. The low-copper formulation increased relatively rapidly during the first 60 days and the copper-free formulation increased relatively rapidly for the first 90 days, and then slowly thereafter. Two competing processes are found to be taking place simultaneously; internal stress relief leading to pad expansion and cross-linking of the resin leading to pad shrinkage. As the pad properties are changing continuously, the timing of property measurement becomes an important issue for quality assurance. Implications of these changing properties are discussed for friction, wear, brake squeal and squeal modeling/simulation, and simple non-destructive test methods are recommended for checking pad quality consistency.
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