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The Influence of Fuel Composition and Renewable Fuel Components on the Emissions of a GDI Engine

Porsche AG-Hans-Peter Deeg, Dietmar Schwarzenthal
Technical Univ of Braunschweig-Michael Albrecht, Peter Eilts
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0025
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Investigations were performed, in which the emission behavior of renewable and conventional fuels of different composition and renewable fuel components was observed. The influence on the emissions of the start of injection at different load points was investigated. This shows how much wall and valve wetting affects the mixture formation of the different fuels. Further, the air fuel ratio in an operating point for catalyst heating, with medium engine temperatures, was varied. The latter shows the ability of evaporation of the fuels at engine warm-up conditions and sub-stochiometric λ-Values. The studied fuels were four fuel mixtures of significantly different composition of which three were compliant with the European fuel standard EN 228. A RON 98 in-field fuel, a Euro 6 reference fuel, an Anti-Spark-Fouling (ASF) fuel (designed for minimum soot production) and a potentially completely renewable and CO2-neural fuel, which is designed by Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, named POSYN (POrsche SYNthetic fuel) were chosen. Additionally, the fuel components Ethanol as classic biofuel, Isopropanol, Isobutanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), which were chosen by…
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Design of the Compression Chamber and Optimization of the Sealing of a Novel Rotary Internal Combustion Engine using CFD

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Savvas S. Savvakis, Elias Nassiopoulos, Dimitrios Mertzis, Zissis Samaras
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0007
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The increasing demand for lower fuel consumption and pollutant emissions favours the development of novel engine configurations. In line with this demand, the present contribution aims to investigate the sealing performance of a new concept rotary split-engine with a very promising thermal efficiency, a very low NOx emissions' level, and a much higher power density than any conventional internal combustion engine can. It uses the Atkinson cycle, a low-temperature combustion process and when it uses two pistons, symmetrically positioned around its shaft, it gives one power stroke every 180 degrees. The main focus of this work is to provide all the steps followed so far in order to ensure an efficient sealing and operation of the compression process of this engine, including the 1D & CFD simulations, CAD design & optimisation, and experimental campaign for verifying the digital results. The so-far investigation and experiments conclude that this new rotary engine can work with no oil lubrication inside the compression chamber and with much lower mechanical losses compared to the existing reciprocating engines.
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How Should Innovative Combustion Engines be Developed, Operated and Built in Order to Turn From Climate Sinners Into Climate Savers?

Hamburg University of Applied Sciences-Victor Gheorghiu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0009
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
KEYWORDS – Strict Atkinson Cycle implementation, Extended Expansion Cycle, VCR, Enhanced Thermal Conversion Efficiency, High Pressure Turbocharging, Hydrogen DI, stoichiometric mixture, new load control ABSTRACT The Ultra-Downsizing is introduced as an even higher stage of downsizing of ICE. Ultra-downsizing will be implemented here by means of real Atkinson cycles using an asymmetrical crank mechanisms with continuous VCR capabilities, combined with two-stage high-pressure turbocharging and very intensive intercooling. This will allow an increase of ICE performance while keeping the thermal and mechanical strain strength of engine components within the current usual limits. Research Objective The principal purpose of this investigation is to analyze and evaluate a strict implementations of Atkinson cycles on Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) by means of the VCSR asymmetrical crank mechanisms (VCSR means Variable Compression and Strokes Ratios) for DI-Hydrogen-fueled (or with H2-CNG blends) case. The VCSR will be presented in two constructive variants. The mechanical loads as torque and forces within the VCSR crank mechanism will be presented and analyzed in some engine operation points. Methodology A small size SI NA MPI…
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Assessing the Engine-Out Pollutant Emissions of a S.I. Engine for Hybrid Powertrain Applications

Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté-Jérémy Pelluet, Alan Keromnes, Luis Le Moyne
Université de Lyon - IFSTTAR AME ECO7-Alice Guille des buttes, Bruno Jeanneret
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0016
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Car manufacturers are introducing more and more hybrid powertrains in order to reach CO2 emissions targets and answer increasingly stringent pollutant emission regulations such as unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter. The addition of an electric engine to a thermal engine introduces an additional degree of freedom in the energy management of the powertrain since two energy sources are available. Thus, the energy management system must also account for regulated pollutant emissions when devising an optimal energy management strategy to avoid a pollutant emission increase due to CO2 only driven optimisation. It is therefore necessary to model the influence of thermal engine operating conditions such as load and speed on these emissions to evaluate their concentration in the exhaust gases. This study presents an empiric modelling approach based on an extensive parametric study using a spark-ignition port-injection four-cylinder engine. Such a model intend to be used in the context of hybrid powertrain optimization. In order to reduce the computing costs required by ECU (Engine Control Unit), the number of…
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Downsized-Boosted Gasoline Engine with Exhaust Compound and Dilute Advanced Combustion

General Motors LLC-Jeremie Dernotte, Paul M. Najt, Russell P. Durrett
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0795
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This article presents experimental results obtained with a disruptive engine platform, designed to maximize the engine efficiency through a synergetic implementation of downsizing, high compression-ratio, and importantly exhaust-heat energy recovery in conjunction with advanced lean/dilute low-temperature type combustion. The engine architecture is a supercharged high-power output, 1.1-liter engine with two-firing cylinders and a high compression ratio of 13.5: 1. The integrated exhaust heat recovery system is an additional, larger displacement, non-fueled cylinder into which the exhaust gas from the two firing cylinders is alternately transferred to be further expanded.The main goal of this work is to implement in this engine, advanced lean/dilute low-temperature combustion for low-NOx and high efficiency operation, and to address the transition between the different operating modes. Those include well-mixed charge compression-ignition at low-load, and a mixed-mode combustion at higher loads, before transitioning to boosted homogenous and stochiometric spark-ignited combustion. Here, the mixed-mode combustion strategy is composed of a deflagration of a stratified mixture created by a late direct injection, then triggering a controlled autoignition of the surrounding gas, improving the robustness…
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Ammonia Measurement Investigation Using Quantum Cascade Laser and Two Different Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Methods

Caterpillar UK Ltd-Richard Barrett, Jim Baxter
Loughborough university-Nilton Li, Ashraf El-Hamalawi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0365
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Most diesel engine exhausts have been fitted with SCR (Selective Catalyst Reduction) in order to reduce NOX (Oxides of Nitrogen) by using NH3 (ammonia). However, both NOX and NH3 have been classified as compounds hazardous for the environment and human health. If the reaction between NOX and NH3 is unbalanced during treatment, it can lead to either NOX or NH3 being released into the environment. Accurate measurement is thus necessary. QCL (Quantum Cascade Laser) and FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) are two methods that have been used to measure NH3 and NOX directly in diesel engine exhausts. However, only a few studies have compared those two methods of NH3 measurement, mainly from diesel engine exhausts. The aim of this paper is to compare the QCL and 2 different FTIR specifications for NH3 measurement directly from diesel engine exhausts under well-controlled laboratory conditions. Researchers have found that as NH3 is reactive, it is absorbed inside the exhaust pipe if the probe location is some distance away from the SCR. The results reported here contradict this and show…
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Gear Shift Pattern Optimization for Best Fuel Economy, Performance and Emissions

Chidhanand S.
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Lemuel Paulraj, Saravanan Muthiah
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1280
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As the FTP-75 drive cycle does not have a prescribed gear shift pattern, automotive OEMs have the flexibility to design. Conventionally, gear shift pattern was formulated based on trial and error method, typically with 10 to 12 iterations on chassis dynamometer. It was a time consuming (i.e. ~ 3 to 4 months) and expensive process. This approach led to declaring poor fuel economy (FE). A simulation procedure was required to generate a gear shift pattern that gives optimal trade-off amongst conflicting objectives (FE, performance and emissions). As a result, a simulation tool was developed in MATLAB to generate an optimum gear shift pattern. Three different SUV/UV models were used as test vehicles in this study. Chassis dyno testing was conducted, and data was collected using the base and optimized gear shift patterns. Dyno test results with optimized gear shift pattern showed FE improvement of ~ 4 to 5% while retaining the NOx margin well above engineering targets. This labeling FE improvement method did not require any hardware or software changes, thus, involved no additional expense.…
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Real-Time Embedded Models for Simulation and Control of Clean and Fuel-Efficient Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

Daimler Trucks North America-Marc Allain, Siddharth Mahesh
University of Michigan-Saravanan Duraiarasan, Rasoul Salehi, Fucong Wang, Anna Stefanopoulou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0257
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a framework for modeling a modern diesel engine and its aftertreatment system which are intended to be used for real-time implementation as a virtual engine and in a model-based control architecture to predict critical variables such as fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions. The models are specifically able to capture the impact of critical control variables such as the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve position and fuel injection timing, as well as operating conditions of speed and torque, on the engine airpath variables and emissions during transient driving conditions. To enable real-time computation of the models, a minimal realization of the nonlinear airpath model is presented and it is coupled with a cycle averaged NOx emissions predictor to estimate feed gas NOx emissions. Then, the feedgas enthalpy is used to calculate the thermal behavior of the aftertreatment system required for prediction of tailpipe emissions. The complete engine and aftertreatment system models were implemented on a rapid prototyping controller and experimentally validated over steady state and transient test cycles. Results show the performance of…
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Evaluating the Performance of a Conventional and Hybrid Bus Operating on Diesel and B20 Fuel for Emissions and Fuel Economy

US Environmental Protection Agency-Matthew Brusstar, Scott Ludlam
University of Michigan-Rinav Pillai, Andre Boehman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1351
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With ongoing concerns about the elevated levels of ambient air pollution in urban areas and the contribution from heavy-duty diesel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles are considered as a potential solution as they are perceived to be more fuel efficient and less polluting than their conventional engine counterparts. However, recent studies have shown that real-world emissions may be substantially higher than those measured in the laboratory, mainly due to operating conditions that are not fully accounted for in dynamometer test cycles. At the U.S. EPA National Fuel and Vehicle Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL) the in-use criteria emissions and energy efficiency of heavy-duty class 8 vehicles (up to 36280 kg) can be evaluated under controlled conditions in the heavy-duty chassis dynamometer test. The present study evaluated the performance of a conventional bus and a hybrid bus for emissions and fuel economy under representative test cycles (including cold start and hot start conditions) with Diesel (#2) and Biodiesel (B20) fuel. The conventional bus was equipped with a Cummins ISL 8.3L engine and a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Diesel…
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Vehicle Emission Solutions for China 6b and Euro 7

Umicore AutoCat (China) Co., Ltd.-Gu Weiwei
Umicore Autocat (China) Co., Ltd.-Xiangwei Meng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0654
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Combinations of CC1 TWC and CC2 coated gasoline particulate filters (cGPF) were aged by 4-mode and fuel cut aging to simulate 200K kilometers of in-use aging in China and Europe, respectively. Separate combinations of catalysts were then evaluated on two low emission engines using the WLTC driving cycle. Catalyst volume and PGM mass were varied in the CC1. OSC/washcoat amounts were varied at constant PGM loading in the GPF. For the Chinese application, after the four-mode aging, it was found that the CC1 TWC catalyst volume should be greater than 1.0 L. High levels of OSC were needed in the GPF to meet CO and NOx emission targets. For the European application, after fuel cut aging, Euro 6d emissions were met with any combination of TWC and GPF catalysts. If the gaseous regulations for Euro 7 are similar to China 6b, the CC1 TWC catalyst should also be great than 1.0 L in order to meet CO and NOx emissions. Over all, results imply that CC1 TWC design is most critical for gaseous emissions. More…