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A Stability-Guaranteed Time-Delay Range for Feedback Control of Autonomous Vehicles

Yildiz Technical University-Ahmet Kirli, Mehmet Selçuk Arslan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0090
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The vehicles with level-5 autonomy (L5AVs) that have no human driver in the loop are also known as self-driving cars. L5AVs are assumed the next generation of ground transportation, which have growing attention from both industry and academia in most recent years. Most of the work related to feedback strategies of L5AVs are on developing mapping systems through a variety of sensors. These systems can be considered as an analogue to the perception and central nervous system of human drivers. For instance, innovative visualization systems are more powerful when compared to the visual perception system of a person, yet, mapping demands high computation loads. This burden causes delay in the feedback loop and thus, it might have an unfavorable influence on proper and safe control action. This study investigates the effect of time delay occurring in mapping systems on the stability of the controlled vehicle. An algorithm entitled as “Cluster Treatment of Characteristic Roots - CTCR” is used to calculate a safe delay range as a remedy for the time delay caused by mapping systems.…
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Development of a Subhuman Primate Brain Finite Element Model to Investigate Brain Injury Thresholds Induced by Head Rotation

Prasad Engineering, LLC, Plymouth, MI, USA-Priya Prasad
Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA-Tushar Arora, Liying Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0003
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
An anatomically detailed rhesus monkey brain FE model was developed to simulate in vivo responses of the brain of sub-human primates subjected to rotational accelerations resulting in diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The material properties used in the monkey model are those in the GHBMC 50th percentile male head model (Global Human Body Model Consortium). The angular loading simulations consisted of coronal, oblique and sagittal plane rotations with the center of rotation in neck to duplicate experimental conditions. Maximum principal strain (MPS) and Cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) were analyzed for various white matter structures such as the cerebrum subcortical white matter, corpus callosum and brainstem. The MPS in coronal rotation were 45% to 54% higher in the brainstem, 8% to 48% higher in the corpus callosum, 13% to 22% higher in the white matter when compared to those in oblique and sagittal rotations, suggesting that more severe DAI was expected from coronal and oblique rotations as compared to that from sagittal rotation. The level 1+ DAI was associated with 1.3 to 1.42 MPS and 50%…
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Brain Strain from Motion of Sparse Markers

Neuronic Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sto-Zhou Zhou, Xiaogai Li, Svein Kleiven
Virginia Tech-Wake Forest Center for Injury Biomechanics, Bl-Warren N. Hardy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0001
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
Brain strain secondary to head impact or inertial loading is closely associated with pathologic observations in the brain. The only experimental brain strain dataset under loadings close to traumatic levels was calculated by imposing the experimentally measured motion of markers embedded in the brain to an auxiliary model formed by triad elements (Hardy et al., 2007). However, fidelity of the calculated strain as well as the suitability of using triad elements for three-dimensional (3D) strain estimation remains to be verified. Therefore, this study proposes to use tetrahedron elements as a new approach to estimate the brain strain. Fidelity of this newly-proposed approach along with the previous triad-based approach is evaluated with the aid of three independently-developed finite element (FE) head models by numerically replicating the experimental impacts and strain estimation procedures. Strain in the preselected brain elements obtained from the whole head simulation exhibits good correlation with its tetra estimation and exceeds its triad estimation, indicating that the tetra approach more accurately estimates the strain in the preselected region. The newly calculated brain strain curves…
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Stretchable Wireless Sensor Could Monitor Healing of Cerebral Aneurysms

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36149
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The stretchable sensor, which operates without batteries, would be wrapped around stents or diverters implanted to control blood flow in vessels affected by the aneurysms. To reduce costs and accelerate manufacturing, fabrication of the stretchable sensors uses aerosol jet 3D printing to create conductive silver traces on elastomeric substrates. The 3D additive manufacturing technique allows production of very small electronic features in a single step, without using traditional multi-step lithography processes in a cleanroom. The device is believed to be the first demonstration of aerosol jet 3D printing to produce an implantable, stretchable sensing system for wireless monitoring.

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Soft, Conformable Hearing Implants

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36159
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Close to half a million people around the world suffer from a serious hearing impairment. In some cases, they can find relief in cochlear and other types of implants. Yet these devices do not help people whose inner ear is damaged or whose auditory nerve does not function properly. For these patients to recover their sense of hearing, electrical signals must be sent directly to the auditory brainstem. The neuroprosthetic used for this purpose is called an auditory brainstem implant (ABI); however, the outcomes of ABIs are mixed and in many cases, patients recover only sound perception. Clinical ABIs are also stiff and cannot conform precisely to the curvature of the auditory brainstem.

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Wireless System Powers Devices Inside the Body

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36169
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

In the brain, implantable electrodes that deliver an electrical current are used for a technique known as deep brain stimulation, which is often used to treat Parkinson’s disease or epilepsy. These electrodes are now controlled by a pacemaker-like device implanted under the skin, which could be eliminated if wireless power is used. Wireless brain implants could also help deliver light to stimulate or inhibit neuron activity through optogenetics, which so far has not been adapted for use in humans but could be useful for treating many neurological disorders.

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Trunk Support Assists Those with Spinal Cord Injury

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36182
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) can cause devastating damage including loss of mobility and sensation. Researchers have invented the Trunk-Support Trainer (TruST), a robotic device that assists and trains people with SCIs to sit more stably by improving their trunk control and thus gain an expanded active sitting workspace without falling over or using their hands to balance.

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AI-Analyzed Blood Test Predicts Disease Progression

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36252
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Scientists used an AI algorithm to analyze the blood and post-mortem brain samples of 1,969 patients with Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s disease. Their goal was to find molecular patterns specific to these diseases.

Artificial Neurons Cure Chronic Diseases

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36018
Published 2020-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Artificial neurons on silicon chips that behave just like the real thing have been invented by scientists — a first-of-its-kind achievement with enormous scope for medical devices to cure chronic diseases, such as heart failure, Alzheimer’s, and other diseases of neuronal degeneration.

Open Source EEG Visualization Tool

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36025
Published 2020-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Researchers have developed a free open source computer program that can be used to create visual and quantitative representations of brain electrical activity in laboratory animals in hopes of developing countermeasures for opioid use disorder.