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A Stability-Guaranteed Time-Delay Range for Feedback Control of Autonomous Vehicles

Yildiz Technical University-Ahmet Kirli, Mehmet Selçuk Arslan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0090
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The vehicles with level-5 autonomy (L5AVs) have no human driver in the loop are also known as self-driving cars. L5AVs are assumed the next generation of ground transportation, which have growing attention from both industry and academia in most recent years. Most of the work related to feedback strategies of L5AVs are on developing mapping systems through a variety of sensors. These systems can be considered as an analogue to the perception and central nervous system of human drivers. For instance, innovative visualization systems are more powerful when compared to the visual perception system of a person, yet, mapping demands high computation loads. This burden causes delay in the feedback loop and thus, it might have an unfavorable influence on proper and safe control action. This study investigates the effect of time delay occurring in mapping systems on the stability of the controlled vehicle. An algorithm entitled as “Cluster Treatment of Characteristic Roots - CTCR” is used to calculate a safe delay range as a remedy for the time delay caused by mapping systems. The…
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Revisiting "Head Impact Power" (HIP): Considerations of Direction, Duration, and Attendant Risk Curves

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Kevin Pline, Raed E. El-Jawahri
Ford Motor Company-Tony Laituri, Jonathan S. Wood, Scott Henry
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0521
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Our objective was to derive brain risk curves for three related metrics: Head Impact Power (HIP), Power Index (PI), and a new duration-based form (T*MPI^n). HIP was from Newman, who defined it as the peak value of a time history based on the linear combination of mechanical power in six directions (three translation, three rotation). Those components of HIP went unscaled (i.e., set to unity). PI was a natural extension of HIP from Newman, who conceptualized it to involve non-uniform scaling to address potential directional sensitivity; however, the scaling factors were not estimated. Kleiven subsequently advanced the PI concept by positing anisotropic effects for three directions (two translational, one rotational), which yielded nine unknown scaling factors. He used a human brain model to estimate them for subdural hematoma. T*MPI^n is from the present study, wherein “T” is the PI-based duration, “MPI” is the mean PI in that time window, and “n” is an unknown exponent. In this three-part study, we will (1) generate a dataset of estimated head-acceleration time histories pertaining to risky events with…
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Artificial Neural Network Based Predictive Approach in Vehicle Thermal Systems Applications

FCA Canada Inc-Shankar Natarajan
FCA Canada Inc.-Pooya Mirzabeygi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0148
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In automotive industry, there is an abundance of test data collected at different stages of vehicle’s development. Heavy reliance on testing can lead to significant increase in vehicle program’s design costs and further delay in the development timing as vehicle instrumentation and testing is costly and time-consuming. This paper focuses on an alternative approach using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The ANNs are computing systems inspired by the brain’s biological networks that can learn by considering examples. The “trained” network can then be used to predict the system’s performance in a reliable and efficient manner. This is particularly useful in automotive industry as there exists a considerable amount of test data in the system, sub-system or component level that can be used to train the ANN. The trained ANN can then be used as an alternative for performance prediction and reduce the reliance on additional physical testing. The study focuses on thermal and climate control systems and the application of ANNs to predict the thermal performance. It is shown that ANNs are very robust in…

VR Helps Amputees ‘Feel’ Prosthetic Limbs

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35634
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Scientists have shown that amputees can actually be convinced that the prosthetic hand belongs to their own body. They do this by going beyond the “seeing is believing” idiom based on established research on how the brain identifies what belongs to its own body. Instead of using the sense of sight alone, they used an astute combination of two senses: sight and touch.

Smart Electronic Skin for Robots and Prosthetics

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35452
Published 2019-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Humans use the sense of touch to accomplish almost every daily task such as picking up a cup of coffee or shaking someone’s hand. Without it, humans can even lose their sense of balance when walking. Similarly, robots need to have a sense of touch in order to interact better with humans but robots today still cannot feel objects well.

2019 'Create the Future' Medical Category Winner: Cervical Stabilization Device

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35515
Published 2019-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States
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Honda ready with new injury-reducing airbag

Automotive Engineering: October 2019

Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP10_08
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Starting next year, Honda will begin fitting vehicles with a new, advanced-design passenger-side front airbag that its engineers said is designed to mitigate brain and neck injuries by cradling the head like a baseball in a catcher's mitt. The design is particularly effective, Honda said, for angled impacts or when an occupant is not in optimal position when the crash occurs, reducing rotational acceleration of the head that can traumatize the brain.

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Less Training Needed for Brain-Machine Interfaces

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35338
Published 2019-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are rarely found outside of medical clinics, where the disabled receive hours or days of training in order to operate wheelchairs with their minds. Now the largest-ever BMI experiment Mental Work, conducted as an experimental artwork at EPFL's Artlab, has provided preliminary evidence that training time can be shortened, the use of dry electrodes are a robust solution for public BMI and that user performance tends to improve within a relatively short period of time.

Smart Brain Stimulators: Next-Generation Parkinson's Disease Therapy

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35341
Published 2019-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Researchers at the University of Houston have found neuro biomarkers for Parkinson's disease that can help create the next generation of “smart” deep brain stimulators, able to respond to specific needs of Parkinson's disease patients. Those with the disease often undergo the high-frequency brain stimulation, a well-established therapy for the progressive nervous system disorder that affects movement, but the therapy has been imprecise.

New Optical Endoscopy Using Ultrasound Could Replace Scopes

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35101
Published 2019-09-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

One day, scopes may no longer need to be inserted into the body — such as down the throat or under the skin — to reach the stomach, brain, or any other organs for examination.