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SnowMicroPenetrometer Applications for Winter Vehicle Mobility

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35361
Published 2019-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The U.S. Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) Military Engineering Program on Remote Assessment of Infrastructure for Ensured Maneuver (RAFTER) Boreal Aspects of Ensured Maneuver (BAEM) identifies the need for modeling over-snow vehicle performance, as many factors related to vehicle setup and land surface condition contribute to vehicle efficiency. Accurately estimating snow macromechanical characteristics—such as elastic modulus, stiffness, and strength—is critical for understanding how effectively a vehicle will travel over snow-covered terrain.

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SnowMicroPenetrometer Applications for Winter Vehicle Mobility

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP10_10
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Characterizing the mechanical properties of snow and their impact on vehicle performance could improve vehicle winter mobility modeling.

The U.S. Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) Military Engineering Program on Remote Assessment of Infrastructure for Ensured Maneuver (RAFTER) Boreal Aspects of Ensured Maneuver (BAEM) identifies the need for modeling over-snow vehicle performance, as many factors related to vehicle setup and land surface condition contribute to vehicle efficiency. Accurately estimating snow macromechanical characteristics-such as elastic modulus, stiffness, and strength-is critical for understanding how effectively a vehicle will travel over snow-covered terrain.

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Three-Point Hitch (Type A) Backhoe Personnel Protection

OPTC1, Personnel Protection (General)
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1518_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-28 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to three-point hitch (Type A) backhoes as defined in SAE J326 when mounted on either an agricultural tractor as defined in ANSI/ASAE S390 or other off-road self-propelled work machine as defined in SAE J1116. This criterion is intended for the manufacturer of the backhoe, whether or not the backhoe is manufactured or marketed by the same company that manufactures or markets the propelling machine.
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Industrial CT is Hip: Quality of Life Enhanced with Additive Manufacturing

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34978
Published 2019-08-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Orthopedic devices play a crucial role in providing pain relief, improving mobility, and enhancing the quality of life for patients suffering from musculoskeletal disorders. The medical devices and procedures used in orthopedics are constantly being upgraded due to changing consumer needs. Technological advancements and integration of digital technologies have triggered changes in demand, for patients and healthcare professionals alike.

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On-Road and Chassis Dynamometer Evaluation of a Pre-Transmission Parallel PHEV

Wayne State University-Miriam Di Russo, Vaibhav Arora, Ronghui Lyu, Jerry C. Ku
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper details the vehicle testing activities performed during the Year 4 of the EcoCAR 3 competition by the Wayne State University team on a Pre-Transmission Parallel PHEV. The paper focuses on two main testing platforms: the chassis dynamometer and the closed-course track (on-road). The focus of the former is to evaluate the emissions and energy consumption associated with different driving scenarios, while the latter has been used to assess the vehicle performance and their impact on the consumer appeal. The paper presents the objectives of each test, the setup accomplished for the different vehicle testing platforms, the results obtained and the comparison with the values expected from simulations. In addition, the impact of the results on the refinement of the control strategies and on the validation of the simulation models are discussed.The EcoCAR 3 competition challenges sixteen North American universities to re-engineer a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce its environmental impact without compromising performance and consumer acceptability.Over the course of Year 4 the Control and Modeling and Simulation team used various simulation platforms to…
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Analysis of the Frequency and Mechanism of Injury to Warfighters in the Under-body Blast Environment

Survivability/Lethality Analysis Directorate (SLAD)-Ray Valentine, Kathryn Loftis
WIAMan Case Review Team-Patricia Frounfelker, Karen Pizzolato-Heine
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, improvised explosive devices were used strategically and with increasing frequency. To effectively design countermeasures for this environment, the Department of Defense identified the need for an under-body blast-specific Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan). To help with this design, information on Warfighter injuries in mounted under-body blast attacks was obtained from the Joint Trauma Analysis and Prevention of Injury in Combat program through their Request for Information interface. The events selected were evaluated by Department of the Army personnel to confirm they were representative of the loading environment expected for the WIAMan. A military case review was conducted for all AIS 2+ fractures with supporting radiology. In Warfighters whose injuries were reviewed, 79% had a foot, ankle or leg AIS 2+ fracture. Distal tibia, distal fibula, and calcaneus fractures were the most prevalent. The most common injury mechanisms were bending with probable vehicle contact (leg) and compression (foot). The most severe injuries sustained by Warfighters were to the pelvis, lumbar spine, and thoracic spine. These injuries were attributed…
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An Engine Stop Start System with Driver Behavior Learning and Adaption for Improving the User Experience

Tata Motors Ltd.-Satishkumar P
Tata Technologies Ltd.-Gopal Athani, Srinivasa Raju Gavarraju, Punit Jain, Shashank Addala
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Engine Stop/Start System (ESS) promises to reduce greenhouse emissions and improve fuel economy of vehicles. Previous work of the Authors was concentrated on bridging the gap of improvement in fuel economy promised by ESS under standard laboratory conditions and actual driving conditions. Findings from the practical studies lead to a conclusion that ESS is not so popular among the customers, due to the complexities of the system operation and poor integration of the system design with the driver behavior. In addition, due to various functional safety requirements, and traffic conditions, actual benefits of ESS are reduced. A modified control algorithm was proposed and proven for the local driving conditions in India.The ways in which a given driver behaves on the controls of the vehicles like Clutch and Brake Pedals, Gear Shift Lever were not uniform across the demography of study and varied significantly. In addition, Authors also discovered that some drivers also deployed the parking brake during an idle stop. Thus, a concept of autonomous learning algorithm was envisaged, which would learn the driver behavior…
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Designing Cybersecurity into Connected Medical Devices

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-27318
Published 2017-08-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Cyber threats to health delivery organizations (HDOs) and the medical device industry as a whole have hit a new level of maturity in the last year. A decade ago, the attack scene was dominated by academic papers about theoretical attacks on connected medical devices.1 Then we started seeing data breaches on connected medical devices primarily as a means to access personal healthcare information.2 In the last year, however, at least two major events occurred where attackers directly monetized attacks on medical devices. In August 2016, a short stock seller openly published video and details about cybersecurity attacks on a medical device maker’s implantable cardiac devices. Predictably, the device manufacturer’s stock fell.3 In May 2017, the WannaCry ransomware compromised both hospital systems and medical devices. While there are multiple reasons each attack succeeded, it is clear that attackers are becoming bolder, and medical devices are not immune.

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Can You Still Look Up? Remote Rotary Controller vs. Touchscreen

DENSO International America Inc.-Yu Zhang, Silviu Pala, Tetsuya Hara, Doua Vang
Touchstone Evaluations Inc-Linda Angell
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The popularity of new Human-Machine-Interfaces (HMIs) comes with growing concerns for driver distraction. In part, this concern stems from a rising challenge to design systems that can make functions accessible to drivers while maintaining drivers’ ability to cope with the complex driving task. Therefore, engineers need assessment methods which can evaluate how well a user interface achieves the dual-goal of making secondary tasks accessible, while allowing safe driving. Most prior methods have emphasized measuring off-road glances during HMI use. An alternative to this is to consider both on-road and off-road glances, as done in Kircher and Ahlstrom’s AttenD algorithm [1]. In this study, we compared two types of prevalent visual-manual user interfaces based on AttenD. The two HMIs of interest were a touchscreen-based interface (already in production) and a remote-rotary-controller-based interface (a high-fidelity prototype). Five in-vehicle tasks were evaluated, including a continuous-control task, a shortcut task, a menu-navigation task, a list-operation task and a function-switch task. Sixteen participants’ glance behavior was manually coded to apply AttenD. Results suggested that with a higher-positioned display and haptic…
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On the Impact of the Second Edition of the ISO 26262 on Model-Based Development of Safety-Related Systems

Model Engineering Solutions GmbH-Heiko Doerr, Thomas End, Lena Kaland
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The release of the ISO 26262 in November 2011 was a major milestone for the safeguarding of safety-related systems that include one or more electrical and / or electronic (E/E) systems and that are installed in series production passenger cars. Although no specific requirements exist for a model-based software development process, ISO 26262 compiles general requirements and recommendations that need to be applied to model-based development.The second edition of the ISO 26262 has been distributed for review with a final publication scheduled for 2018. This revised edition not only integrates the experiences of the last few years but also extends the overall scope of safety-related systems. In order to determine the necessary adaptions for already existing software development processes, a detailed analysis of this revision is necessary. In this work, we focus on an analysis and the impact on model-based software development of safety-related systems. First, it is important to point out the main questions that need to be considered for this kind of gap analysis. Based on this gap analysis the main differences on…
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