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Evaluation of Near- and Far-Side Occupant Loading in Low- to Moderate-Speed Side Impact Motor Vehicle Collisions

Exponent Inc-Sarah Sherman, Christina Garman, Alan Dibb
Exponent Inc.-Megan Toney-Bolger, Jessica Isaacs
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1218
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Many side-impact collisions occur at speeds much lower than tests conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). In fact, nearly half of all occupants in side-impact collisions experience a change in velocity (delta-V) below 15 kph (9.3 mph). However, studies of occupant loading in collisions of low- to moderate-severity, representative of many real-world collisions, is limited. While prior research has measured occupant responses using both human volunteers and anthropometric test devices (ATDs), these tests have been conducted at relatively low speeds (<10 kph [<6.2 mph] delta-V). This study evaluated near- and far-side occupant response and loading during two side impacts with delta-V of 6.1 kph and 14.0 kph (3.8 mph and 8.7 mph). In each crash test, a Non-Deformable Moving Barrier (NDMB) impacted the side of a late-model, mid-sized sedan in a configuration consistent with the IIHS side-impact crash-test protocol. Two instrumented Hybrid III 50th-percentile male ATDs were positioned in the vehicle, one in the driver's seat and one in the right, front passenger seat.…
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Biomechanics of Passenger Vehicle Underride: An Analysis of IIHS Crash Test Data

Vollmer-Gray Engineering Laboratories-Mohammad Atarod
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0525
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Occupant dynamics during passenger vehicle underride has not been widely evaluated. The present study examined the occupant data from IIHS rear underride crash tests. A total of 35 crash tests were evaluated. The tests were classified as full-width (n=9), 50% overlap (n=11), and 30% overlap (n=15). A 2010 Chevrolet Malibu impacted the rear underride guard of a stationary trailer at 35 mph. The trailer was filled with concrete blocks and attached to a 2001 Kenworth tractor. Several occupant kinematics and dynamics data including head accelerations, head injury criteria, neck shear and axial forces, neck moments, neck indices, chest acceleration, chest displacement, chest viscous criterion, sternum deflection rate, and left/right femur forces/impulses, knee displacements, upper/lower tibia moments, upper/lower tibia indices, tibia axial forces, and foot accelerations were measured. The vehicle accelerations, vehicle delta-Vs, and occupant compartment intrusions were also evaluated during these crash tests. The results indicated that the head and neck injury parameters were correlated with driver A-pillar rearward intrusion. The 30% overlap crashes showed significantly higher intrusion and head and neck injury values than…
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Occupant Dynamics During Low, Moderate, and High Speed Rear-End Collisions

Vollmer-Gray Engineering Laboratories-Mohammad Atarod
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0516
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Numerous studies have evaluated occupant kinematics and dynamics in “low-speed” rear-end impacts. Occupant biomechanics during “moderate-to-high” speed rear impacts (delta-V ≥ 15 mph), however, has not been thoroughly examined. This study characterized the motions and forces experienced by the occupant head, neck, torso, hip, and left/right femur during these collisions. The publicly available NHTSA rear-end crash test data were examined. More specifically, the FMVSS 301 Fuel System Integrity tests were used. The test procedure involved a 30 mph moving barrier impacting the rear of the vehicles. Instrumented 50th percentile male Hybrid III ATDs were positioned in the left front driver seat. Occupant data including head accelerations, upper/lower neck shear and axial forces, upper/lower neck moments, lower neck acceleration, torso accelerations, torso deflection, hip accelerations, and left/right femur axial forces were measured and compared to published IARV tolerance data. The vehicle accelerations, vehicle delta-Vs, occupant position data, seat angular velocity, seat rotation and seatbelt forces were also evaluated during these crash tests. The occupant data for the “low-speed” rear-end impacts were extracted from the literature. The…
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The Effect of Active and Conventional Head Restraints on Front Seat Occupant Responses in 16 km/h Rear Impacts

Exponent Inc-Chantal Parenteau, Ian C. Campbell, Stephanie A. Pasquesi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1217
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study assesses front seat occupant responses in rear impacts with active head restraints (AHR) and conventional head restraints (CHR) using field accident data and test data from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). 2003-2015 NASS-CDS data were analyzed to determine the injury rate in 1997+ model year seats equipped with AHR and CHR. Results indicated that only 3.1% of occupants were in seats equipped with AHR. More than 58% of occupants were uninjured, irrespective of AHR presence. In <24 km/h delta-V crashes, AHRs were 35.6% effective in reducing MAIS 1-2 injury overall and 26.4% in reducing MAIS 1-2 cervical injury. In IIHS 16 km/h rear sled tests, an instrumented BioRID was evaluated on seats with AHR and CHR. The biomechanical responses were analyzed. HIC15 and concussion risk were calculated from head acceleration data. Test data with AHR and CHR were matched by make and model. First, older model seats with CHR were compared to models with AHR. Then, the models with AHR were compared to newer models with CHR. These analyses showed a…
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Injury Risk by Crash Severity, Belt Use and Head Restraint Type and Performance in Rear Impacts

Exponent Inc.-Chantal Parenteau, Bruce Miller
Ford Motor Company-Roger Burnett
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1223
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study assesses the exposure distribution and injury risk (MAIS 4+F) to front-outboard non-ejected occupants by crash severity, belt use and head restraint type and damage in rear impacts using 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data. Rear crashes with a delta V <24 km/h accounted for 71% of all exposed occupants. The risk of MAIS 4+F increased with delta V and was higher for unbelted than belted occupants with a risk of 11.7% ± 5.2% and 6.0% ± 1.5% respectively in 48+ km/h delta V. Approximately 12% of front-outboard occupants were in seats equipped with an integral head restraint and 86% were with an adjustable head restraint. The injury risk was 0.14% ± 0.05% and 0.22% ± 0.06%, respectively. It was higher in cases where the head restraint was listed as "damaged". Thirteen cases involving a lap-shoulder-belted occupant in a front-outboard seat in which "damage" to the adjustable head restraint were identified. The review showed that intrusion and crash severity were important factors and that the term "damage" was often mis-used by NASS investigators to represent significant loading.…
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A primary study on the restraint system of self-driving car

Hunan University-Binhui Jiang, Hongze Ren, Zhonghao Bai
The Johns Hopkins University-Feng Zhu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1333
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to the variation of compartment design and occupant’s postures in the self-driving car, there is a new and major challenge for occupant protection. In particular, the studies on occupant restraint systems used in the self-driving car has significantly delayed compared to the development of the autonomous technologies. In this paper, a numerical study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of the mainstream restraint systems (3-points belt with airbag or 4-points belt with airbag) on the driver in three different scenarios (driving with a seat angle of 110°, half-reclining resting with a seat angle of 135°, and reclining resting with a seat angle of 160°) . It can be found that in the simulation results: 1. All the restraint systems are capable of providing effective protection for the driving driver and the restraint system with 4-points belt has advantages due to its better protective effect on the occupant thorax; 2. When the driver is half-reclining or reclining resting, the head HIC36, neck Nij and chest compression are about 827-958, 0.62-0.88, and 66-68 mm, respectively;…
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Innovative Active Head Restraint System in a Car: Safety Assessment with Virtual Human Body Model

Mecas ESI sro-Jana Hlucha, Ludek Kovar
Transport Research Centre-Martina Kostikova, Pavlina Moravcova, Katerina Bucsuhazy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0979
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There are many systems designed to protect passengers in modern vehicles. The aim of this article is to use numerical simulations for safety assessment of innovative head restraint system, which can protect passengers head and neck during a side impact. That is, to evaluate possible benefit of such headrest installed in a car without head airbag during side impact and it is also tested in configuration of the far side impact. The functionality of the headrest is evaluated with respect to human population variability. We use the virtual human body model Virthuman to represent an occupant. The model is scaled for pre-selected human individuals to assess population variability influence in configuration of side impact scenarios. The human model can cover large numbers of passengers of different sizes and it extends conventional virtual evaluation of the new safety designs via existing pre-defined mono-purpose side dummies and its FE models. FE model of a small car with side airbag is used to verify benefit of the innovative headrest in different side impact scenarios inspired by the pole…
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Head Support Concept to Mitigate Neck Injury for Children Installed Forward Facing in Vehicles

General Motors of Brazil-Rodrigo da Silva Ribeiro
Unicamp-Antonio Celso Fonseca De Arruda
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0106
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The slender neck of a 3-year-old child can be serious injured or even lead to child’s death when loaded under frontal impact by the proportionately larger and heavier head. Accordingly with medical recommendations based on latest studies, a 3-year-old child is safer when installed in a rear-facing child seat, but this configuration is not feasible for some vehicles with limited rear space such as superminis, small MPVs and pick-ups when front seats are occupied. This study aims to explore the potential of neck tension (Fz) reduction in 3-year-old dummy installed forward-facing when subjected to three head static restraints (head strap, head support, cervical collar) as well as an overhead shield car seat in order to identify solutions for a device to avoid or mitigate neck injuries. To simulate frontal impacts, a 3-year-old dummy from Q series was installed on a reinforced vehicle body fixed on a sled test equipment where the United Nations R129 pulse was applied. Both head strap and head support were not able to reduce neck tension due to the high Q3…
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Honda ready with new injury-reducing airbag

Automotive Engineering: October 2019

Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP10_08
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Starting next year, Honda will begin fitting vehicles with a new, advanced-design passenger-side front airbag that its engineers said is designed to mitigate brain and neck injuries by cradling the head like a baseball in a catcher's mitt. The design is particularly effective, Honda said, for angled impacts or when an occupant is not in optimal position when the crash occurs, reducing rotational acceleration of the head that can traumatize the brain.

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Influence of DISH, Ankylosis, Spondylosis and Osteophytes on Serious-to-Fatal Spinal Fractures and Cord Injury in Rear Impacts

Collision Research & Analysis Inc.-Samuel White
ProBiomechanics LLC-David Viano, Chantal Parenteau
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Seats have become stronger over the past two decades and remain more upright in rear impacts. While head restraints are higher and more forward providing support for the head and neck, serious-to-fatal injuries to the thoracic and cervical spine have been seen in occupants with spinal disorders, such as DISH (diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis), ankylosis, spondylosis and/or osteophytes that ossify the joints in the spine. This case study addresses the influence of spinal disorders on fracture-dislocation and spinal cord injury in rear impacts with relatively upright seats. Nineteen field accidents were investigated where serious-to-fatal injuries of the thoracic and cervical spine occurred with the seat remaining upright or slightly reclined. The occupants were lap-shoulder belted, some with belt pretensioning and cinching latch plate. The occupants were older and had pre-existing disorders of the spine, including DISH, ankylosis, spondylosis and/or osteophytes that ossify the spinal joints. The crashes were summarized and the mechanism for injury was analyzed. The 19 cases involved fracture-dislocation and spinal cord injury at areas of the spine where DISH, ankylosis, spondylosis and/or…
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