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FOUR WAY ADJUSTABLE HEAD RESTRAINT SYSTEM

Academic Center-Nitin Kumar Waghmare
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2528
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
To reduce the incidence of whiplash-associated disorders caused by rear impacts, head restraints should be closer to the head which decreases the amount of relative motion and it is believed to reduce the risk of soft tissue neck injury. Drivers are raising complaints that the head restraint causes discomfort by interfering with their preferred head position, forcing them to select a more reclined seat back angle [1]. This paper is about the importance of head restraint system and how it can be improved by adjusting the angle between the head restraint and passenger`s head. It is essential to carry out research on head restraint that can be adjusted in forward and backward direction letting the cost of seats remain in budget.
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Honda ready with new injury-reducing airbag

Automotive Engineering: October 2019

Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP10_08
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Starting next year, Honda will begin fitting vehicles with a new, advanced-design passenger-side front airbag that its engineers said is designed to mitigate brain and neck injuries by cradling the head like a baseball in a catcher's mitt. The design is particularly effective, Honda said, for angled impacts or when an occupant is not in optimal position when the crash occurs, reducing rotational acceleration of the head that can traumatize the brain.

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Influence of DISH, Ankylosis, Spondylosis and Osteophytes on Serious-to-Fatal Spinal Fractures and Cord Injury in Rear Impacts

Collision Research & Analysis Inc.-Samuel White
ProBiomechanics LLC-David Viano, Chantal Parenteau
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Seats have become stronger over the past two decades and remain more upright in rear impacts. While head restraints are higher and more forward providing support for the head and neck, serious-to-fatal injuries to the thoracic and cervical spine have been seen in occupants with spinal disorders, such as DISH (diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis), ankylosis, spondylosis and/or osteophytes that ossify the joints in the spine. This case study addresses the influence of spinal disorders on fracture-dislocation and spinal cord injury in rear impacts with relatively upright seats. Nineteen field accidents were investigated where serious-to-fatal injuries of the thoracic and cervical spine occurred with the seat remaining upright or slightly reclined. The occupants were lap-shoulder belted, some with belt pretensioning and cinching latch plate. The occupants were older and had pre-existing disorders of the spine, including DISH, ankylosis, spondylosis and/or osteophytes that ossify the spinal joints. The crashes were summarized and the mechanism for injury was analyzed. The 19 cases involved fracture-dislocation and spinal cord injury at areas of the spine where DISH, ankylosis, spondylosis and/or…
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Comfortable Head and Neck Postures in Reclined Seating for Use in Automobile Head Rest Design

University of Michigan-Matthew Reed, Sheila Ebert, Monica Jones
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Little information is available on passenger preferences for posture and support in highly reclined seat configurations. To address this gap, a laboratory study was conducted with 24 adult passengers at seat back angles from 23 to 53 degrees. Passenger preferences for head and neck posture with and without head support were recorded. This paper presents the characteristics of the passengers’ preferred head support with respect to thorax, head, and neck posture.
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Study of Optimization Strategy for Vehicle Restraint System Design

ESTECO North America-Zhendan Xue
Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Guosong Li, Ching-Hung Chuang, Kevin Pline
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle restraint systems are optimized to maximize occupant safety and achieve high safety ratings. The optimization formulation often involves the inclusion or exclusion of restraint features as discrete design variables, as well as continuous restraint design variables such as airbag firing time, airbag vent size, inflator power level, etc. The optimization problem is constrained by injury criteria such as Head Injury Criterion (HIC), chest deflection, chest acceleration, neck tension/compression, etc., which ensures the vehicle meets or exceeds all Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) requirements. Typically, Genetic Algorithms (GA) optimizations are applied because of their capability to handle discrete and continuous variables simultaneously and their ability to jump out of regions with multiple local optima, particularly for this type of highly non-linear problems. However, the computational time for the GA based optimization is often lengthy because of the relatively slow convergence comparing to derivative based algorithms. This study compares GA and multi-strategy optimization algorithms on driver’s side full frontal 90-degree rigid barrier impact MADYMO simulations at different impact speeds with belted and unbelted occupants. The…
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Head and Neck Loading Conditions over a Decade of IIHS Rear Impact Seat Testing

Exponent Inc.-John M. Scanlon, Jessica Isaacs, Christina Garman
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Rear-end impacts are the most common crash scenario in the United States. Although automated vehicle (AV) technologies, such as frontal crash warning (FCW) and automatic emergency braking (AEB), are mitigating and preventing rear-end impacts, the technology is only gradually being introduced and currently has only limited effectiveness. Accordingly, there is a need to evaluate the current state of passive safety technologies, including the performance of seatbacks and head restraints. The objective of this study was to examine trends in head and neck loading during rear impact testing in new vehicle models over the prior decade. Data from 601 simulated rear impact sled tests (model years 2004 to 2018) conducted as a part of the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) Vehicle Seat/Head Restraint Evaluation Protocol were obtained. This dynamic evaluation involves a simulated rear-end crash using a Biofidelic Rear Impact (BioRID IIg) ATD positioned in the seat attached to a crash simulation sled and accelerated to represent a rear crash with a delta-V of approximately 15.6 kph (15.6 ± 0.26 kph). Head and neck injury…
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Occupant Kinematics and Loading in Low Speed Lateral Impacts

American Bio Engineers-Justin Brink, Brian Jones, Scott Swinford
Biomechanical Research & Testing-Christopher Furbish, Judson Welcher
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Instrumented human subject and anthropomorphic test device (ATD) responses to low speed lateral impacts were investigated. A series of 12 lateral collisions at various impact angles were conducted, 6 near-side and 6 far-side, with each test using an ATD and one human subject. Two restrained female subjects were utilized, with one positioned in the driver seat and one in the left rear seat. Each subject was exposed to 3 near-side and 3 far-side impacts. The restrained ATD was utilized in both the driver and left rear seats, undergoing 3 near-side and 3 far-side impacts in each position. The vehicle center of gravity (CG) change in velocity (delta-V) ranged from 5.5 to 9.4 km/h (3.4 to 5.8 mph). Video analysis was used for quantification and comparison of the human and ATD motions and interactions with interior vehicle structures. Human head, thorax, and low back accelerations were analyzed. Peak human subject head resultant accelerations ranged from 0.9 to 36.8 g’s. Peak human subject thorax and low back lateral accelerations ranged from 1.0 to 17.1 g’s and 1.3…
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THOR Neck Moment Calculation at Atlanto-Occipital Joint

Humanetics Innovative Solutions Inc.-Zhenwen Jerry Wang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In biomechanics research of human neck injuries, the moment for the upper neck was calculated to the Atlanto-Occipital (AO) joint. In this paper, a mathematical method was presented to calculate the neck moment at AO for both Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) 50th male and THOR 5th female ATDs in neck flexion, extension and lateral bending directions. Detailed formula was derived according to the mechanical design and how parts functions in the ATD. The constant parameters for both THOR 50th and 5th were provided for the calculation. One THOR-50M neck test data was presented in this paper to illustrate the calculation results.
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Sign Convention for Vehicle Crash Testing

Safety Test Instrumentation Stds Comm
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1733_201811
  • Current
Published 2018-11-14 by SAE International in United States
In order to compare test results obtained from different crash test facilities, standardized coordinate systems need to be defined for crash test dummies, vehicle structures, and laboratory fixtures. In addition, recorded polarities for various transducer outputs need to be defined relative to positive directions of the appropriate coordinate systems. This SAE Information Report describes the standardized sign convention and recorded output polarities for various transducers used in crash testing.
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Therapeutic Gel Shows Promise Against Cancerous Tumors

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-28915
Published 2018-05-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Scientists at the UNC School of Medicine and NC State have created an injectable gel-like scaffold that can hold combination chemo-immunotherapeutic drugs and deliver them locally to tumors in a sequential manner. The results in animal models so far suggest this approach could one day ramp up therapeutic benefits for patients bearing tumors or after removal of the primary tumors.