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Estimation of Fuel Economy on Real-World Routes for Next-Generation Connected and Automated Hybrid Powertrains

Delphi Technologies, Inc.-Karim Aggoune, Pete Olin, John Kirwan
The Ohio State University-Shobhit Gupta, Shreshta Rajakumar Deshpande, Marcello Canova, Giorgio Rizzoni
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0593
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The assessment of fuel economy of new vehicles is typically based on regulatory driving cycles, measured in an emissions lab. Although the regulations built around these standardized cycles have strongly contributed to improved fuel efficiency, they are unable to cover the envelope of operating and environmental conditions the vehicle will be subject to when driving in the “real-world”. This discrepancy becomes even more dramatic with the introduction of Connectivity and Automation, which allows for information on future route and traffic conditions to be available to the vehicle and powertrain control system. Furthermore, the huge variability of external conditions, such as vehicle load or driver behavior, can significantly affect the fuel economy on a given route. Such variability poses significant challenges when attempting to compare the performance and fuel economy of different powertrain technologies, vehicle dynamics and powertrain control methods.This paper describes a methodology to benchmark the fuel consumption reduction potential of a Level 1 Connected and Automated Vehicle (CAV) with advanced cylinder deactivation and 48V mild hybridization, in the presence of variability induced by route…
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Effect of Space Weather on Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

University Of Detroit Mercy-Alan Hoback
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0140
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous vehicle systems integrate multiple information systems. Navigation is reliant on Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the global positioning systems (GPS) which are supported by a satellite network. However, satellites and radio signals are subject to interference from sunspots. Sunspots happen on regular cycles at varying strengths but their occurrence can’t be exactly predicted. The likelihood of a severe solar event is roughly twelve percent per decade; consequently, solar events are likely to impair navigation. Results will show the probability of each event and its impact on autonomous vehicle navigation. In the worst case scenario, satellites could even be permanently damaged by severe sunspots. As autonomous vehicles become a more significant portion of the economy, it is necessary that they have resilience to operate in extreme conditions. Alternative navigation procedures are proposed to enhance the resiliency of autonomous vehicles. Artificial intelligence related to place identification with relative geographic navigation and storage of most common routes is an option.
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Road Curvature Decomposition for Autonomous Guidance

University of Nebraska-Lincoln-Ricardo Jacome, Cody Stolle, Michael Sweigard
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1024
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle autonomy is critically dependent on an accurate identification and mathematical representation of road and lane geometries. Many road lane identification systems are ad hoc (e.g., machine vision and lane keeping systems) or utilize finely-discretized path data and vehicle tracking systems such as GPS. A novel Midwest Discrete Curvature (MDC) method is proposed in which geodetic road data is parsed along road directions and digitally stored in a road data matrix. Road data is discretized to geospatial points and curvature and road tangent vectorization, which can be utilized to generate consistent, mathematically-defined road profiles with deterministic boundary conditions, consistent non-holonomic boundary constraints, and a smooth, differentiable path which connects critical road coordinates. The method was evaluated by discretizing three road segments: a hypothetical road consistent with the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Green Book design standards, a road segment discretized using satellite photography and GPS data points, and an in-vehicle GPS trace collected at 10 Hz. Improvements and further research were recommended to expand findings, but results indicated potential for implementation…
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Analysis of Personal Routing Preference from Probe Data in Cloud

Toyota Motor Corporation-Xin Jin, Taiki Nakamura
ZENRIN DataCom Co., Ltd.-Toshinori Takayama, Ai Yashiro
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0740
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Routing quality always dominates the top 20% of in vehicle- navigation customer complaints. In vehicle navigation routing engines do not customize results based on customer behavior. For example, some users prefer the quickest route while some prefer direct routes. This is because in vehicle navigation systems are traditionally embedded systems. Toyota announced that new model vehicles in JP, CN, US will be connected with routing function switching from the embedded device to the cloud in which there are plenty of probe data uploaded from the vehicles. Probe data makes it possible to analyze user preferences and customize routing profile for users. This paper describes a method to analyze the user preferences from the probe data uploaded to the cloud. The method includes data collection, the analysis model of route scoring and user profiling.Furthermore, the evaluation of the model will be introduced at the end of the paper. The analysis not only focuses on the routes chosen by the user but also compares with the ones not chosen for the same ODs using multivariate analysis on…
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A Visible and Infrared Fusion Based Visual Odometry for Autonomous Vehicles

Wuhan University of Technology-Yunfei Zhou, Zhishuai Yin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0099
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
An accurate and timely positioning of the vehicle is required at all times for autonomous driving. The global navigation satellite system (GNSS), even when integrated with costly inertial measurement units (IMUs), would often fail to provide high-accuracy positioning due to GNSS-challenged environments such as urban canyons. As a result, visual odometry is proposed as an effective complimentary approach. Although it’s widely recognized that visual odometry should be developed based on both visible and infrared images to address issues such as frequent changes in ambient lightening conditions, the mechanism of visible-infrared fusion is often poorly designed. This study proposes a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) based model comprises a generator, which aims to produce a fused image combining infrared intensities and visible gradients, and a discriminator whose target is to force the fused image to retain as many details that exist mostly in visible images as possible. Based on the fused image, the Features from Accelerated Segment Test (FAST) algorithm is adopted to extract feature points which are then traced with the Lucas-Kanade (LK) algorithm in subsequent…
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Benchmarking the Localization Accuracy of 2D SLAM Algorithms on Mobile Robotic Platforms

Clemson University-Mugdha Basu Thakur, Matthias Schmid, Venkat N Krovi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1021
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) algorithms are extensively utilized within the field of autonomous navigation. In particular, numerous open-source Robot Operating System (ROS) based SLAM solutions, such as Gmapping, Hector, Cartographer etc., have simplified deployments in application. However, establishing the accuracy and precision of these ‘out-of-the-box’ SLAM algorithms is necessary for improving the accuracy and precision of further applications such as planning, navigation, controls. Existing benchmarking literature largely focused on validating SLAM algorithms based upon the quality of the generated maps. In this paper, however, we focus on examining the localization accuracy of existing 2-dimensional LiDAR based indoor SLAM algorithms. The fidelity of these implementations is compared against the OptiTrack motion capture system which is capable of tracking moving objects at sub-millimeter level precision. Finally, the error statistics for each of the algorithm was determined.
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IMU Contributions to Navigation and Safety for ADAS and Autonomous Vehicles

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36151
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Two of the fastest growing areas in automotive engineering are Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and autonomous vehicles. To learn about the contribution of Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) to automobile navigation systems for these two applications, we interviewed Mike Horton, CTO of ACEINNA, Inc. (Boston, MA).

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An Integrated Navigation System Using GPS and Low-Cost Vehicle Dynamic Sensors

Wuhan University of Technology, China-Li Hao, Yang Bo, Pei Xiaofei
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-5028
Published 2020-02-24 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this paper is to present a novel integrated navigation system, based on the fusion between the Global Positioning System (GPS) and low-cost vehicle onboard dynamic sensors for autonomous vehicle positioning problems. In this system, the information of vehicle’s angular rotation is applied to dead reckoning (DR) module based on the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) to provide the vehicle position information during GPS outage. In the DR module based on UKF, vehicle onboard dynamic sensors, include wheels speed sensors, accelerometer, and steering angle sensor, are utilized to estimate the vehicle yaw rate, while the traditional method using IMU sensor is relatively expensive. Also, the vehicle dynamic model is employed in the estimation of yaw rate, which can provide better accuracy than the traditional kinematic model. To validate the effectiveness of the integrated navigation system, tests are carried out on a small-scale vehicle platform. The test results show that the yaw rate could be well estimated and the integrated navigation system using low-cost sensors could also keep the error distance in a small range.
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Contiguous Aircraft/System Development Process Example

S-18 Aircraft and Sys Dev and Safety Assessment Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR6110
  • Current
Published 2020-02-05 by SAE International in United States
This AIR provides a detailed example of the aircraft and systems development for a function of a hypothetical S18 aircraft. In order to present a clear picture, an aircraft function was broken down into a single system. A function was chosen which had sufficient complexity to allow use of all the methodologies, yet was simple enough to present a clear picture of the flow through the process. This function/system was analyzed using the methods and tools described in ARP4754A/ED-79A. The aircraft level function is “Decelerate Aircraft On Ground” and the system is the braking system. The interaction of the braking system functions with the aircraft are identified with the relative importance based on implied aircraft interactions and system availabilities at the aircraft level. This example does not include validation and verification of the aircraft level hazards and interactions with the braking system. However, the principles used at the braking system level can be applied at the higher aircraft level. The methodologies applied here are an example of one way to utilize the principles defined in…
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Insect-Inspired Motion Sensing

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35993
Published 2020-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Researchers have taken inspiration from flying insects to demonstrate a miniaturized gyroscope, a special sensor used in navigation technologies. Gyroscopes sense rotational motions to provide directional guidance without relying on satellites, so they are immune to signal jamming and other cyber threats, making them ideal for aircraft and submarines.