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Innovative Material Characterisation Methodology for Tyre Static and Dynamic Analyses

Applus + Idiada Group, Spain-Bharath Anantharamaiah
Applus IDIADA Group, Spain-Carlos Fidalgo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1519
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Tyre structures are based on composite materials that constitute numerous layers, each providing specific properties to the tyre mechanic and dynamic behaviour. In principle, the understanding of the partial contributions of the individual layers requires knowledge of its mechanical properties. In case of non-availability of such critical information, it is difficult to perform tyre FE analyses. In the current work, a methodology is proposed to study the tyre static and dynamic behaviour to estimate its constituents properties based on the measured quasi-static responses of the tyre for certain specific loads. As a first step, a simplified tyre numerical model with standard rubber material properties is modeled that can substantively predict the necessary tyre static responses, i.e. radial, longitudinal and lateral stiffness. These responses are correlated with the physical tyre response that are measured using a kinematic and compliance (K&C) test rig in the laboratory. A Design of Experiments (DoE) study, followed by an optimization process, is performed by sampling the material properties of the rubbers to simulate the FE model and match the tyre responses…
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Coarse Mesh RIFF Method to Identify the Homogenized Flexural and Shear Complex Moduli of Composite Beams

LAUM-Frédéric Ablitzer, Charles PEZERAT
Sonorhc Technologies-Thibault Wassereau, Jean-Louis GUYADER
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1579
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Facing the increasing use of composite materials regarding their stiffness to mass ratio, industries need to design complex structures. Hence specific methods must developed to predict the vibratory behavior of such materials but also to check their performances in-situ, analyse the presence of flaws or quantify degradation of properties throughout time. This paper describes a method to estimate the flexural and shear complex moduli of composite beams, based on a simple measurement of the transverse displacement on a coarse mesh using a hammer and an accelerometer. The herein depicted approach consists in an adaptation of the corrected finite difference scheme (Leclere et al. 2012) applied to an inverse vibratory method developed by the authors in previous works (Wassereau et al. 2017). The Timoshenko’s equation of motion and the corrected finite difference scheme are the two major key points of the method. The first allows estimation of Young and shear complex moduli simultaneously (sometimes crucial to describe composite beams) but also simplifies the representation of the composite structure by considering it as an homogeneous material, which…
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Functionality Analysis of Thermoplastic Composite Material to Design Engine Components

Politecnico di Torino-Abbas Razavykia, Cristiana Delprete, Carlo Rosso, Paolo Baldissera
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0774
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Developing of innovative technologies and materials to meet the requirements of environmental legislation on vehicle emissions has paramount importance for researchers and industries. Therefore, improvement of engine efficiency and fuel saving of modern internal combustion engines (ICEs) is one of the key factors, together with the weight reduction. Thermoplastic composite materials might be one of the alternative materials to be employed to produce engine components to achieve these goals as their properties can be engineered to meet application requirements. Unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced PolyEtherImide (CF/PEI) thermoplastic composite is used to design engine connecting rod and wrist pin, applying commercial engine data and geometries. The current study is focused on some elements of the crank mechanism as the weight reduction of these elements affects not only the curb weight of the engine but the overall structure. As a matter of fact, by reducing the reciprocating mass, alternate forces will be reduced and hence the size of the structural elements. Also, other elements of the engine can be designed for lightweighting, but the crank mechanism elements maximize…
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Development of Intercooler Hose for Future Engine

Hino Motors, Ltd.-Ryoji Kodama, Takahiro Onishi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0236
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Current intercooler hoses, which are made from fluorocarbon rubber (FKM) and silicone rubber (VMQ) exhibit high heat resistance and durability. However, they will be used in more severe use environments, and there is a risk of problems arising with their current material composition. This investigation into issues concerning intercooler hoses in future engines found that FKM mechanical properties were insufficient under high temperature environments. In this research, efforts to improve the mechanical properties of FKM focused on the low durability of the internal FKM crosslinking points as the cause of this insufficiency. The current crosslinking method has excellent acid resistance and cannot be modified. An effective improvement the properties was therefore sought by adding a new distinct crosslinking network while preserving the current level of acid resistance of the existing network. Carbon black gel was used as a reinforcing agent to form the new network. Polymer types and blending were adjusted to achieve the target values and develop a new FKM, which was used to make a prototype hose and confirmed to be free of…
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Performance Study of an Innovative Collaborative Robot Gripper Design on Different Fabric Pick and Place Scenarios

University of Windsor-Morteza Alebooyeh, Bowen Wang, Ruth Jill Urbanic
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1304
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Light-weighting fiber composite materials introduced to reduce vehicle mass and known as innovative materials research activities since they provide high specific stiffness and strength compared to contemporary engineering materials. Nonetheless, there are issues related automation strategies and handling methods. Material handling of flexible textile/fiber components is a process bottleneck and it is currently being performed by setting up multi-stage manual operations for hand layups. Consequently, the long-term research objective is to develop semi-automated pick and place processes for flexible materials utilizing collaborative robots within the process. The immediate research is to experimentally validate innovatively designed grippers for efficient material pick and place tasks. Pick and place experiments on a 0/90 plain woven carbon fiber fabric with an innovative gripper design is tested using a YuMi 14000 ABB collaborative robot to validate the new-designed gripper enhanced performance on the slippage and material wrinkling based on the previous research [20] for two gripping forces, and two travel speeds. Also, different double arm pick and place scenarios are sought to achieve an acceptable approach through which fabric wrinkling…
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Process Development of Dissimilar Clinch Joints in Cross-Tension Specimens of AA5052 and TP-CFRP Sheets

National Chung Cheng University-Pai-Chen Lin, Gavin Fang, Chia-Wei Lin
University of Malaya-Yern Chee Ching
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0225
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper studied the process development of dissimilar clinch joints in cross-tension specimens of aluminum alloy 5052-H32 (AA5052-H32)/thermoplastic carbon fiber reinforced plastic (TP-CFRP) sheets. The AA5052-H32 and TP-CFRP sheets with a thickness of 1.6 mm were used. The important processing parameters for AA5052/TP-CFRP clinch joints, such as the punching load, heating mode, heating temperature, and die depth, were considered. The failure loads, failure modes, and metallographic micrographs of AA5052/TP-CFRP clinch joints were analyzed to determine an available processing parameter set for fatigue tests. Finally, the fatigue performance and failure mode of AA5052/TP-CFRP clinch joints were obtained.
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Design Optimization of Sandwich Composite Armors for Blast Mitigation Using Bayesian Optimization with Single and Multi-Fidelity Data

Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis-Andres Tovar
Purdue University-Homero Valladares
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0170
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The most common and lethal weapons against military vehicles are the improvised explosive devices (IEDs). In an explosion, critical cabin’s penetrations and high accelerations can cause serious injuries and death of military personnel. This investigation uses single and multi-fidelity Bayesian optimization (BO) to design sandwich composite armors for blast mitigation. BO is an efficient methodology to solve optimization problems that involve black-box functions. The black-box function of this work is the finite element (FE) simulation of the armor subjected to blast. The main two components of BO are the surrogate model of the black-box function and the acquisition function that guides the optimization. In this investigation, the surrogate models are Gaussian Process (GP) regression models and the acquisition function is the multi-objective expected improvement (MEI) function. Information from low and high fidelity FE models is used to train the GP surrogates. The high fidelity model considers the nonlinear behavior of each layer of the composite armor while the low fidelity model only considers the elastic behavior. The sandwich composite is made of four layers: steel,…
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Composite Hybrid Automotive Suspension System Innovative Structures (CHASSIS)

Ford Motor Company-Alan Banks
Gestamp-Gareth Bone
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0777
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Composite Hybrid Automotive Suspension System Innovative Structures (CHASSIS) is a project to develop structural commercial vehicle suspension components in high volume utilising hybrid materials and joining techniques to offer a viable lightweight production alternative to steel. Three components are in scope for the project:-Front SubframeFront Lower Control Arm (FLCA)Rear Deadbeam Axle
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Anisotropic Material Damage Model of Randomly Oriented Thermoplastic Composites for Crash Simulation

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Seiji Hayashi, Mitsuharu Kan
JSOL Corporation-Kei Saito, Masato Nishi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1305
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this research, a material model was developed with orthotropic properties for in-plane damage to support finite element strength analysis of components manufactured from a randomly oriented long-fiber thermoplastic composite. This is a composite material with randomly oriented bundles of carbon fibers that are approximately one inch in length. A macroscopic characteristic of the material is isotropic in in-plane terms, but there are differences in the tension and compression damage characteristics.In consideration of these characteristics, a material model was developed in which the damage progression rate is correlated with thermodynamic force and stress triaxiality. In-plane damage was assumed to be isotropic with respect to the elements. In order to validate this material model, the results from simulation and three-point bending tests of closed-hat-section beams were compared and found to correlate closely.However, in the case of axial compression of a hat-section beam, it was found that although the initial peak load corresponded closely, the peak loads after the second one did not match.As a cause for this, it is conceivable that the damage applied in the…
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Investigation of Mechanical Behavior of Chopped Carbon Fiber Reinforced Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) Composites

Ford Motor Company-Carlos Engler-Pinto, Li Huang, Xuming Su
Ford Motor Research & Eng. (Nanjing) Co.-Shiyao Huang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1307
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As an alternative lightweight material, chopped carbon fiber reinforced Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) composites, formed by compression molding, provide a new material for automotive applications. In the present study, the monotonic and fatigue behavior of chopped carbon fiber reinforced SMC is investigated. Tensile tests were conducted on coupons with three different gauge length, and size effect was observed on the fracture strength. Since the fiber bundle is randomly distributed in the SMC plaques, a digital image correlation (DIC) system was used to obtain the local modulus distribution along the gauge section for each coupon. It was found that there is a relationship between the local modulus distribution and the final fracture location under tensile loading. The fatigue behavior under tension-tension (R=0.1) and tension-compression (R=-1) has also been evaluated. Damage evolution on the free edge of the samples under cyclic loading has been recorded using optical microscopy by interrupting fatigue tests at different number of cycles. The results suggest that the interfacial failure between fiber and matrix is the dominant damage mechanism for SMC under fatigue…