Your Selections

Molding
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

Magazine

Series

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Electrical Heated Epoxy Tool for Rotational Moulding Application

John Deere India Pvt., Ltd.-Sorna Rajendran Gandhi, Amit S Patil
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0234
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The conventional method of making rotational moulding part is by heating the cast aluminium mould or sheet metal mould by hot air medium which has its own limitation on energy loss, the other means is by direct heating and cooling of mould by passing hot oil/water in the mould to have better energy efficiency but leakage and safety problems associated with pumping pressurized hot oil/water. There is no solution available for prototyping rotational moulding parts using design intended material. The current practice of prototyping with the conventional method is expensive and time-consuming. In this work, a simple method is presented to produce a rotational moulded part with a breakthrough in-mould construction, which is Composite Mould Technology (CMT) with glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin built-in with electrical heaters. The project focuses were on proving CMT in comparison with the current production method. CMT reduce the cost by 90% and time to build Protomould by 85%. This electrical heated CMT can be used for new product development (NPD) and very low volume production as the cycle time…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Influence of Weld Lines on the Mechanical Properties of Talc Filled Polypropylene

Ford Motor Company-Shiyao Huang, Patti Tibbenham, Lingxuan Su, Danielle Zeng, Jin Zhou, Xuming Su
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor-Mayme Philbrick
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1306
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Weld lines can significantly reduce ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and fracture strain of talc filled polypropylene (PP). In this paper, two different injection molding tests were completed. First, an injection mold with triangular inserts was built to study the influence of meeting angles on material properties at the weld line region. Tensile samples were cut at different locations along the weld line on the injection molded plaques. The test results showed that both UTS and fracture strain increase when the sample locations are away from the insert. This trend is attributed to different meeting angles. Second, standard ISO tensile bars with and without weld line were injection molded to identify the size of the weld line affected zone. A FEA model was built in ABAQUS, where the tensile sample was divided into two different regions, the solid region and the weld line affected region. Stress-strain relationships of the solid region were derived from tensile tests of solid bars, while the mechanical properties of weld line affected zones were characterized from the weld line samples using…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Development of Exmani-Heat protector to Improve Sound Absorption using New Perforated Thin Aluminum Plate

Hyundai Motor Group-Jaegi Sim, Minsoo Kim, KwangMin Yoon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0405
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This technology is a technology for reducing the gas flow noise generated from the noise of the vehicle, especially the exhaust system. The primary function of the heat protector is thermal shutdown. However, due to the increase in engine power, downsizing of engines, and the rise of consumer's eye level, solutions about noise are now emphasized. Established the manufacturing technology of 3-ply composite board which can absorb sound in the existing heat protector. For this purpose, mold technology for punching aluminum sheet, optimization technique for punching effect, unique high-strength / high-forming pattern design, sound absorbing material selection and composite sheet molding technology, and noise vibration reduction mounting technology for plate joining were developed.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Evaluations of Mechanical Properties of ABS Parts from Open-Source 3D Printers and Conventional Manufacturing

University of Kentucky-Jordan Garcia, Robert Harper, Coilin Bradley, John Schmidt, Y Charles Lu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0229
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
3D printing is a revolutionary manufacturing method that allows the productions of engineering parts almost directly from modeling software on a computer. With 3D printing technology, future manufacturing could become vastly efficient. However, the procedures used in 3D printing differ substantially among the printers and from those used in conventional manufacturing. The objective of the present work was to comprehensively evaluate the mechanical properties of engineering products fabricated by 3D printing and conventional manufacturing. Three open-source 3D printers, i.e., the Flash Forge Dreamer, the Tevo Tornado, and the Prusa, were used to fabricate the identical parts out of the same material (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). The parts were printed at various positions on the printer platforms and then tested in bending. Results indicate that there exist substantial differences in mechanical responses among the parts by different 3D printers. Specimens from the Prusa printer exhibit the best elastic properties while specimens from the Flash Forge printer exhibit the greatest post-yield responses. There further exist noticeable variations in mechanical properties among the parts that were fabricated by the…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Multi-Objective Optimization of Sheet Metal-Polymer Hybrids Manufactured by the Integrated Process of Deep Drawing-Back Injection Molding

Clemson University (CUICAR)-Saeed Farahani, Farzam Malmir, Deepak Aggarwal, Srikanth Pilla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0622
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lightweight constructions can no longer be achieved solely through material substitution. To stay competitive, design parameters and manufacturing technologies should be taken into consideration as well. The integrated process of Deep Drawing-Back Injection Molding (DDBIM) is such an advanced process in which the sheet metal blank is first deformed by tool movement and then calibrated to the shape of the cavity using polymer melt pressure during the injection process. Therefore, the traditional processes of sheet metal forming, and injection molding are combined into one step operation, thus reducing the process steps and required machinery. Even though the process has its own challenges, the best combination of weight, performance, cost, and quality can be achieved by defining a multi-objective optimization problem with respect to the influencing design parameters. This study aims to optimize the various parameters of the sheet metal-polymer structure using Taguchi-based Grey optimization. A system of orthogonal arrays is used as the design of experiment (DOE) in order to evenly distribute the design variables in the design space. Moreover, S/N ratio studies are employed…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

DEVELOPMENT OF AN EPOXY CARBON FIBER REINFORCED ROOF FRAME USING THE HIGH PRESSURE RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING (HP-RTM) PROCESS

Hexion Inc.-Cedric A. Ball, Stephen Greydanus, Ian Swentek, Kameswara Rao Nara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0773
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Composites technology for the automotive market continues to advance rapidly. Increasing knowledge of composite design, simulation tools, new materials and process equipment are all contributing to make composites better performing and more affordable for mass-produced vehicles. In particular, the high pressure resin transfer molding (HP-RTM) and related liquid compression molding (LCM) processes are enabling manufacturers to produce complex composite parts at shorter and shorter cycle times. This paper describes the development of an epoxy carbon fiber roof frame targeted for future vehicle production. Several composite processes were considered for the roof frame. The case illustrates that when the (product) design, material and process are considered together, a high-performing, cost-efficient part can be produced. The resulting carbon fiber roof frame met all OEM performance requirements and economic targets while weighing 44% less than the original design in magnesium and 32% less on the overall assembly. The part was the first HP-RTM part successfully demonstrated in North America and stands as a model for future lightweighting developments. Of equal significance, the development process for the part involved…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Advancements in Thermoplastic Optical Materials for Automotive Lighting Systems

Arkema Inc.-Altuglas International-Brian Cromer, Laura Thoma, Noah Macy, Charles Rissel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0634
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Described are strategies to maximize the performance and efficiency of long path length acrylic optical elements through material selection and manufacturing optimization. Recent LED lamp designs include functional optical elements such as light pipes and dispersion optics that channel LED light through long optical path lengths (LOPL), 5-80 cm in length. Typically, these elements are manufactured from thermoplastic optical materials such as PMMA or PC through injection molding. However, conventional thermoplastic optical materials are not suitable for LOPL application due to insufficient luminous transmission and high absorption coefficients, resulting in inadequate lamp function and poor efficiency. Furthermore, the effects of molding conditions on LOPL performance are poorly understood. Recent advancements in acrylic technology produced optimized materials for LOPL signature lighting optics: Plexiglas® HT121-LPL® and V825T-LPL® resins. Compared to conventional acrylic resins, these optimized resins increase luminous transmission 95%-101% in a 60 cm light pipe and also improve spectral transmission uniformity. Additionally, optimization of injection molding parameters including screw speed, dwell time, injection speed, and barrel temperature further increase luminous transmission 3.0%-8.2%.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Investigation of Mechanical Behavior of Chopped Carbon Fiber Reinforced Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) Composites

Ford Motor Company-Carlos Engler-Pinto, Li Huang, Xuming Su
Ford Motor Research & Eng. (Nanjing) Co.-Shiyao Huang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1307
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As an alternative lightweight material, chopped carbon fiber reinforced Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) composites, formed by compression molding, provide a new material for automotive applications. In the present study, the monotonic and fatigue behavior of chopped carbon fiber reinforced SMC is investigated. Tensile tests were conducted on coupons with three different gauge length, and size effect was observed on the fracture strength. Since the fiber bundle is randomly distributed in the SMC plaques, a digital image correlation (DIC) system was used to obtain the local modulus distribution along the gauge section for each coupon. It was found that there is a relationship between the local modulus distribution and the final fracture location under tensile loading. The fatigue behavior under tension-tension (R=0.1) and tension-compression (R=-1) has also been evaluated. Damage evolution on the free edge of the samples under cyclic loading has been recorded using optical microscopy by interrupting fatigue tests at different number of cycles. The results suggest that the interfacial failure between fiber and matrix is the dominant damage mechanism for SMC under fatigue…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Test Slabs, Acrylonitrile Butadiene (NBR-L) Low Acrylonitrile, 65 - 75

AMS CE Elastomers Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS3217/2D
  • Current
Published 2020-03-04 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a standard acrylonitrile butadiene (NBR-L) rubber stock with low acrylonitrile content in the form of molded test slabs.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Experimental Investigation on the Impact of Engine Oil on RTV Silicone

Saginaw Valley State University-John Herman, Kirk Donaldson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-5002
Published 2020-01-17 by SAE International in United States
Silicone-based RTV sealants see widespread use in the automotive industry. In the uncured state, RTV silicone has the consistency of thick toothpaste and can be easily applied to form an effective seal. However, a significant amount of anecdotal evidence suggests issues exist with RTV’s ability to maintain a satisfactory seal in some long-term engine sealing applications. ASTM D7216 is used to evaluate the effects of different oil blends on a set of standard molded reference samples after submersion in an elevated temperature oil bath. The evaluated material properties are hardness, percent volume change, tensile strength, and ultimate elongation. A library of such results is readily available through Savant Laboratories of Midland, Michigan. Given RTV’s widespread use, surprisingly no such library of information exists concerning an engine oil’s effects on different RTVs. Due to difficulties in obtaining the reference oil, a commercially available engine oil was selected as a reference and RTV specimens were evaluated against the ASTM D7216 reference silicone (VMQ) for comparison. Both the hardness of the RTV and VMQ decreased by ~30%, though…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available