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Electrical Heated Epoxy Tool for Rotational Molding Application

John Deere India Pvt Ltd-Amit S Patil
John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Sorna Rajendran Gandhi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0234
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The conventional method of making rotational molding part is by heating the cast aluminum mold or sheet metal mold by hot air medium which has its own limitation on energy loss, the other means is by direct heat and cold of mold by passing hot oil/water in the mold to have better energy efficiency but leakage and safety problems associated with pumping pressurized hot oil / Water. There is no solution available for prototyping rotational molding parts using design intended material. The current practice of prototyping with conventional method is expensive and time-consuming. In this work, a simple method is presented to produce a rotational molded part with breakthrough in mold construction, which is Composite Mold Technology (CMT) with glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin built-in with electrical heaters. Project focuses is on proving CMT in comparison with the current production method. CMT reduce the cost by 90% and time to build Protomold by 30%. This electrical heated CMT can be used for new product development (NPD) and very low volume production as the cycle time of the part development was observed very high and life mold is yet to be tested. Deeper study of the life…
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Study the Influences of Weld Line on Mechanical Properties of Talc Filled PP

Ford Motor Company-Shiyao Huang, Patti Tibbenham, Lingxuan Su, Danielle Zeng, Jin Zhou, Xuming Su
Univ of Michigan-Ann Arbor-Mayme Philbrick
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1306
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Weld line can significantly reduce ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and fracture strain of talc filled PP. In this paper, two different injection molding tests were carried out. First, an injection mold with triangular inserts was built to study the influence of meeting angles on material properties at weld line region. Tensile samples were cut at different locations along the weld line on the injection molded plaques. The test results showed that both UTS and fracture strain increase when the sample locations are away from the weld line. This trend is attributed to different microstructures with respect to different meeting angles. Second, standard ASTM tensile bars with and without weld line were injection molded to identify the size of the weld line effect zone. A FEA model was built in ABAQUS, where the tensile sample was divided into two different regions, solid region and weld line effect region. Stress-strain relationships of the solid region were derived from tensile tests of solid bars, while the mechanical properties of weld line effect zones were characterized from samples with…
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Development of Exmani-Heat protector to Improve Sound Absorption using New Perforated Thin Aluminum Plate

Hyundai Motor Group-JAEGI SIM, Minsoo Kim, KwangMin Yoon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0405
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This technology is a technology for reducing the gas flow noise generated from the noise of the vehicle, especially the exhaust system. The primary function of the heat protector is thermal shutdown. However, due to the increase in engine power, downsizing of engines, and the rise of consumer's eye level, solutions about noise are now emphasized. Established the manufacturing technology of 3-ply composite board which can absorb sound in the existing heat protector. For this purpose, mold technology for punching aluminum sheet, optimization technique for punching effect, unique high-strength / high-forming pattern design, sound absorbing material selection and composite sheet molding technology, and noise vibration reduction mounting technology for plate joining were developed.
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Evaluations of Mechanical Properties of ABS Parts from Open-Source 3D Printers and Conventional Manufacturing

University of Kentucky-Jordan Garcia, Robert Harper, Coilin Bradley, John Schmidt, Y Charles Lu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0229
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Manufacturing has always been synonymous with large factories, expansive machine tools, and sophisticated production lines. However, a new technology could revolutionize the sector: the three-dimensional printing (3D printing). 3D printing is a revolutionary manufacturing method that allows the productions of engineering parts almost directly from modeling software on a computer. With 3D printing technology, future manufacturing could become vastly more efficient. However, the procedure used in 3D printing differs substantially among the printers and from those used in conventional manufacturing. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the mechanical properties of engineering products fabricated by 3D printing and conventional manufacturing. Three open-source 3D printers, i.e., the Flash Forge Dreamer, the Tevo Tornado, and the Prusa, were used to fabricate the identical parts out of the same material (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene - ABS). The parts were printed at various positions on the platforms of the printers and then tested in bending. Results indicate that there exist substantial differences in mechanical responses among the parts by different 3D printers. Specimens from the Prusa printer exhibit…
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Multi-Objective Optimization of Sheet Metal-Polymer Hybrids Manufactured by The Integrated Process of Deep Drawing-Back Injection Molding

Clemson University (CUICAR)-Saeed Farahani, Farzam Malmir, Deepak Aggarwal, Srikanth Pilla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0622
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lightweight constructions can no longer be achieved solely through material substitution. To stay competitive, design parameters and manufacturing technologies should be taken into consideration as well. The integrated process of Deep Drawing-Injection Molding (DDIM) is such an advanced process in which the sheet metal blank is first deformed by tool movement and then calibrated to the shape of the cavity using polymer melt pressure during the injection process. Therefore, the traditional processes of sheet metal forming and injection molding are combined into one step operation, thus reducing the process steps and required machinery. Even though the process has its own challenges, the best combination of weight, performance, cost, and quality can be achieved by defining a multi-objective optimization problem with respect to the influencing design parameters. This study aims to optimize the various parameters of the sheet metal-polymer structure using Taguchi-based Grey optimization. A system of orthogonal arrays is used as the design of experiment (DOE) in order to evenly distribute the design variables in the design space. Moreover, S/N ratio graphs and ANOVA tool…
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DEVELOPMENT OF AN EPOXY CARBON FIBER REINFORCED ROOF FRAME USING THE HIGH PRESSURE RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING (HP-RTM) PROCESS

Hexion Inc.-Cedric A. Ball, Stephen Greydanus, Ian Swentek, Kameswara Rao Nara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0773
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Composites technology for the automotive market continues to advance rapidly. Increasing knowledge of composite design, simulation tools, new materials and process equipment are all contributing to make composites better performing and more affordable for mass-produced vehicles. In particular, the high pressure resin transfer molding (HP-RTM) and related liquid compression molding (LCM) processes are enabling manufacturers to produce complex composite parts at shorter and shorter cycle times. This paper describes the development of an epoxy carbon fiber roof frame targeted for future vehicle production. Several composite processes were considered for the roof frame. The case illustrates that when the (product) design, material and process are considered together, a high-performing, cost-efficient part can be produced. The resulting carbon fiber roof frame met all OEM performance requirements and economic targets while weighing 38% less than the original design in magnesium and 32% less on the overall assembly. The part was the first HP-RTM part successfully demonstrated in North America and stands as a model for future lightweighting developments. Of equal significance, the development process for the part involved…
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Composite Hybrid Automotive Suspension System Innovative Structures (CHASSIS)

Ford Motor Company-Alan Banks
Gestamp-Gareth bone
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0777
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Composite Hybrid Automotive Suspension System Innovative Structures (CHASSIS) is a project to develop structural commercial vehicle suspension components in high volume utilising hybrid materials and joining techniques to offer a viable lightweight production alternative to steel. Three components are in scope for the project:- • Front Subframe • Front Lower Control Arm (FLCA) • Rear Deadbeam Axle The front subframe will be hybrid of prepreg carbon fibre and aluminium castings using advanced bonding. The FLCA will be glass and carbon fibre over moulding with steel inserts for strength and attachment purposes and the deadbeam axle will be a combination of e-glass, carbon fibre and aluminium extrusion. All components have a five minute cycle time to make the process viable for volume manufacture. The complexities of the designs lie in the areas of manufacturing, CAE prediction and highly specialised design methods. Design thinking was an intrinsic part of the development and the design team were able to use their extensive knowledge of material behaviour and state of the art manufacturing methods to enable a component…
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Experimental Investigation on the Impact of Engine Oil on RTV Silicone

Saginaw Valley State University-John Herman, Kirk Donaldson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-5002
Published 2020-01-17 by SAE International in United States
Silicone-based RTV sealants see widespread use in the automotive industry. In the uncured state, RTV silicone has the consistency of thick toothpaste and can be easily applied to form an effective seal. However, a significant amount of anecdotal evidence suggests issues exist with RTV’s ability to maintain a satisfactory seal in some long-term engine sealing applications. ASTM D7216 is used to evaluate the effects of different oil blends on a set of standard molded reference samples after submersion in an elevated temperature oil bath. The evaluated material properties are hardness, percent volume change, tensile strength, and ultimate elongation. A library of such results is readily available through Savant Laboratories of Midland, Michigan. Given RTV’s widespread use, surprisingly no such library of information exists concerning an engine oil’s effects on different RTVs. Due to difficulties in obtaining the reference oil, a commercially available engine oil was selected as a reference and RTV specimens were evaluated against the ASTM D7216 reference silicone (VMQ) for comparison. Both the hardness of the RTV and VMQ decreased by ~30%, though…
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Characterization and Durability of Mold-In-Color Engineering Plastics

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Sandeep Kumar Shukla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2542
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Plastics are prone to photo oxidative and thermal oxidative degradation under usage conditions due to their chemical nature. From sustainability and cost standpoint, there is an increasing focus on Mold-In-Color (MIC) plastic materials. Simultaneously customer’s expectations on the perceived quality of these MIC parts has been increasing with attractive color and glossy appearance.A study was conducted to analyze the product quality and durability aspects over a prolonged exposure to accelerated weathering condition. Material selected for this study were injection molded specimens of ABS and PC-ABS used in automotive passenger vehicles.Comparative analysis was conducted before and after weathering exposure at defined intervals by using Fourier Transform infra-red spectrometer (FTIR), differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), universal testing machine (UTM), Izod impact tester and microscope to understand the impact on their chemical and mechanical properties.
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Light-Weighting of Additive Manufactured Automotive Fixtures through Topology Optimization Techniques

General Motors Technical Center India-Abhijith Naik, T Sujan, Suraj Desai, Saravanakumar Shanmugam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2544
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Rapidly enhancing engineering techniques to manufacture components in quick turnaround time have gained importance in recent times. Manufacturing strategies like Additive Manufacturing (AM) are a key enabler for achieving them. Unlike traditional manufacturing techniques like injection molding, casting etc.; AM unites advanced materials, machines, and software which will be critical for the fourth industrial revolution known as Industry 4.0. Successful application of AM involves a specific combination and understanding of these three key elements. In this paper the AM approach used is Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). Since material costs contribute to 60% of the overall FDM costs, it becomes a necessity to optimize the parts. This paper reports the case studies of 3D-printed Automotive Fixtures which utilize computational methods (CAE), topology optimization and FDM constrains (build directions) to manufacture the part. These methodologies were used to validate the current operating conditions, optimize the design, increase the stiffness of the original part and reduce the material costs. The newly optimized designs were verified successfully passing the Finite Element Analysis tests. The components have been printed and…
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