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Machining Titanium Aero-Frames

Aerospace & Defense Technology: June 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP06_11
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

The rise of titanium for aerospace applications has been well documented in recent years. Equally, the challenges associated with the efficient, productive and high-quality machining of this popular material, have also been a topic of debate and scrutiny. Of course, every machine shop wants optimized performance from its cutters when milling titanium, but this can prove less than straightforward without the right technology and know-how in place. Today, however, thanks to a breakthrough in this area, things are beginning to change.

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Machining Titanium Aero-Frames

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34543
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The rise of titanium for aerospace applications has been well documented in recent years. Equally, the challenges associated with the efficient, productive and high-quality machining of this popular material, have also been a topic of debate and scrutiny. Of course, every machine shop wants optimized performance from its cutters when milling titanium, but this can prove less than straightforward without the right technology and know-how in place. Today, however, thanks to a breakthrough in this area, things are beginning to change.

 

A New Method for Multi-objective Optimal Design of Milling Parameters by Considering Chatter Vibrations

K.N.Toosi University of Technology-A. Sohani
Sharif University of Technology-E. Jafarzadeh, S. Khodaygan
Published 2019-05-13 by SAE International in United States
The desired milling process with high material removal rate (MRR) and low surface roughness of the product can be achieved only if machining chatter is absent. Incorporating chatter into the optimal selection of the machining parameters leads to a complex problem. Therefore, the approach of selecting conservative intervals for the machining parameters is usually employed instead. In this paper, a practical approach is proposed to specify the optimal machining parameters (depth of cut and spindle speed) in order to maximize MRR and minimize forced vibrations by considering machining chatter. Firstly, the worst-case scenario-based optimization problem in terms of the surface quality is solved to find the critical time at which maximal amplitude vibrations occur. Then, the time dependency of the problem is eliminated. Secondly, the multi-objective optimization is conducted to achieve the Pareto Optimal Front (POF). The Stability Lobe Diagram (SLD) is obtained independently through well-established analytical methods. Optimal machining parameters on the obtained POF are mapped into the SLD to represent optimal results for the cases at which machining chatter is absent. Finally, these…
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Experimental Studies on Mechanical Properties of Metal Matrix Composites Reinforced with Natural Fibres Ashes

Delhi Technological University-Ravi Butola, Aahan Malhotra, Mukesh Yadav, Ranganath Singari, Qasim Murtaza, Prakash Chandra
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Metal matrix composites have a large range of applications in the automobile industry due to its characteristics and properties. Al-based MMC have aluminum as matrix metal that has properties which are well concerned with the automobile industry. Some of these properties are high strength to weight ratio and lightweight. In this paper we are trying to develop aluminum-based metal matrix composite (MMC) reinforced with natural fibers ashes, we are using fine ashes of Sugarcane (bagasse), Groundnut Shell Ash (GSA), Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Coconut shell (Jute) ash, different effects are investigated for different percentage of reinforcing material which is being produced by burning in a free atmosphere. Ball milling is used for making fine particle size of different natural fibers ash. Nine samples were made by the stir casting process consisting of Al6063 as base metal and different concentration of reinforcement. Maximum UTS was recorded for the specimen having composition 4% each reinforcement and balance aluminum 84%. Maximum yield Strength was found for the specimen having Coconut (jute) ash 4% and balance aluminum 96%.…
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Additive Manufacturing Using Infrared and X-Ray Imaging

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33892
Published 2019-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Additive manufacturing is poised to liven the pace and scale of manufacturing. Deploying a range of techniques that use 3-D models to print objects layer by layer, it can generate a variety of intricate designs in less time and with less waste than conventional cutting and milling approaches.

 

Running Titanium and Other Exotic Metals at Faster Speeds

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-28685
Published 2018-04-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

High-speed machining is typically used in medical equipment manufacturing where machinists often work with exotic alloys and harder metals like titanium.

 

Test Slabs, Fluoroelastomer (FKM), 70–80 Hardness, for Improved Gas Turbine Engine Oil Compatibility

AMS CE Elastomers Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS3217/8A
  • Current
Published 2017-10-18 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a fluorocarbon (FKM) rubber stock in the form of molded test slabs.
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Real Time Pose Control of an Industrial Robotic System for Machining of Large Scale Components in Aerospace Industry Using Laser Tracker System

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Fraunhofer IFAM-Christian Moeller, Hans Christian Schmidt, Philip Koch, Christian Boehlmann, Simon Kothe
IPMT TU Hamburg-Harburg-Wolfgang Hintze
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2165
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
The high demand of efficient large scale machining operations by concurrently decreasing operating time and costs has led to an increasing usage of industrial robots in contrast to large scaled machining centers. The main disadvantage of industrial robots used for machining processes is their poor absolute accuracy, caused by the serial construction, resilience of gearings and sensitivity for temperature changes. Additionally high process forces that occur during machining of CFRP structures in aerospace industry lead to significant path errors due to low structural stiffness of the robot kinematic. These errors cannot be detected by means of motor encoders. That is why calibration processes and internal control laws have no effect on errors caused by elastic deformation. In this research paper an approach for increasing the absolute accuracy of an industrial milling robot with help of a Laser Tracker system during machining tasks will be presented. To measure the position and orientation of the robot tool center point (TCP) a specific adapter is mounted on the milling spindle near the TCP to provide a 6DoF measurement.…
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Analytical Study on Delamination Drilling and Milling of Composite Material and Related Composite Metal Stacks

Mapal Dr Kress KG-Peter Mueller-Hummel
Mapal Inc-Alex Hjorten
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
This article characterizes the special features of machining composite in comparison to machining metal. Simplified theoretic models will demonstrate how CFRP should be machined without delamination, burn marks and cutting tool breakages. Different strategies can be chosen depending on the material removal rate. The paper will present, based on this analytical approach, how milling cutters should be designed for optimal trimming, and how a drill should be designed in order to avoid the entrance, inner and exit delamination. While entrance and exit delamination is well understood, the paper will focus more to the delamination inside the bore. The appearance and the avoidance of the so called "Volcano Effect" and the reason why holes in composite becomes smaller after a couple of days will be explained. The comparison between 4 different cutting tool technologies will prove and give a better understanding how to use this theoretical approach.
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Extraction and Characterization of Microfibers Obtained from Banana Waste

Rajalakshmi Engineering College-Vigneshwaran K
SRM Universiity-Palanivendhan Murugadoss
Published 2017-07-10 by SAE International in United States
The main objective is to Extraction of cellulose fibers using mechanical ball milling process and chemical treatment methods. The fibers are incorporated with an epoxy matrix to make composite plates. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, and impact energy are evaluated. Ball milling is the mechanical extraction method of producing nano size powder. The increase in milling process results in the chance of occurring nanofibers. The ball milling process is carried out without any chemical treatment process. In chemical treatment methods, three different kinds of treatment are performed namely sodium hypochlorite, sulphuric acid and acetic acid. Using hand layup methods these fibers are incorporated into the epoxy matrix to fabricate composite plates. In my study nanosized fiber is not obtained, only 28 micron fibers are converted into 3-4 microns. Mechanical properties show that chemically treated sodium hypochlorite samples give better mechanical properties. Experimental and theoretical tensile strength is examined using different theory models. The result depicts that Hirsch model is far from experimental value. The future work is to treat the fiber with…
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