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Facility for Complete Characterization of Suspension Kinematic and Compliance Properties of Wheeled Military Vehicles

SEA, Ltd.-Dale Andreatta, Gary Heydinger, Anmol Sidhu, Scott Zagorski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0175
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As part of their ongoing efforts to model and predict vehicle dynamics behavior, the US Army’s Ground Vehicle Systems Center procured a facility in two phases. The facility is called the Suspension Parameter Identification and Evaluation Rig (SPIdER) and has a capacity covering all of the military’s wheeled vehicles, with vehicle weights up to 100,000 lbs (45,400 kg), up to 150 inches wide, with any number of axles. The initial phase had the ability to measure bounce and roll kinematic and compliance properties. The SPIdER is the companion machine to the Vehicle Inertia Parameter Measuring Device (VIPER) which measures the inertia properties of vehicles of similar size. In 2015, the final phase of the SPIdER was completed. This phase includes ground plane wheel pad motion so that lateral, longitudinal, and aligning moment compliance and kinematic properties can be measured. These capabilities greatly enhance the SPIdER’s features, giving it the ability for making complete suspension and steering system kinematic and compliance measurements. Horizontal forces and aligning moments can be applied up to the limits of tire…
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Design Optimization of Sandwich Composite Armors for Blast Mitigation Using Bayesian Optimization with Single and Multi-Fidelity Data

Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis-Andres Tovar
Purdue University-Homero Valladares
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0170
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The most common and lethal weapons against military vehicles are the improvised explosive devices (IEDs). In an explosion, critical cabin’s penetrations and high accelerations can cause serious injuries and death of military personnel. This investigation uses single and multi-fidelity Bayesian optimization (BO) to design sandwich composite armors for blast mitigation. BO is an efficient methodology to solve optimization problems that involve black-box functions. The black-box function of this work is the finite element (FE) simulation of the armor subjected to blast. The main two components of BO are the surrogate model of the black-box function and the acquisition function that guides the optimization. In this investigation, the surrogate models are Gaussian Process (GP) regression models and the acquisition function is the multi-objective expected improvement (MEI) function. Information from low and high fidelity FE models is used to train the GP surrogates. The high fidelity model considers the nonlinear behavior of each layer of the composite armor while the low fidelity model only considers the elastic behavior. The sandwich composite is made of four layers: steel,…
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A Virtual Driveline Concept to Maximize Mobility Performance of Autonomous Electric Vehicles

Alion Science & Technology-Michael Letherwood
U.S. Army Ground Vehicle Systems Center-David Gorsich
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0746
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In-wheel electric motors open up new prospects to radically enhance the mobility of autonomous electric vehicles with four or more driving wheels. The flexibility and agility of delivering torque individually to each wheel can allow significant mobility improvements, agile maneuvers, maintaining stability, and increased energy efficiency. However, the fact that individual wheels are not connected mechanically by a driveline system does not mean their drives do not impact each other. With individual torques, the wheels will have different longitudinal forces and tire slippages. Thus, the absence of driveline systems physically connecting the wheels requires new approaches to coordinate torque distribution. This paper solves two technical problems. First, a virtual driveline system (VDS) is proposed to emulate a mechanical driveline system virtually connecting the e-motor driveshafts, providing coordinated driving wheel torque management. The VDS simulates power split between driving wheels. Conceptually, VDS is founded on generalized tire and vehicle parameters. Generalized slippages are utilized to determine virtual gear ratios from a virtual transfer case to each wheel. The virtual gear ratios serve as signals to the…
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Balancing Lifecycle Sustainment Cost with Value of Information during Design Phase

CCDC Ground Vehicle Systems Center-Sam Kassoumeh, Monica Majcher, James Ealy, David Gorsich, Paramsothy Jayakumar
Oakland University-Vijitashwa Pandey
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0176
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The complete lifecycle of complex systems, such as ground vehicles, consists of multiple phases including design, manufacturing, operation and sustainment (O&S) and finally disposal. For many systems, the majority of the lifecycle costs are incurred during the operation and sustainment phase, specifically in the form of uncertain maintenance costs. Testing and analysis during the design phase, including reliability and supportability analysis, can have a major influence on costs during the O&S phase. However, the cost of the analysis itself must be reconciled with the expected benefits of the reduction in uncertainty. In this paper, we quantify the value of performing the tests and analyses in the design phase by treating it as imperfect information obtained to better estimate uncertain maintenance costs. A multi-attribute decision framework for military ground vehicles acquisition is employed to illustrate the methodology and the value of performing the analysis early in the system’s lifecycle. Attributes considered are maintenance cost and operational availability, while the utility is calculated for a risk averse decision maker. Numerical methods are employed to calculate the value…
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Machine Learning Based Optimal Energy Storage Devices Selection Assistance for Vehicle Propulsion Systems

Clemson University-Bin Xu
Stanford University-Simona Onori
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0748
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study investigates the use of machine learning methods for the selection of energy storage devices in military electrified vehicles. Powertrain electrification relies on proper selection of energy storage devices, in terms of chemistry, size, energy density, and power density, etc. Military vehicles largely vary in terms of weight, acceleration requirements, operating road environment, mission, etc.This study aims to assist the energy storage device selection for military vehicles using the data-drive approach. We use Machine Learning models to extract relationships between vehicle characteristics and requirements and the corresponding energy storage devices.After the training, the machine learning models can predict the ideal energy storage devices given the target vehicles design parameters as inputs. The predicted ideal energy storage devices can be treated as the initial design and modifications to that are made based on the validation results. In the training phase, 80% of vehicle’s data borrowed from the literature were used, and the remaining 20% was used for validation. Results obtained from the proposed design predict the battery size and peak power with mean errors of…
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Analysis of Force Mitigation by Boots in Axial Impacts using a Lower Leg Finite Element Model

Dept. of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin at Zablo-Michael Schlick, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A. Pintar
U.S. Army Research Laboratory, CCDC-WMRD, Aberdeen Proving G-Carolyn E. Hampton, Michael Kleinberger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0011
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
Lower extremity injuries caused by floor plate impacts through the axis of the lower leg are a major source of injury and disability for civilian and military vehicle occupants. A collection of PMHS pendulum impacts was revisited to obtain data for paired booted/unbooted test on the same leg. Five sets of paired pendulum impacts (10 experiments in total) were found using four lower legs from two PMHS. The PMHS size and age was representative of an average young adult male. In these tests, a PMHS leg was impacted by a 3.4 or 5.8 kg pendulum with an initial velocity of 5, 7, or 10 m/s (42-288 J). A matching LS-DYNA finite element model was developed to replicate the experiments and provide additional energy, strain, and stress data. Simulation results matched the PMHS data using peak values and CORA curve correlations. Experimental forces ranged between 1.9 and 12.1 kN experimentally and 2.0 and 11.7 kN in simulation. Combat boot usage reduced the peak force by 36% experimentally (32% in simulation) by compressing the sole and insole…
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Facility Focus: Army Test and Evaluation Command

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36193
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC) plans, integrates, and conducts experiments, developmental testing, independent operational testing, and independent evaluations and assessments to provide essential information to acquisition decision-makers and commanders.

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Celebrating Women in Engineering & Science: Jasmin Moghbeli, NASA Astronaut

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36166
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Jasmin Moghbeli’s astronaut class graduated in January 2020 — the first class to graduate since the agency announced the Artemis program. She holds a BS degree in aerospace engineering with information technology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a MS in engineering science in aerospace engineering from the Naval Postgraduate School. Moghbeli was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps in 2005 upon completion of her undergraduate degree. An AH-1W Super Cobra helicopter pilot and Marine Corps test pilot, Moghbeli served in Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan from 2009 to 2010. At the time of her selection as an astronaut candidate, Moghbeli was testing H-1 helicopters. She has accumulated more than 150 combat missions and 2,000 hours of flight time in more than 25 different aircraft. She is eligible for assignment to missions destined for the International Space Station, the Moon, and ultimately, Mars.

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Bio-Inspired Mechanics to Make Robots More Effective

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36191
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

In an effort to make robots more effective and versatile teammates for soldiers in combat, researchers are looking to understand the value of the molecular living functionality of muscle and the fundamental mechanics that would need to be replicated in order to artificially achieve the capabilities arising from the proteins responsible for muscle contraction.

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Self-driving trucks cut fuel consumption by 10%

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: February 2020

Ryan Gehm
  • Magazine Article
  • 20TOFHP02_12
Published 2020-02-01 by SAE International in United States

Enhancing safety and helping combat driver shortages are two benefits that heavy-duty autonomous-truck proponents have preached during development. You can now add significant fuel savings to the list.

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