Technical Paper collections have been re-named for better clarity and alignment.x

Your Selections

Microscopy
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

Magazine

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

LOW COST ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING MATERIAL BASED ON POLYPYRROLE-BIO WASTE COMPOSITES

Dongguk University-Ganapathi Nagarajan PhD
Hindustan University-Sheeba Rathina Selvi, Srimathi Krishnaswamy PhD, Puspamitra Panigrahi PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0226
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There is a crucial need of Electromagnetic interference shielding in many of the applications in this digital world with low cost and high efficient shielding materials. Electrically conducting heterocyclic polymer polypyrrole has found its application as an EMI shielding materials due to its conducting property. Electrically conducting polypyrrole (PPy) coated on coconut fibres (coir) with different morphology, were prepared through in-situ chemical polymerization of PPy using strong oxidizing agent like ammonium per sulfate. The synthesized PPy on coconut fibre were characterised using UV-Visible spectrophotometer(UV-VIS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which confirmed the product formation. The morphology was done using Scanning electron Microscopy(SEM).Thermal studies were performed by Thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of PPy morphology and content in composite with coir on the DC conductivity and shielding effectiveness (SE) were investigated. The shielding effectiveness was calculated theoretically and well matched with the experimental values.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Improved Wear Resistance of Austempered Gray Cast Iron Using Shot-Peening Treatment

Oakland University-Yu Liu, Gary Barber
Zhejiang Sci-Tech University-Weiwei Cui, Bingxu Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1098
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this research, ball-on-plate reciprocating sliding wear tests were utilized on austempered and quench-tempered gray cast iron samples with and without shot-peening treatment. The wear volume loss of the gray cast iron samples was compared under equivalent hardness. The microstructure transformations in the matrix was studied using metallurgical evaluation and hardness measurement. It was found that thin needle-like ferrite became coarse gradually with increasing austempering temperature and was converted into feather-like shape when using the austempering temperatures at or above 343°C (650°F). No martensitic structure could be observed since full transformation to ausferrite has achieved. The residual stress on the surface and sub-surface before and after shot-peening treatment was analyzed using x-ray diffraction. Compressive residual stress was produced after shot-peening treatment and showed an increasing trend with austempering temperature. In sliding wear tests, austempered gray cast iron had lower wear volume loss than quench-tempered gray cast iron before and after shot-peening treatment. The wear tracks were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Abrasive wear and adhesive wear were believed to be the main wear mechanisms on…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Waste Egg shell as heterogeneous nanocatalyst for biodiesel production: Optimization and Engine Characteristics study.

CK College of Engineering & Technology-R Krishnamoorthy
Mepco Schlenk Engineering College-Dhinesh Balasubramanian, Sriram Kamaraj
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0341
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The objective of our present work is preparation of low cost heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst from egg shell for the waste cooking oil biodiesel production and optimization. The egg shell catalyst was prepared by calcination at the temperature range of 300-900 and characterized using scanning electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The transesterification process was catalyzed by calcinated egg shell catalyst and the biodiesel yield% was optimized by varying parameters such as reaction temperature and time, catalyst weight and methanol to oil molar ratio. The L9 orthogonal array was selected for the Taguchi optimization. Among the selected parameter's temperature and methanol to oil ratio were found to be maximum influencing parameters. The maximum biodiesel yield% was 94.3% and this was obtained at temperature of 60 ºC, 6wt% catalyst weight%, and 4 hrs. time and 12:1 methanol to oil ratio levels. The egg shell catalyst calcinated at 900ºC has shown good regeneration capacity. The biodiesel %yield was 76% even after the five transesterification cycles. This is an additional advantage…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Impact of Injection Strategy on Soot Reactivity and Particle Properties of a GDI Engine

Amin Velji, Henning Bockhorn, Dimosthenis Trimis
Diploma Engineer-Sergej Koch
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0392
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The gradual global tightening of emission legislation for particulate matter emissions requires the development of new gasoline engine exhaust aftertreatment systems. For this reason, the development of gasoline direct injection engines aims at the reduction of particulate emissions by application of Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF). The regeneration temperature and behaviour of GPF depend on soot particle reactivity towards oxidation and therefore on the micro- and nanostructural particle characteristics. The investigations on particle emissions were carried out on a turbocharged 4-cylinder gasoline engine with direct injection that allows the variation of injection parameters. The emitted soot particles have been in-situ characterized towards their number and size distribution using an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS). Ex-situ analytics focuses on the analysis of oxidation kinetics and the nanostructural characteristics affecting soot reactivity significantly. In addition, soot reactivity regarding to oxidation relies significantly on the quality of mixture formation depending on injection strategy. These findings are in very good agreement with the nanostructural parameters obtained by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Particles formed in a relatively homogeneous air/fuel mixture…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Bake Hardening Behavior of DP, TBF, and PHS Steels with Ultimate Tensile Strengths Exceeding 1 GPa

Colorado School of Mines-Brandon W. Blesi, Charles Smith, David K. Matlock, Emmanuel De Moor
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0536
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Third generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been developed combining high strength and formability, allowing for lightweighting of vehicle structural components. These AHSS components are exposed to paint baking operations ranging in time and temperature to cure the applied paint. The paint baking treatment, combined with straining induced from part forming, may lead to increased in-service component performance due to a strengthening mechanism known as bake hardening. This study aims to quantify the bake hardening behavior of select AHSS grades. Materials investigated were press hardenable steels (PHS) 1500 and 2000; transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) aided bainitic ferrite (TBF) 1000 and 1200; dual phase (DP) 1000, and complex phase (CP) 1000. The number designations of these grades refer to as-received ultimate tensile strengths. Paint baking was simulated using industrially relevant times and temperatures from 15 to 60 min and 120 to 200 °C, respectively. Samples were prestrained 0, 2, or 5 pct to replicate part forming. Bake hardening indices ranging from 90 to 140 MPa were observed for DP and TBF grades that were prestrained…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Impact of Soot and Engine Oil Additive Characteristics on Metallic Wear using Electron Microscopy and Confocal Microscopy

King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Thailand-Panyakorn Rungsritanapaisan, Preechar Karin, Warawut Amornprapa
National Metal and Material Technology Center, Thailand-Dhritti Tanprayoon, Ruangdaj Tongsri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0601
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Soot particles are produced inside the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engines and will later be exhausted into the thermosphere. Part of these particles will contaminate the engine oil. When this happens, diesel engine abrasion or, in a worst-case scenario, lubricant starvation will occur. This circumstance will eventually cause engine wear. This research uses X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique to analyze the additive element in engine oil. For wear test, this research uses tribology Four ball wear tester to substitute point contact wear mechanism. Then the worn surface is analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Confocal Microscope are used to study the effect of additive on soot dispersion in engine oil, which affects the metal wear mechanism. This research use Laser Particle Size Analyzer to investigate performance of soot dispersant additive in each engine oil. The results show that, the wear scar diameters significantly increased when the American Petroleum Institute (API) CD standard engine oil is contaminated with soot. On the other hand, American Petroleum Institute (API) CF-4 standard engine oil which contains higher amount…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
new

Characterization of Friction Stir Processed Aluminum-Graphene Nanoplatelets Composites

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College, India-P. Bhanu Prakash, P.C. Krishnamachary, K.C. VaraPrasad
  • Journal Article
  • 05-13-02-0007
Published 2020-01-23 by SAE International in United States
The present study deals with the investigation on microstructural and mechanical properties of friction stir processed (FSPed) pure Aluminum (Al)-Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) composites. Composite specimens such as castings were made by blending 0.5 wt.%, 1.0 wt.%, 1.5 wt.%, and 2.0 wt.% of GNPs in pure Al matrix using the ultrasonic-assisted stir casting technique (UASCT). Also for enhancement of mechanical properties via grain refinement the friction stir processing (FSP) has been employed, as well as mechanical properties like tensile strength and microhardness were evaluated. Moreover, the microstructural analysis were done using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) examination were also performed for inspecting the changes occurred during synthesis of the fabricated composites after FSP. After FSP, the experimental studies exposed that a uniform plastic deformation of GNPs in the pure Al matrix was achieved with less porosity that is leading to increment in mechanical properties with 11.26% enhancement in tensile strength and 12.17% enhancement in microhardness and thereby proves its potential for diverse engineering…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Increased resistance to dirt and staining on artificial leather

Ford Motor Company Brazil-Santana Sheilla, Yoshimura Patrícia, Marcal João, Hurtado Luiz, Montenegro Eloy, Neto Paulo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0123
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The design trend for interior parts of cars in light colors in shades of beige and grey is a global reality and has increased the demand in new models replacing traditional black color. One of the most important features for the appearance is to keep the color and stay clean the surface of the car interior parts. This development aims to improve the resistance to dirt and staining on artificial leather applied in seat cover with light colors. Comparative dirt and staining trials were conducted with soil, coffee and indigo jeans through abrasion testing by Crocking, followed by clean fabric removal. The performance evaluation was done by through microscopy assays, spectrophotometry to analyze color variation after dirt test in the original samples and dirt test in the same samples exposed to XENON and heat for aging. Finally, this development brings solutions that improves consumer satisfaction. The improved life cycle performance of the car seat surfaces kept clean is the core of this study. This improvement to protect surfaces and prevent it from staining on the…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Advanced analytical methods for the study of lubricant-derived ash and associated impacts on engine aftertreatment components

Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Sujay Dilip Bagi
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Kymanetics, Inc.-Carl Justin Kamp
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2293
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Catalytic and non-catalytic engine aftertreatment components, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), selective catalytic reduction on filter (SCRF), the gasoline particulate filter (GPF) and the diesel particulate filter (DPF) are complex, multifunctional emissions control technologies that are robustly designed for extended use in harsh automotive exhaust environments. Over the useful component lifetime, lubricant-derived inorganic and incombustible ash accumulates in and/or on the surface of the aforementioned aftertreatment components, resulting in degraded performance and other potential problems. In order to better understand effects of ash in such components, a multiscale analytical approach is necessary, requiring a variety of experimental tools. This paper will briefly present a decade of analytical experience at the Sloan Automotive Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and at Kymanetics, Inc., specific to the fundamental understanding of the accumulation of lubricant-derived ash in engine aftertreatment components. Several key experimental tools and techniques will be reviewed including focused ion beam milling (SEM), in-situ X- ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ultra-high resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), environmental scanning…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Study of Nozzle Fouling: Deposit Build-Up and Removal

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Hanna Bernemyr, Botond Csontos
Scania CV AB-Henrik Hittig, Oscar Forsberg
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2231
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The global demand for decreased emission from engines and increased efficiency drives manufactures to develop more advanced fuel injection systems. Today's compression-ignited engines use common rail systems with high injection pressures and fuel injector nozzles with small orifice diameters. These systems are highly sensitive to small changes in orifice diameters since these could lead to deteriorations in spray characteristics, thus reducing engine performance and increasing emissions. Phenomena that could create problems include nozzle fouling caused by metal carboxylates or biofuels. The problems increase with extended use of biofuels. This paper reports on an experimental study of nozzle hole fouling performed on a single-cylinder engine. The aim was to identify if the solubility of the fuel has an effect on deposit build-up and, thus, the reduction in fuelling with associated torque loss, and if there is a probability of regenerating the contaminated injectors. Additionally, the influence of the nozzle geometry was tested by using injectors of various designs. In the experiments, high-load engine operation was used to create the effect of fouling in the presence of…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available