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A path towards high efficiency SI combustion in a CFR engine: Cooling the intake to sub-zero temperatures

King Abdullah University of Science & Technology-Sufyan M. Jan, Abdulrahman Mohammed, Ali Elkhazraji, Jean-Baptiste Masurier
University of California-Robert Dibble
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0550
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Textbook engine thermodynamics predicts that SI (Spark Ignition) engine efficiency η is a function of both the compression ratio CR of the engine and the specific heat ratio γ of the working fluid. In practice the compression ratio of the SI engine is often limited due to “knock”. When this knock limit is reached, increase in heat transfer losses result in reduction in efficiency. One way to lower the end-gas temperature is to cool the intake gas before inducting it into the combustion chamber. With colder intake gases, higher CR can be deployed, resulting in higher efficiencies. In this regard, we investigated the indicated efficiency of the standard Waukesha CFR engine. The engine is operated in the SI engine mode. The engine was operated with three different mediums using the same fuel Methane (Gas). First is Air + Methane at room temperature, second was O2 + Argon + Methane gas mixture at room temperature, and lastly O2 + Argon +Methane at sub-zero conditions. We replace the Air by an Oxygen-Argon mixture to increase the specific…
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Effects of Pre-chamber Enrichment on Lean Burn Pre-chamber Spark Ignition Combustion with a Narrow-throat Geometry

King Abdullah University of Science & Technology-Ponnya Hlaing, Manuel Echeverri Marquez, Eshan Singh, Fahad Almatrafi, Moez Ben Houidi, Bengt Johansson
Saudi Aramco-Emre Cenker
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0825
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Pre-chamber spark ignition (PCSI) combustion is an emerging lean-burn combustion mode capable of extending the lean operation limit of an engine. The favorable characteristic of short combustion duration at the lean condition of PCSI results in high indicated efficiencies and low specific fuel consumption compared to conventional spark ignition combustion. Since the engine operation is typically lean, PCSI can significantly reduce engine-out NOx emissions while maintaining relatively short combustion duration. In this study, experiments were conducted on a heavy-duty engine at mid to low loads to study the effects of pre-chamber enrichment on globally lean combustion with methane fuel injection in both pre and main chambers. Two parametric variations were performed where, in the first study, the total fuel energy input to the engine was fixed while the intake pressure was varied, which resulted in varying the global air excess ratio. In the second, the intake pressure was fixed while the amount of fuel injection was changed to alter the global air excess ratio. At each global air excess ratio, the fuel injection to the…
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The Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Fundamental Characteristics of Premixed Methane/Air Flames

Michigan State University-Berk Can Duva, Yen-Cheng Wang, Lauren Chance, Elisa Toulson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0339
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent regulations of internal combustion engines emissions have increased focus on alternative fuels for transportation and emission reduction techniques, such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Natural gas is a promising alternative to conventional petroleum derived automotive fuels since it provides lower exhaust emissions, higher octane ratings, and better fuel economy. Although many studies have investigated fundamental combustion characteristics of methane/air flames diluted with either CO2, N2 or H2O in order to investigate the EGR effect, studies analyzing actual EGR content (CO2+N2+H2O) are very rare. In the present study, spherically expanding flames were employed to investigate the EGR effect on laminar flame speeds and burned gas Markstein lengths of premixed methane/air mixtures at 3 bar and 373 K through both experiments and numerical simulations. The EGR content was simulated with a mixture of 9.50 % CO2 + 71.49 % N2 + 19.01 % H2O and the EGR ratio was varied from 0% to 15%. Numerical results were obtained from CHEMKIN using the GRI-Mech 3.0, USC Mech II, and San Diego mechanisms. Numerical laminar flame speed…
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Impact of Ethane Enrichment on Diesel-Methane Dual-Fuel Combustion

Aalto University-Zeeshan Ahmad, Ossi Kaario, Qiang Cheng, Martti Larmi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0305
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Over the past few years, the growing concerns about global warming and efforts to reduce engine-out emissions have made the dual-fuel (DF) engines more popular in marine and power industries. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel in DF engines has both the environmental and economic advantages over the conventional diesel combustion. However, the misfire phenomenon at lean conditions limits the operating range of DF combustion and causes emissions of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and unburned methane (methane-slip) in the environment. The greenhouse effect of methane is considered 28 times greater than CO2 over a 100-year perspective, which raises concerns for the governments and marine engine manufacturers. In efforts to reduce the UHC and methane-slip from DF engines, this study discusses ethane enrichment of diesel-methane DF combustion in a full-metal single-cylinder research engine under lean condition (λGFB = ~2.0) while keeping the total-fuel energy rather constant. The 99.9% pure methane is enriched with ethane in such a way that three gaseous-fuel blends of 0-20% ethane concentration could be achieved. The substitution rate of gaseous…
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Analysis of the Technical Viability of Biogas Utilization in Compression Ignition Engines for Electric Power Generation

Federal University of Santa Maria - UFSM-Italo Rosa Policena, Rafael Vogt, Geovane Alberto Frizzo Prante, Roberto Antônio Garlet, Mário Eduardo Santos Martins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0245
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Increased energy demand and security of energy supply have become a concern in recent decades due to strong industrial growth. The high cost of fossil fuels and the need to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases have made renewable energy sources an attractive object. In this context, biomass becomes interesting and is the second largest source of renewable energy in Brazil, possessing many characteristics similar to fossil fuels. Energy can be obtained by direct burning or by conversion into biofuels, such as biogas, which is composed primarily of carbon dioxide and methane. Methane released directly into the atmosphere has 21 times the greenhouse effect potential of CO2. In this way the importance of the development and improvement of this fuel and of the converter machines, which play a fundamental role in the transformation of biomass into other forms of energy, is justified.This study aims at analyzing the technical viability of application of biogas in compression ignition engines for electric power generation in RCCI operation mode (Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition) and dualfuel by fumigation. The experimental…
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B-GAS: Conversion system to Internal Combustion Engine (Diesel) for using alternative energetic source for application in Agricultural Machinery

Giovana Queiroz da Silva, Cléber Willian Gomes, Guilherme Bugatti dos Santos, Paulo Eduardo Wey Nunes da Costa, Pedro Augusto Talib Soares, Renato Zerbinatti Raduan, Vinícius Trento Gomes
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0235
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Fuel has a huge port in the operating costs of agribusiness, the increase on the price and the shortage of this energy resource has a direct impact on agricultural production costs. In this context, regions that are farther from refineries and lack the presence of fuel distribution centers tend to suffer more from the availability and cost of this resource. Economically speaking, agribusiness has a prominent position in the national scenery. The world fuel source had an evolution from the predominance of solid fuels to the current age of liquid fuels derived from petroleum and seeing the future and growing age of gas fuels as the predecessor stage of electric vehicles in some markets. Thereby, agricultural organic waste has the potential to generate an alternative energy, clean and ecological matrix, also reducing the emission of polluting gases, soil, groundwater, rivers and weir are still prevented, and the release of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such as methane and carbon dioxide. In Brazil, animal waste is normally used for the generation of biofuel, and only 14%…
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Catalysis Approach Reduces Carbon Dioxide to Methane

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35800
Published 2020-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A new approach was developed that utilizes a series of catalytic reactions to electrochemically reduce carbon dioxide to methane — the main ingredient in natural gas — eliminating an intermediate step usually needed in the reduction process.

In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU): Methylotrophic Microorganisms Expressing Soluble Methane Monooxygenase Proteins

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35812
Published 2020-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Long-duration missions to planetary bodies and deep space will require new technological developments that support human habitation in transit and on distant bodies. Microorganisms are unique from the standpoint that they can be employed as self-replicating bio-factories to produce both native and engineered mission-relevant bio-products. Methane (CH4) usage in In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) platforms has been discussed previously for human exploration and has been proposed to be used in physicochemical systems as a propulsion fuel, supply gas, and in fuel cells.

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Effects of Engine Operating Condition and Fuel Property on Pre-Ignition Phenomenon in a Highly Boosted Premixed Natural Gas Engine

Chiba University-Run Chen, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Yasuo Moriyoshi
GDEC Inc.-Shinji Yasueda
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2154
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The stochastic pre-ignition phenomenon plays a vital role to limit the further increasing BMEP for natural gas engines. In this study, the pre-ignition propensities were examined in a highly boosted premixed natural gas engine by various engine loads and air/fuel ratios, as well as different methane number (MN) altered by hydrogen addition. A proper pre-ignition evaluation method was proposed referring to intake temperature. Moreover, the limits of in-cylinder temperature and pressure for the onset of pre-ignition were estimated. The results show that both higher IMEP and richer mixture conditions readily lead to pre-ignition. The significant increases of pre-ignition frequency and heavy-knocking pre-ignition cycle present with lowering MN.
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Combustion Characteristics of Ammonia in a Modern Spark-Ignition Engine

Université D'Orléans-Charles Lhuillier, Pierre BREQUIGNY, Christine Rousselle
Vrije Universiteit Brussel-Francesco Contino
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Ammonia is now recognized as a very serious asset in the context of the hydrogen energy economy, thanks to its non-carbon nature, competitive energy density and very mature production, storage and transport processes. If produced from renewable sources, its use as a direct combustion fuel could participate to the flexibility in the power sector as well as help mitigating fossil fuel use in certain sectors, such as long-haul shipping. However, ammonia presents unfavorable combustion properties, requiring further investigation of its combustion characteristics in practical systems. In the present study, a modern single-cylinder spark-ignition engine is fueled with gaseous ammonia/air mixtures at various equivalence ratios and intake pressures. The results are compared with methane/air and previous ammonia/hydrogen/air measurements, where hydrogen is used as combustion promoter. In-cylinder pressure and exhaust concentrations of selected species are measured and analyzed. Results show that ammonia is a very suitable fuel for SI engine operation, since high power outputs were achieved with satisfying efficiency by taking advantage of the promoting effects of either hydrogen enrichment or increased intake pressure, or a…
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