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User Defined FE Based Connector Joints for Plastics

CAEfatigue Ltd-Neil Bishop, Paresh Murthy
Hella GmbH & Co. KGaA-Thomas Thesing, Odo Karger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0186
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Spot Welds are a category of welds used extensively in automotive structures, normally for metals. The fatigue analysis of such spot welds can be evaluated using (a) the Point 2 Point (P2P) method where a beam or bar is used to connect the 2 surfaces being joined, (b) a more modern approach where the 1D element is replaced with an “equivalent” brick element, or (c) a third approach that falls somewhere between where a “spider” and circular ring of elements, is used to represent the spot weld. In all 3 cases there is an assumption that the cross section is circular. For some specialist cases such as plastic connectors, the cross section is not circular so a new user defined weld is proposed. This paper will describe the approach that is based on the concept that a user generated tensor line can be used (equivalent to the theoretical Force/Moment to stress algorithms built into the P2P approach) along with special S-N curves create for different joint shapes.
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Design of the powder metal shift fork and sleeve

Czech Technical University-Gabriela Achtenova, Jiri Pakosta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1322
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The paper will present the design of shift fork for automotive manual gearbox dedicated for the manufacturing with help of powder metal technology. Based on limitations and requirements of new production technology of shifting sleeve, a new prototype of shifting sleeve is created, for which are new shifting forks then designed. The form of the prototype of the shift sleeve respected the requirements of the new technology, but from cost reason, it was manufactured from steel. The shift fork was changed accordingly to the new form of the shift sleeve. The functionality of several forks with different tolerances was tested. Prototypes were put through functional and durability tests on testing bench in real automotive gearbox. The test were accomplished on the inertia test stand. Drawings and CAD models of tested prototypes, custom tools and designed shift forks will be described.
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Comparative Analysis of Thermally Induced Seizure Regimes between Accelerated Simulation Test and Long Term Vehicle Operation in Metal V-belt CVT

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Kenji Matsumoto, Tatsuya Tokunaga, Jun Mori
Tokyo City University-Yuji Mihara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0907
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Honda is currently developing and operationalizing a measurement device that allows the state of lubrication to be understood by measuring the in-oil particle distribution. This is a new attempt to detect burn-in and abnormal friction in advance, thus making it possible to suspend actual vehicle tests before breakdown and investigate causes. Seizure was therefore simulated, and in-oil abrasion powder was examined. The results showed that a large amount of scale-shaped abrasion powder was produced due to fatigue during normal operation, while little scale-shaped abrasion powder was detected following the simulation test. This suggests that when a high-load test is performed in order to shorten the test time, the test does not simulate driving conditions in the market, because the state of the loads on the sliding surfaces differs from market conditions.
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Experimental and Analytical Study of Drawbead Restraining Force for Sheet Metal Drawing Processes

Oakland University-Natalia Reinberg, Ashutosh Mokashi, Saeid Nasheralahkami, Sergey Golovashchenko, Srecko Zdravkovic, Yurdaer Demiralp
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0753
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, implementation of aluminum alloys, advanced high strength steels and ultra high strength steels is quickly increasing in automotive components due to their superior structural performance and vehicle weight reduction capabilities. However, these materials often have more limited formability compared to broadly used mild steels. Design of the sheet metal drawing process requires accurate information about the restraining forces distribution usually accomplished by a set of drawbeads positioned along the perimeter of the die cavity. This study is targeting bringing together the results of analytical models, results of finite element analysis and experimental data in attempt to understand the most critical factors influencing the restraining force. The experimental study of the restraining force was performed using drawbead simulator tool installed into Instron tensile testing machine. Based upon the experimental results, it was observed that the restraining force of the given drawbead configuration is dependent upon the depth of bead penetration, friction between the drawbead surfaces and sheet metal as well as the clearance between the upper and lower die. This clearance is often…
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Application of Laminated Steels for Stamped Bumpers

FCA US LLC-Eric Edwin Herz
Material Sciences Corp.-Justin Putti, Matt Murphy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1055
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Light-weight solutions for stamped steel components that exhibit the same or similar appearance properties for purposes of authentic feel and perception to customers will play a critical role as the goal of reaching maximum fuel efficiency for large vehicles continues. This paper outlines the potential uses for laminated steel or “MSC Smart Steel®” in large stamped steel bumpers that would normally be stamped with thick sheet metal in order to meet vehicle level functional objectives. The paper presents the investigation of the one for one drop in capabilities of MSC Smart Steel® material to existing stamping dies, special processing considerations while manufacturing, vehicle level performance comparisons, and class “A” coating options and process needs. Most of all, it will highlight the significant vehicle weight saving benefits and opportunities as compared to current production stamped steel bumpers.
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Tracking Panel Movement during Stamping Process using Advanced Optical Technology

Oakland University-Bicheng Guo, Xiaowan Zheng, Boyang Zhang, Rong Wang, Lianxiang Yang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0541
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The metal panel is comprehensively applied in the automotive industry. A significant issue for the metal panel is the deflection when did the movement in the press line of the stamping process. Unpredictable deflection could result in the cut off of press line. In order to control the deflection in a safe zone, Finite element tools are used to simulate the panel transform process. However, the simulation needs experimental validation where conventional displacement measurement techniques could not satisfy the requirement of vast filed displacement and accuracy point tracking. In this study, multi-camera digital image correlation (DIC) systems have been developed to track a panel movement in the press line of the stamping process. There are some advantages for applying the DIC system, which is non-contact, full-field, high accuracy, and direct measurement techniques that provide the evaluation displacement of the metal panel and press line. Nevertheless, the traditional stereo DIC system (with two cameras) has a limited field of view, and the multi-camera DIC system expands the field of view and enables the measurement of panel…
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Analysis of Sheet Metal Joining with Self-Piercing Riveting

Oakland University-Srecko Zdravkovic, Sergey Golovashchenko
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0223
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Self-piercing riveting (SPR) has been in production in automotive industry since early 1990s. A substantial amount of experimental work was traditionally required in order to find an appropriate combination of rivet and anvil design to satisfy the required joint parameters. Presented study is describing the methodology of numerical simulation of SPR process and its experimental validation for Aluminum alloys and steels. Among material properties, the required information for numerical simulation includes stress-strain curves validated for the range of strains taking place in SPR process (up to 2.0 of true strain for sheets and up to 0.4 of true strain for the rivet) and parameters of fracture model for all involved materials: all sheets in the stack and the rivet material. Experimental data on stress-strain curves for extended range of strains was obtained based upon multistep rolling tensile testing procedure for the sheet metals. Parameters of the fracture model for sheets were defined by custom hole expansion test, and the parameter of the fracture model for the rivet was defined via expanding the tubular portion of…
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Full Body Car Analysis in the Time and Frequency Domains - Sheet, Spot and Seam Weld Fatigue Benchmark Studies

CAEfatigue, Ltd.-Neil Bishop, Stuart Kerr
Desktop Engineering Ltd.-Andy Woodward
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0195
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The fatigue analysis of a full car body requires the sheet metal (sheet fatigue), spot welds (spot weld fatigue) and seam welds (seam weld fatigue) to be thoroughly evaluated for durability. Traditionally this has always been done (via separate processes) in the time domain but recently new techniques have been implemented to perform all of these tasks in the frequency domain with numerous advantages. This paper will summarize the frequency domain process and then compare the results (and performance) against the more usual time base result
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Lightweight Plastic Engine Oil Pump

SABIC-Subhransu Sekhar Mohapatra, Arunachala P, Raghavendra Janiwarad, Ashwin Kumar Ramasagaram, Fred Chang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0233
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
An oil pump is an important component of the automotive powertrain, which can potentially help improve fuel economy and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This can be achieved not only through a lightweight design, but also through an increase in engine efficiency by drawing the optimal amount of energy for its operation. This paper discusses the engineering design and development of a plastic automotive engine oil pump as an alternative to current metal oil pumps. Detailed component design features to ensure the working of the plastic pump under harsh chemical, temperature and vibration environment are discussed. The proposed design integrates several parts and uses unique plastic design elements to improve upon current metal design. Innovative joining methods and assembly sequencing are implemented to maintain pump efficiency and functional precision. Use of self-lubricating plastics to increase engine efficiency by reducing wear between moving parts is explored. Data and findings from extensive structural and processing simulations, as well as high temperature and long-term material tests, carried out during the design phase to ensure structural integrity and manufacturability…
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Experimental Characterizations of the Fracture Data of a Third Generation Advanced High Strength Steel

United States Steel Corp.-Lu Huang, Ming Shi, Dan Crosby
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0205
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The simulation of a crash event in the design stage of a vehicle facilitates the optimization of crashworthiness and significantly reduces the design cost and time. The development of a fracture material card used in crash simulation is heavily dependent on laboratory testing data. In this paper, the experimental characterization process to generate fracture data for fracture model calibration is discussed. A third-generation advanced high strength steel (AHSS), namely the XG3TM steel, is selected as the example material. For fracture model calibration, fracture locus and load-displacement data are obtained using mechanical testing coupled with digital image correlation (DIC) technique. Test coupons with designed geometries are deformed under different deformation modes including shear, uniaxial tension, plane strain and biaxial stretch conditions. Mini-shear, sub-sized tensile, and Marciniak cup tests are employed to achieve these strain conditions. The gage length sensitivity is analyzed under uniaxial tension and equi-biaxial stretch conditions as references for the mesh regularization in the generalized incremental stress state dependent damage model (GISSMO). The experimental practices discussed in this study are used to generate a…