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Improved Wear Resistance of Austempered Gray Cast Iron Using Shot-Peening Treatment

Oakland University-Yu Liu, Gary Barber
Zhejiang Sci-Tech University-Weiwei Cui, Bingxu Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1098
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this research, ball-on-plate reciprocating sliding wear tests were utilized on austempered and quench-tempered gray cast iron samples with and without shot-peening treatment. The wear volume loss of the gray cast iron samples with different heat treatment designs was compared under equivalent hardness. The phase transformation in the matrix was studied using metallurgical evaluation and hardness measurement. It was found that thin needle-like ferrite became coarse gradually with increasing austempering temperature and was converted into feather-like shape when using the austempering temperatures of 399°C (750°F). The residual stress on the surface and sub-surface before and after shot-peening treatment was analyzed using x-ray diffraction. Compressive residual stress was produced after shot-peening treatment and showed an increasing trend with austempering temperature. In sliding wear tests, austempered gray cast iron had lower wear volume loss than quench-tempered gray cast iron before and after shot-peening treatment. The wear tracks were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Delamination and smearing were the main wear mechanisms on the gray cast iron samples.
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Cleaning and Preparation of Metal Surfaces

AMS B Finishes Processes and Fluids Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS03_2C
  • Current
Published 2020-02-25 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard specifies processes for the cleaning of metal surfaces to remove any extraneous or undesirable material or deposits at any stage of manufacture, storage or service and for the preparation of these surfaces for further treatment. Any necessary stress-relieving treatments are also included. This Standard does not override special preparatory procedures specified in individual Defence Standards, Defence Specifications, DTD Process Specifications, DG Ships Specifications and Naval Defence Standards. It also does not cover cleaning operations associated with the maintenance of internal combustion engines, the preliminary removal of heavy deposits of oil, grease, or dirt accumulated during operational service, preparations for welding and the cleaning of electrical contacts.
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Wire Fed Laser Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing Process (L-DED-wire)

AMS AM Additive Manufacturing Metals
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS7010
  • Current
Published 2020-01-14 by SAE International in United States
This specification establishes process controls for the repeatable production of preforms using the wire fed laser directed energy deposition (L-DED-wire) process for additive manufacturing. Preforms are intended to be used to manufacture aerospace parts, but usage is not limited to such applications.
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Titanium Alloy Bars, Forgings and Forging Stock 7.0Al - 4.0Mo Annealed

AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS6915C
  • Current
Published 2020-01-14 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of bars up through 6.000 inches (152.40 mm) inclusive, in nominal diameter or least distance between parallel sides, forgings of thickness up through 6.000 inches (152.40 mm), inclusive and stock for forging of any size.
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Microstructural Characterization of Hot Stamped Parts After Partial Hardening

BENTELER Automotive-Tiago Santos Pinheiro
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0113
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Hot forming is a process that has been on the spotlight of body-in-white recent developments, globally it was estimated that around 500 million parts would be produced in 2018. During the process, a blank of a 22MnB5 steel is heated, above 900 °C, in the austenite field, formed and quenched in the pressing machine, with the goal of producing a part with ultimate tensile strength (UTS) around 1500 MPa, achieved by a fully martensitic microstructure. However, from the point of view of crashworthiness, not all body in white components benefit from a fully martensitic microstructure. Alternative process routes have been proposed to achieve properties that are tailored to the part’s final application. In one of these process variants, known as partial hardening, the blank is heated in a furnace that operates with two parallel zones, each at a different temperature (one zone between 650 and 750 °C and one between 900 and 930°C), resulting in the blank having two main zones with different final temperatures, and a transition zone between them. This difference in temperature…
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Multicriteria Optimization, Sensitivity Analysis, and Prediction of Bond Characteristics of Vacuum Diffusion Bonded Aero Engine Ti6Al4V Alloy Joints

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Annamalai University, India-T. Pragatheswaran, S. Rajakumar, V. Balasubramanian, S. Kavitha
Materials Group, Gas Turbine Research Establishment (GTRE), India-Vijay Petley, Shweta Verma
  • Journal Article
  • 01-12-02-0008
Published 2019-12-13 by SAE International in United States
Joining titanium (Ti) alloys with conventional processes is difficult due to their complex structural properties and ability of phase transformation. Concerning all the difficulties, diffusion bonding is considered as an appropriate process for joining Ti alloys. Ti6Al4V, which is an α+β alloy widely used for aero engine component manufacturing, is diffusion bonded in this investigation. The diffusion bonding process parameters such as bonding temperature, bonding pressure, and holding time were optimized to achieve desired bonding characteristics such as shear strength, bonding strength, bonding ratio, and thickness ratio using response surface methodology (RSM). Empirical relationships were developed for the prediction of the bond characteristics, and sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the increment and decrement tendency of the shear strength with respect to the bonding parameters. Various criteria were applied to achieve the desired bond characteristics and their effects; optimum values and limits were evaluated through graphical and numerical optimization. The predicted and experimented results are validated and found that they are in good agreement with each other. The microstructural examination and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis…
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Metallic Whiskers

AMS B Finishes Processes and Fluids Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR4129A
  • Current
Published 2019-10-17 by SAE International in United States
This AIR presents an abbreviated review of the metallurgical phenomena known as whiskers. It is not all encompassing; rather, it is intended to introduce the design engineer to the technical issues of metallic whiskers, their formation, and the potentially dangerous problems they can cause.
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Investigation of Metallurgical and Mechanical Properties of Hastelloy X by Key-Hole Plasma Arc Welding Process

Vellore Institute of Technology-Mathiyazhagan Sathishkumar, Chooriyaparambil Damodaran Naiju, Manoharan Manikandan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
This research work describes the effect of microsegregation, microstructure and tensile strength of the Hastelloy X weldment produced by keyhole plasma arc welding (K-PAW). Weld joint was obtained in a single pass without the addition of filler wire. The significant results obtained in this research work are (i) fine equiaxed dendrite was detected in the weld centre due to lesser heat input (HI) along with the faster solidification attained in K-PAW (ii) The existence of secondary precipitates in the interdendritic boundary was identified by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis (iii) Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS) revealed the Cr and Mo microsegregation in interdendritic boundary of the weld zone (iv) X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the Mo-rich P phase and Cr-rich M23C6 phase. The observed tensile strength of weldment is 6.14 % inferior to base metal. The development of secondary precipitates in the weld zone affected the tensile properties of the weld joint.
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Mechanical and Metallurgical Analysis of HSLA Steel for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding with Different Shielding Gases

CSI College of Engineering-Dhanraj Gurusamy, Prashanth Murthy, Senthilkumar Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar Nanjappan
Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology-Soundararajan Ranganathan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The special designed HSLA (High Speed Low Alloy) Steel is most commonly used in Naval Steel Structures and aircraft structures due to its indigenous properties. The aim of this paper is used to investigate the effect of shielding gases in the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process. DMR 249A [HSLA] plates were welded by GTAW by using helium and argon as shielding gas with a flow rate of 16 L/min, the interpass temperature is 140 degree Celsius and the heat input is less than 1.2KJ/min where the impact toughness, Tensile and micro hardness was studied with different shielding gas and the metallurgical properties were analysed in the base metal, heat affected zones and weld zones. A detailed study has been carried out to analyze the elements using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The properties of the high speed low alloy steel carried out reveals a better mechanical properties suitable in naval applications.
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Metallurgical and Wear Behaviour of Stellite 6 Reinforced Stainless Steel 316 Joints by Nd-YAG Laser Welding Process

BSACIST-Varun Kumar Arulvizhi, Selvakumar Alandur Somasundaram, Balasrinivasan Murugan, Ravikumar Natarajan
Renault & Nissan-Abdur Rahman Kalam
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Laser welding process is a most effective and predominant method for joining of steel alloys when compared with other welding processes in practice due to their precise control of laser source across the bonding zone where it is crucial to control in other joining processes. In common the austenitic steels differ from ferritic based on two factors, thermal conductivity and expansion. Here, the selected Nd-YAG laser setup for joining of similar base material stainless steel 316 which is reinforced with and without stellite 6 powders. The experimental investigations (metallurgical survey and wear characteristics) were performed on all the samples. The powders were reinforced in the material directly by performing a drill across the bond line instead of a normal coating process which is in practice, later the powders were stuffed through the holes. Totally four samples were processed by varying the process parameters such as laser power (W), laser frequency (Hz) and keeping the time (s), feeding rate (mm/s) as constant. During the joining process the powders will get solidified with the molten steel alloy.…
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