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Pre-validation method of steering system by using hybrid simulation

Hyundai Motor Company-Hong Suk Chang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0645
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this study, the preliminary validation method of the steering system is constructed and the objective is to satisfy the target performance while minimizing the problems after the detailed design considering it in the conceptual design stage. The first consideration about steering system is how to extract the reliable steering effort for parking. The tire model commonly used in MBD has limited ability to represent deformations under heavy loads. Therefore, it is necessary to study adequate tire model to simulate the behavior due to the large deformation and friction between the ground and the tire. The two approaches related with F tire model and mathematical model are used. The second is how to extract the each link’s load in the conceptual design stage. Until now, each link’s load is derived by the actual vehicle test, and a durability analysis was performed using the pre-settled RIG test conditions. Therefore, in this study, we established the process of deriving the RIG test conditions by integrating the hydraulic system and the dynamic system without actual vehicle test. The…
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Towing Equipment Ratings and Practices

Motor Vehicle Council
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2512_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-24 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to all trucks that are equipped with armlift bodies, carrier bodies, wheel lift bodies, wrecker, and underlift bodies. Additional rating methods are provided for tow slings, truck hitches, and chain assemblies.
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Empirical Investigation on the Effects of Rolling Resistance and Weight on Fuel Economy of Medium-Duty Trucks

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

AxleTech, USA-Molly O’Malley
Primus Solutions Inc., USA-Brandon Card
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-03-0016
Published 2019-08-28 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle rolling resistance and weight are two of the factors that affect fuel economy. The vehicle tire rolling resistance has a more significant influence than aerodynamics drags on fuel economy at lower vehicle speeds, particularly true for medium- and heavy-duty trucks. Less vehicle weight reduces inertia loads, uphill grade resistance, and rolling resistance. The influence of weight on the fuel economy can be considerable particularly in light- to medium-duty truck classes because the weight makes up a larger portion of gross vehicle weight. This article presents an empirical investigation and a numerical analysis of the influences of rolling resistance and weight on the fuel economy of medium-duty trucks. The experimental tests include various tires and payloads applied on a total of 21vehicle configurations over three road profiles. These tests assessed the sensitivity of the vehicle’s fuel economy toward rolling resistance and weight. Several experimental results showed inconsistent and counterintuitive trends of the effects of rolling resistance coefficients and weights on fuel economy. The consequences of rolling resistance and vehicle payload are compound and influenced by…
Open Access

An Investigation of the Influence of Close-Proximity Traffic on the Aerodynamic Drag Experienced by Tractor-Trailer Combinations

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

National Research Council Canada-Brian McAuliffe, Mojtaba Ahmadi-Baloutaki
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0648
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Recent research to investigate the aerodynamic-drag reduction associated with truck platooning systems has begun to reveal that surrounding traffic has a measurable impact on the aerodynamic performance of heavy trucks. A 1/15-scale wind-tunnel study was undertaken to measure changes to the aerodynamic drag experienced by heavy trucks in the presence of upstream traffic. The results, which are based on traffic conditions with up to 5 surrounding vehicles in a 2-lane configuration and consisting of 3 vehicle shapes (compact sedans, SUVs, and a medium-duty truck), show drag reductions of 1% to 16% for the heavy truck model, with the largest reductions of the same order as those experienced in a truck-platooning scenario. The data also reveal that the performance of drag-reduction technologies applied to the heavy-truck model (trailer side-skirts and a boat-tail) demonstrate different performance when applied to an isolated vehicle than to conditions with surrounding traffic. The results suggest that vehicle shape optimization strategies may differ if the influence of wake effects from surrounding traffic is included in product development cycles. Additionally, truck-platooning benefits should…
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SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: February 2019

  • Magazine Issue
  • 19TOFHP02
Published 2019-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Over-the-air affair Remote updating of software and firmware on commercial trucks and off-highway machines is on the rise, not only for maintenance functions but also to add new features like operator-assist technology.Developments in engine-based gensets With demand for generator sets steady and regulatory change settling, suppliers can rationalize their offerings and push improvements in areas like noise abatement and economy.Testing, testing and even more testing The commercial-vehicle market is eager to adopt more ADAS and automated-driving innovations, but before those technologies get to the road they must first pass rigorous testing practices that prove their efficacy.Smart and connected powertrains FPT Tech Day reveals multi-power Cursor X concept, other "4.0 innovations" for hydrogen fuel cell, electric and natural gas propulsion.Editorial Medium-duty trucks make headway- and headlinesVolvo CE, Skanska demonstrate concept electric siteArgus responds over-the-air to combat new cyber threatsSAE updates J3016 automated-driving graphicTekscan goes fast-track with its high-speed tire scanningEmerson proposes electric-powered heat pumps for school busesCaterpillar Ventures invests in Fisker for electric futureDeere displays ag equipment at CES to tout software, AI techQ&A Tenneco talks…
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EDITORIAL: Medium-duty trucks make headway-and headlines

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: February 2019

Editor-in-Chief-Ryan Gehm
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP02_05
Published 2019-02-01 by SAE International in United States

Trucks in the medium-duty and heavy-duty pickup segments have been capturing headlines of late, with new production-vehicle launches and major product introductions at trade shows hitting at an accelerated pace.

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Drivetrain Analysis and Optimization of a Two-Speed Class-4 Electric Delivery Truck

McGill University-Alexei Morozov, Kieran Humphries, Tanvir Rahman, Ting Zou, Jorge Angeles
Published 2019-01-18 by SAE International in United States
The development, analysis, and comparison of battery electric class-4 medium-duty trucks equipped with three possible powertrain layouts, namely, direct drive, single-speed gearbox, and two-speed transmission options, are discussed in this paper. The problem definition is included and the performance evaluation criteria for the proposed truck architectures are defined, namely, acceleration time, top speed, and efficiency. Designs of four new traction motors are proposed and their benefits compared for use in medium-duty electric trucks (e-trucks). The procedure for gear-ratio range selection is outlined, the ranges of gear ratios for the single-speed gearbox and two-speed transmission powertrains being calculated for each of the proposed electric traction motors. The simulation and gear-ratio optimization tasks for the e-trucks are formulated. The energy consumption of the e-truck with the three possible powertrain combinations is minimized over the six driving cycles. The most efficient powertrain layouts that meet the performance criteria are determined.
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2-Stroke Engine Options for Automotive Use: A Fundamental Comparison of Different Potential Scavenging Arrangements for Medium-Duty Truck Applications

Saudi Aramco-Robert A. Head, Junseok Chang, Nayan Engineer
University of Bath-James W. G. Turner, Roshan Wijetunge, David W. Blundell, Paul Burke
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
The work presented here seeks to compare different means of providing scavenging systems for an automotive 2-stroke engine. It follows on from previous work solely investigating uniflow scavenging systems, and aims to provide context for the results discovered there as well as to assess the benefits of a new scavenging system: the reverse-uniflow sleeve-valve.For the study the general performance of the engine was taken to be suitable to power a medium-duty truck, and all of the concepts discussed here were compared in terms of indicated fuel consumption for the same cylinder swept volume using a one-dimensional engine simulation package. In order to investigate the sleeve-valve designs layout drawings and analysis of the Rolls-Royce Crecy-type sleeve had to be undertaken.A new methodology for optimization was developed and the analysis process also took into account work done by the charging system, this being assumed to be a combination of supercharger and turbocharger to permit some exhaust waste heat recovery.As a result of this work it was found that the opposed-piston configuration provides the best attributes since it…
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Medium/Heavy-Duty E/E Systems Diagnosis Nomenclature

Truck Bus Control and Communications Network Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2403_201812
  • Current
Published 2018-12-19 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is applicable to all E/E systems on MD and HD vehicles. The terms defined are largely focused on compression-ignited and spark-ignited engines. Specific applications of this document include diagnostic, service and repair manuals, bulletins and updates, training manuals, repair data bases, under-hood emission labels, and emission certification applications. This document focuses on diagnostic terms, definitions, abbreviations, and acronyms applicable to E/E systems. It also covers mechanical systems which require definition. Nothing in this document should be construed as prohibiting the introduction of a term, abbreviation, or acronym not covered by this document. The use and appropriate updating of this document is strongly encouraged. Certain terms have already been in common use and are readily understood by manufacturers and technicians, but do not follow the methodology of this document. These terms fall into three categories: a Acronyms that do not logically fit the term. b Acronyms existing at the component level (i.e., their terms contain the base word or noun that describes the generic item that is being further defined). c Acronyms…
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Electric Vehicle Power Transfer System Using a Three-Phase Capable Coupler

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3068_201804
  • Current
Published 2018-04-25 by SAE International in United States
This document covers the general physical, electrical, functional, testing, and performance requirements for conductive power transfer to an Electric Vehicle using a Coupler capable of, but not limited to, transferring three-phase AC power. It defines a conductive power transfer method including the digital communication system. It also covers the functional and dimensional requirements for the Electric Vehicle Inlet, Supply Equipment Connector, and mating housings and contacts. Moveable charging equipment such as a service truck with charging facilities are within scope. Charging while moving (or in-route-charging) is not in scope.
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