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The Ultra Low Emissions Potential of the Recuperated Split Cycle Combustion System

Dolphin N2 Ltd-Nicholas Owen
Ricardo UK Ltd-Rhys Pickett, Andrew Atkins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0189
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The recuperated split cycle engine is a fundamentally new class of internal combustion engine that offers a step change is thermal efficiency over conventional Otto and Diesel cycle engines – 50% brake thermal efficiency in its simplest form, approaching 60% with intensively cooled compression. The technology targets the heavy duty, long-haul sector where electrification is most challenging. In a split cycle engine, the compression and expansion strokes are performed in different cylinders. Waste exhaust heat is recovered between the compression and combustion cylinders via a recuperator which gives precise control of the charge temperature. Recent experimental and analytical research has shown the split cycle combustion system also has the potential to achieve ultra-low emissions. Experimental studies on a one litre single cylinder research engine, representative of a typical medium duty truck engine have showed engine out NOx emissions of less than 110ppm at mid speed – mid load, typical of a motorway cruise condition. Rigorous analysis of the impact of applying an SCR based aftertreatment system showed tailpipe NOx emissions of less than 5ppm are…

An Investigation of the Influence of Close-Proximity Traffic on the Aerodynamic Drag Experienced by Tractor-Trailer Combinations

National Research Council Canada-Brian McAuliffe, Mojtaba Ahmadi-Baloutaki
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Recent research to investigate the aerodynamic-drag reduction associated with truck platooning systems has begun to reveal that surrounding traffic has a measurable impact on the aerodynamic performance of heavy trucks. A 1/15-scale wind-tunnel study was undertaken to measure changes to the aerodynamic drag experienced by heavy trucks in the presence of upstream traffic. The results, which are based on traffic conditions with up to 5 surrounding vehicles in a 2-lane configuration and consisting of 3 vehicle shapes (compact sedans, SUVs, and a medium-duty truck), show drag reductions of 1% to 16% for the heavy truck model, with the largest reductions of the same order as those experienced in a truck-platooning scenario. The data also reveal that the performance of drag-reduction technologies applied to the heavy-truck model (trailer side-skirts and a boat-tail) demonstrate different performance when applied to an isolated vehicle than to conditions with surrounding traffic. The results suggest that vehicle shape optimization strategies may differ if the influence of wake effects from surrounding traffic is included in product development cycles. Additionally, truck-platooning benefits should…
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SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: February 2019

  • Magazine Issue
  • 19TOFHP02
Published 2019-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Over-the-air affair Remote updating of software and firmware on commercial trucks and off-highway machines is on the rise, not only for maintenance functions but also to add new features like operator-assist technology.Developments in engine-based gensets With demand for generator sets steady and regulatory change settling, suppliers can rationalize their offerings and push improvements in areas like noise abatement and economy.Testing, testing and even more testing The commercial-vehicle market is eager to adopt more ADAS and automated-driving innovations, but before those technologies get to the road they must first pass rigorous testing practices that prove their efficacy.Smart and connected powertrains FPT Tech Day reveals multi-power Cursor X concept, other "4.0 innovations" for hydrogen fuel cell, electric and natural gas propulsion.Editorial Medium-duty trucks make headway- and headlinesVolvo CE, Skanska demonstrate concept electric siteArgus responds over-the-air to combat new cyber threatsSAE updates J3016 automated-driving graphicTekscan goes fast-track with its high-speed tire scanningEmerson proposes electric-powered heat pumps for school busesCaterpillar Ventures invests in Fisker for electric futureDeere displays ag equipment at CES to tout software, AI techQ&A Tenneco talks…

EDITORIAL: Medium-duty trucks make headway-and headlines

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: February 2019

Editor-in-Chief-Ryan Gehm
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP02_05
Published 2019-02-01 by SAE International in United States

Trucks in the medium-duty and heavy-duty pickup segments have been capturing headlines of late, with new production-vehicle launches and major product introductions at trade shows hitting at an accelerated pace.

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Drivetrain Analysis and Optimization of a Two-Speed Class-4 Electric Delivery Truck

McGill University-Alexei Morozov, Kieran Humphries, Tanvir Rahman, Ting Zou, Jorge Angeles
Published 2019-01-18 by SAE International in United States
The development, analysis, and comparison of battery electric class-4 medium-duty trucks equipped with three possible powertrain layouts, namely, direct drive, single-speed gearbox, and two-speed transmission options, are discussed in this paper. The problem definition is included and the performance evaluation criteria for the proposed truck architectures are defined, namely, acceleration time, top speed, and efficiency. Designs of four new traction motors are proposed and their benefits compared for use in medium-duty electric trucks (e-trucks). The procedure for gear-ratio range selection is outlined, the ranges of gear ratios for the single-speed gearbox and two-speed transmission powertrains being calculated for each of the proposed electric traction motors. The simulation and gear-ratio optimization tasks for the e-trucks are formulated. The energy consumption of the e-truck with the three possible powertrain combinations is minimized over the six driving cycles. The most efficient powertrain layouts that meet the performance criteria are determined.
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2-Stroke Engine Options for Automotive Use: A Fundamental Comparison of Different Potential Scavenging Arrangements for Medium-Duty Truck Applications

Saudi Aramco-Robert A. Head, Junseok Chang, Nayan Engineer
University of Bath-James W. G. Turner, Roshan Wijetunge, David W. Blundell, Paul Burke
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
The work presented here seeks to compare different means of providing scavenging systems for an automotive 2-stroke engine. It follows on from previous work solely investigating uniflow scavenging systems, and aims to provide context for the results discovered there as well as to assess the benefits of a new scavenging system: the reverse-uniflow sleeve-valve.For the study the general performance of the engine was taken to be suitable to power a medium-duty truck, and all of the concepts discussed here were compared in terms of indicated fuel consumption for the same cylinder swept volume using a one-dimensional engine simulation package. In order to investigate the sleeve-valve designs layout drawings and analysis of the Rolls-Royce Crecy-type sleeve had to be undertaken.A new methodology for optimization was developed and the analysis process also took into account work done by the charging system, this being assumed to be a combination of supercharger and turbocharger to permit some exhaust waste heat recovery.As a result of this work it was found that the opposed-piston configuration provides the best attributes since it…
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Medium/Heavy-Duty E/E Systems Diagnosis Nomenclature

Truck Bus Control and Communications Network Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2403_201812
  • Current
Published 2018-12-19 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is applicable to all E/E systems on MD and HD vehicles. The terms defined are largely focused on compression-ignited and spark-ignited engines. Specific applications of this document include diagnostic, service and repair manuals, bulletins and updates, training manuals, repair data bases, under-hood emission labels, and emission certification applications. This document focuses on diagnostic terms, definitions, abbreviations, and acronyms applicable to E/E systems. It also covers mechanical systems which require definition. Nothing in this document should be construed as prohibiting the introduction of a term, abbreviation, or acronym not covered by this document. The use and appropriate updating of this document is strongly encouraged. Certain terms have already been in common use and are readily understood by manufacturers and technicians, but do not follow the methodology of this document. These terms fall into three categories: a Acronyms that do not logically fit the term. b Acronyms existing at the component level (i.e., their terms contain the base word or noun that describes the generic item that is being further defined). c Acronyms…
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Electric Vehicle Power Transfer System Using a Three-Phase Capable Coupler

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3068_201804
  • Current
Published 2018-04-25 by SAE International in United States
This document covers the general physical, electrical, functional, testing, and performance requirements for conductive power transfer to an Electric Vehicle using a Coupler capable of, but not limited to, transferring three-phase AC power. It defines a conductive power transfer method including the digital communication system. It also covers the functional and dimensional requirements for the Electric Vehicle Inlet, Supply Equipment Connector, and mating housings and contacts. Moveable charging equipment such as a service truck with charging facilities are within scope. Charging while moving (or in-route-charging) is not in scope.
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Steering Shaft Separation with a Collision Involved Heavy Duty Steering Gear

Exponent Inc.-Robert Larson, Charles Retallack
U-Haul Intl.-Michael Mikhailov
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
A crash of a medium duty truck led to a study of the failure mechanism of the truck’s steering system. The truck, after being involved in a multi-vehicle vehicle collision, was found with its steering input shaft disconnected from the steering gear. The question arose whether the steering gear failure was a result of the collision, or causative to the collision. An in-depth investigation was conducted into whether forces on the vehicle due to the collision could cause the steering shaft to separate from the steering gear. Additionally, the performance of the steering gear with the adjuster nut progressively backed off was studied to determine the feedback a driver would receive if the steering gear came progressively apart. From the results of these studies, conclusions with regard to the crash causation were reached.
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Real World Performance of an Onboard Gasoline/Ethanol Separation System to Enable Knock Suppression Using an Octane-On-Demand Fuel System

3M Company-Scott Seitz, Ravi Kolakaluri
Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Emmanuel Kasseris, John B. Heywood
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Higher compression ratio and turbocharging, with engine downsizing can enable significant gains in fuel economy but require engine operating conditions that cause engine knock under high load. Engine knock can be avoided by supplying higher-octane fuel under such high load conditions. This study builds on previous MIT papers investigating Octane-On-Demand (OOD) to enable a higher efficiency, higher-boost higher compression-ratio engine. The high-octane fuel for OOD can be obtained through On-Board-Separation (OBS) of alcohol blended gasoline. Fuel from the primary fuel tank filled with commercially available gasoline that contains 10% by volume ethanol (E10) is separated by an organic membrane pervaporation process that produces a 30 to 90% ethanol fuel blend for use when high octane is needed. In addition to previous work, this paper combines modeling of the OBS system with passenger car and medium-duty truck fuel consumption and octane requirements for various driving cycles. Medium duty driving cycles were included; HHDDT cruise mode for long-haul heavy truck cruising and HTUF 4 for delivery truck duty. Commercial vehicle modeling was done under unloaded, half and…
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