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Marine Electrical Switches

Marine Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1320_201906
  • Current
Published 2019-06-06 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Recommended Practice covers the requirements for switches used in marine applications both under and over 50 V.

 
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Panoramic Thermal Imaging Technology

Aerospace & Defense Technology: June 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP06_03
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

A New Concept in Naval Defense

SPYNEL sensors are passive wide area surveillance systems with automatic intrusion detection and tracking capabilities. The 360° thermal sensors offer 24/7 situational awareness by detecting and tracking an unlimited number of targets in real time, on land, air and sea. HGH Infrared Systems recently won a multimillion contract from a leading shipyard, to equip three new warships with the latest generation of SPYNEL panoramic thermal cameras.

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Assessment of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) Applicability as an Alternative Marine Fuel Based on Its Performance and Emissions Characteristics

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway-Sergey Ushakov, Nicolas Lefebvre
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-02-0007
Published 2019-05-16 by SAE International in United States
In current study, the combustion and emission characteristics of hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) were studied and compared to those of conventional marine gas oil (MGO). The main goal was to verify its applicability as an alternative marine fuel. All experiments were performed using generator set and propeller-law test cycles, i.e., standardized E2 and E3 cycles respectively. Additional emphasis was paid to the particulate matter (PM) emissions combining gravimetric and particle number measurements. The obtained results indicate average 10-15 % reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, while total unburned hydrocarbons (THC) emissions were reduced by 50-55 %. It is believed that a much higher cetane number of HVO together with its superior chemical composition (overall higher H/C ratio, absence of aromatics and heavy-boiling compounds) plays a vital role here. This may also explain the observed around 30 % PM mass reduction, which however showed a strong dependence on load (fuel-air ratio) and speed (time available for combustion) settings. Measured particle size distributions showed a clearly unimodal nature for both the tested fuels with pronounced accumulation (soot)…
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Sound Attenuation of Neoprene Wetsuit Hoods as a Function of Dive Depth and Acoustic Frequency: Hyperbaric Chamber Trials

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34337
Published 2019-05-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The U.S. Navy is interested in strategies that divers could employ to protect them from loud underwater sounds. Sonar transmissions and other forms of underwater sound, such as that produced by noisy underwater tools, are an occupational hazard for U.S. Navy divers.

 

Underwater Drone Technology

Aerospace & Defense Technology: May 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP05_03
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

Finding ways to overcome physical limitations so that humans can dive deeper and stay underwater longer has been an ongoing quest. Back in the 15th century, Leonardo Da Vinci drew sketches of a submarine and a robot. Had he thought to combine the two concepts, he would have created a prototype of an unmanned underwater vehicle, or underwater drone. Instead, the world had to wait another five hundred years.

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Monitoring a Nearshore Beneficial Use Site: Application of a Benthic Sled and Video Annotation

Aerospace & Defense Technology: May 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP05_07
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

Passive survey method provides less labor and resource intensive system for monitoring the effects of dredging on aquatic life in nearshore beneficial use sites.

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Portland Districts (NWP) maintains safe and navigable waterways in Oregon through a variety of dredging projects, including channel deepening, and dredging sandbars. Placement of dredged sediment occurs at preselected, specific geographic areas categorized as nearshore beneficial use sites. Beneficial use sites are commonly monitored before, during, and after disposal, to evaluate dredge management practices and to avoid potentially adverse effects to the marine environment.

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Underwater Drone Technology

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34329
Published 2019-05-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Finding ways to overcome physical limitations so that humans can dive deeper and stay underwater longer has been an ongoing quest. Back in the 15th century, Leonardo Da Vinci drew sketches of a submarine and a robot. Had he thought to combine the two concepts, he would have created a prototype of an unmanned underwater vehicle, or underwater drone. Instead, the world had to wait another five hundred years.

 

Ducted Fuel Injection: Effects of Stand-Off Distance and Duct Length on Soot Reduction

Caterpillar Inc.-Kenth I. Svensson, Glen C. Martin
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Ducted fuel injection (DFI) has been shown to be an effective method to significantly reduce soot formation in mixing controlled compression ignition (MCCI) diesel combustion. This reduction has been demonstrated in both combustion vessels and in an optical engine. The mechanisms driving the soot reduction are to date not fully understood. Optimal duct configurations are also not immediately evident. The objective of this study is to show the effects of two geometric variables, namely distance from fuel injector orifice exit to duct inlet (0.1-6 mm) for a 2x14 mm duct, and duct length variation (8-14 mm) at a given stand-off distance of 0.1 mm.A 138 μm on-axis single-orifice injector operated at 100-250 MPa was used in a heated, continuous flow, constant pressure vessel with optical access. Results show that the shortest stand-off distance of 0.1 mm yields the greatest soot reduction for a 2x14 mm duct, but interpretation of this result is confounded by the fact that the ambient air entrained into the duct gets cooler and denser at shorter stand-off distances. Also, at the…
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Numerical Investigation of Wiper Drawback

Dassault Systemes-Jonathan Jilesen
Exa Corporation-Tom Linden
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Windscreen wipers are an integral component of the windscreen cleaning systems of most vehicles, trains, cars, trucks, boats and some planes. Wipers are used to clear rain, snow, and dirt from the windscreen pushing the water from the wiped surface. Under certain conditions however, water which has been driven to the edge of the windscreen by the wiper can be drawn back into the driver’s field of view by aerodynamic forces introduced by the wiper motion. This is wiper drawback, an undesirable phenomenon as the water which is drawn back on to the windscreen can reduce driver’s vision and makes the wiper less effective.The phenomena of wiper drawback can be tested for in climatic tunnels using sprayer systems to wet the windscreen. However, these tests require a bespoke test property or prototype vehicle, which means that the tests are done fairly late in the development of the vehicle. Furthermore, these results do not provide significant insight into the mechanisms driving the wiper drawback.In order to better understand wiper drawback a numerical simulation is presented of…
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Visualization and Analysis of Gaseous Jet Process for an Outward-Opening Nozzle

Leonid Grekhov
Harbin Engineering University-Jianhui Zhao, Weilong Liu
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In this article, the effects on the jet process of natural gas through an outward-opening nozzle were analyzed at different pressure ratios (PR). The visualization and analysis of the jet process was based on Schlieren methods. High-speed Schlieren imaging was used to capture the growth of the transient gas jet in a constant volume vessel (CVV) under atmospheric conditions. The experimental results revealed an increase in the radial and axial penetrations in accordance with an increase in the PR. The jet process of the outward-opening nozzle can be divided into two stages, according to the ratio of the radial penetration to the axial penetration. The spread angle increased with the advancement of the gas jet at the initial phase of the jet process. After this phase, the spread angle decreased to a constant value. The appearance of the constant value is directly related to the PR. The peak velocity increased with an increase in the PR. Moreover, the difference between the velocities of the jet and surrounding air was large, which was conducive to the…
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