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Ducted Fuel Injection: Effects of Stand-Off Distance and Duct Length on Soot Reduction

Caterpillar Inc.-Kenth I. Svensson, Glen C. Martin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0545
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Ducted fuel injection (DFI) has been shown to be an effective method to significantly reduce soot formation in mixing controlled compression ignition (MCCI) diesel combustion. This reduction has been demonstrated in both combustion vessels and in an optical engine. The mechanisms driving the soot reduction are to date not fully understood. Optimal duct configurations are also not immediately evident. The objective of this study is to show the effects of two geometric variables, namely distance from fuel injector orifice exit to duct inlet (0.1-6 mm) for a 2x14 mm duct, and duct length variation (8-14 mm) at a given stand-off distance of 0.1 mm.A 138 μm on-axis single-orifice injector operated at 100-250 MPa was used in a heated, continuous flow, constant pressure vessel with optical access. Results show that the shortest stand-off distance of 0.1 mm yields the greatest soot reduction for a 2x14 mm duct, but interpretation of this result is confounded by the fact that the ambient air entrained into the duct gets cooler and denser at shorter stand-off distances. Also, at the…
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Numerical Investigation of Wiper Drawback

Dassault Systemes-Jonathan Jilesen
Exa Corporation-Tom Linden
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0640
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Windscreen wipers are an integral component of the windscreen cleaning systems of most vehicles, trains, cars, trucks, boats and some planes. Wipers are used to clear rain, snow, and dirt from the windscreen pushing the water from the wiped surface. Under certain conditions however, water which has been driven to the edge of the windscreen by the wiper can be drawn back into the driver’s field of view by aerodynamic forces introduced by the wiper motion. This is wiper drawback, an undesirable phenomenon as the water which is drawn back on to the windscreen can reduce driver’s vision and makes the wiper less effective.The phenomena of wiper drawback can be tested for in climatic tunnels using sprayer systems to wet the windscreen. However, these tests require a bespoke test property or prototype vehicle, which means that the tests are done fairly late in the development of the vehicle. Furthermore, these results do not provide significant insight into the mechanisms driving the wiper drawback.In order to better understand wiper drawback a numerical simulation is presented of…
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Visualization and Analysis of Gaseous Jet Process for an Outward-Opening Nozzle

Leonid Grekhov
Harbin Engineering University-Jianhui Zhao, Weilong Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0275
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In this article, the effects on the jet process of natural gas through an outward-opening nozzle were analyzed at different pressure ratios (PR). The visualization and analysis of the jet process was based on Schlieren methods. High-speed Schlieren imaging was used to capture the growth of the transient gas jet in a constant volume vessel (CVV) under atmospheric conditions. The experimental results revealed an increase in the radial and axial penetrations in accordance with an increase in the PR. The jet process of the outward-opening nozzle can be divided into two stages, according to the ratio of the radial penetration to the axial penetration. The spread angle increased with the advancement of the gas jet at the initial phase of the jet process. After this phase, the spread angle decreased to a constant value. The appearance of the constant value is directly related to the PR. The peak velocity increased with an increase in the PR. Moreover, the difference between the velocities of the jet and surrounding air was large, which was conducive to the…
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A Study of ECN ‘Spray B’ in a Light-Duty Optically Accessible Diesel Engine Based on High-Speed Imaging with LED Retro-Reflection

University of Duisburg-Essen-Ming Zhao, Sebastian Kaiser
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0550
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The Diesel-type three-hole Spray B (injector 211201) of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) was used in a single-cylinder light-duty optically-accessible Diesel engine. A simple optical method was developed to quasi-simultaneously image both liquid and gas phase of the fuel spray as well as combustion at kHz rates by retro-reflection of pulsed LED light from the fire deck. From the images, liquid penetration length, fuel vapor penetration, spray dispersion angle, ignition delay, flame luminosity, and ignition location were determined. Wide-field imaging allowed for studying the nozzle hole-to-hole variation. In addition to a variation of ambient temperature and density to achieve the standard ECN condition, a variation of fuel rail pressure and swirl ratio was also investigated, under both non-reacting and reacting conditions. The results show physically reasonable variations with different operating conditions. At the same bulk temperature but a higher swirl ratio, the liquid length behaves slightly differently for different jets near the standard ECN condition; ignition occurs slightly later and temporally - but not spatially - more scattered and farther downwind in the swirl direction.…
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Text Tech: Navy Vessels Use Shipboard Signal Lamps for Text Messaging

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33893
Published 2019-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Sponsored by the Office of Naval Research's (ONR) TechSolutions program, the Flashing Light to Text Converter (FLTC) features a camera that can be mounted atop a signal lamp to receive Morse code bursts from another lamp within view. A hand-held device or laptop computer is connected to this camera to display text messages sent and received.


Alternate Solution for EV Charge Point Infrastructure in Crowded Urban Areas along the Shore

General Motors-Tushar Khanzode
General Motors Technical Center India-Varun Chakrapani, Shivayogi Tippannanavar
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Many countries including India have aggressively aimed to implement electric vehicles (EVs) usage from 2030 onwards. Companies such as General Motors, Uber, Waymo and Nissan etc. are exploring the realm of autonomous vehicles (AV) for use as taxis as early as 2019. Above facts logically arrive at the solution of Autonomous EVs as taxis. With the commitment towards enabling an all-electric future, there exists a need to provide suitable infrastructure for recharging. Major urban cities located by the shoreline such as New York, Hong Kong, Mumbai, Los Angeles etc. have been facing the space crunch, with real estate prices sky-rocketing exponentially. With this premise, the operating company would need a large amount of space to store their EVs for charging which attributes to a longer downtime. This brings a need for an economical charging location that has a reduced usage of urban infrastructure and energy consumption. This study explores the possibility of an alternate charging location for electric AV ride sharing fleet charging with “e-Barge”, a barge dedicated to charge EV vehicles onboard with self-generated…
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Qualified Hoses for Marine Applications

Hydraulic Hose and Hose Fittings Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1942/1_201812
  • Current
Published 2018-12-31 by SAE International in United States
The following list consists of hose data provided as of December 2018, and is for convenience in determining acceptability of nonmetallic flexible hose assemblies intended for usage under 46 CFR 56.60-25. Where the maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) or type of fitting is not specified, use the manufacturer's recommended MAWP or type of fitting. This list has been compiled by SAE Staff from information provided by the manufacturers whose product listings appear in this document. Manufacturers wishing to list their products in this document shall: a Successfully test their hose to the requirements of SAE J1942, Table 1. b Submit a letter of certification to the SAE J1942 test requirements for each specific type of hose tested (see sample table on page 4) along with the test results. All sizes should be included in the same letter which must also include all of the information necessary to make a SAE J1942-1 listing. c The SAE will review the letter and may, at their discretion, request to see further test results. A copy of the submittal…
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Submarine Swims Without an Engine

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33412
Published 2018-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Researchers have developed a new propulsion concept for swimming robots that exploits temperature fluctuations in the water for propulsion without the need for an engine, propellant, or power supply.


System Makes Opaque Materials Totally Transparent

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33411
Published 2018-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Most naturally occurring materials have a disordered atomic structure that interferes with the propagation of both sound and electromagnetic waves. When the waves come into contact with these materials, they bounce around and disperse — and their energy dissipates according to a highly complex interference pattern, diminishing in intensity. That means it's virtually impossible to transmit data or energy intact across wave-scattering media and fully leverage the potential of wave technology.


Shrimp-Inspired Camera May Enable Underwater Navigation

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33282
Published 2018-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The underwater environment may appear to the human eye as a dull-blue, featureless space. However, a vast landscape of polarization patterns appear when viewed through a camera that is designed to see the world through the eyes of many of the animals that inhabit the water.