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Instantaneous PLII and OH* Chemiluminescence Study on Wide Distillation Fuels, PODEn and Ethanol Blends in a Constant Volume Vessel.

Birmingham University-Hongming Xu
CNPC Ji Chai Power Co., Ltd.-Dong Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0340
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The combustion characteristics and soot emissions of three types of fuels were studied in a high pressure and temperature vessel. In order to achieve better volatility, proper cetane number and high oxygen content, the newly designed WDEP fuel was proposed and investigated. It is composed of wide distillation fuel (WD), PODE3-6 mixture (PODEn) and ethanol. For comparison, the test on WD and the mixture of PODEn-ethanol (EP) are also conducted. OH* chemiluminescence during the combustion was measured and instantaneous PLII was also applied to reveal the soot distribution. Abel transformation was adopted to calculate the total soot of axisymmetric flame. The results show that WDEP has similar ignition delays and flame lift-off lengths to those of WD at 870-920 K. But the initial ignition locations of WDEP flame in different cycles were more concentrated, particularly under the condition of low oxygen atmosphere. Comparing with WD, the soot amount of WDEP decreased for 55% and 27% at 870 K and 920 K. For the case of 920 K and 15.8% of ambient oxygen, the soot amount…
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Empirical Modeling of Electrical Discharge in an Inert Medium at High-speed Flows

Michigan Technological University-Mary P. Zadeh, Henry Schmidt, Seong-Young Lee, Jeffrey Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1120
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Energy discharge models have been used to gain insights into the spark discharge process and early flame kernel development in spark-ignition engines. However, the existing models are reported to be applicable for a limited range of gas pressures and flow fields. This study aims to evaluate these models and propose an improved one to predict the spark ignition at pressurized conditions up to 45 bar and high-speed flows up to 32 m/s. The model captures the spark discharge behavior that has been observed experimentally in an optically accessible constant-volume combustion vessel. This includes discharge characteristics and the occurrence of the spark blowouts and re-strikes. Results indicate that the voltage and current waveforms of the spark discharge are correlated to the flow velocity across the spark plug gap. Further investigations were performed to study the stretching rate of the spark channel under the high crossflow.
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Crevice Corrosion Accelerated Test for Cylinder Head/Gasket/Monoblock Assemblies from Lightweight Engines Exposed to Overheating Cycles

Instituto Politecnico Nacional Esime Zac-Gerardo Rodríguez-Bravo, Roberto Vega-Moron
Instituto Politécnico Nacional ESIQIE-Jesús Godínez-Salcedo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1067
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Severe crevice corrosion occurring at the joint of cylinder head/gasket/mono-block from lightweight engines causes accelerated dissolution of lightweight material, in particular, in cylinder head producing the linking of the cooling vessels with the combustion chambers or oil vessels. It is conductive to combustion of coolant or oil, and contamination of oil with coolant or vice versa, which is considered as catastrophic engine failure. Since crevice corrosion is dependent of many of the actual assembly characteristics, coolant and engine operation conditions, full-scale tests are the most frequent alternative for this type of evaluations. Nonetheless, they are very long and expensive, and sometimes, unreliable tests. Alternatively, the standard procedure ASTM-G78 is widely used to evaluate crevice corrosion propensity of different metallic materials under certain specified conditions trough immersion tests in a corrosive media in shorter test times. However, the method does not cover the characteristics and conditions existing at the cylinder head/gasket/mono-block joint. Hence, this paper presents an accelerated test consisting on three-electrode cyclic potentiodynamic anodic polarization and polarization resistance standard trials using special assembly samples to…
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High-Speed Imaging of a Vaporizing GDI Spray: A Comparison Between Schlieren, Shadowgraph, DBI and Scattering

Istituto Motori CNR-Maurizio Lazzaro
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0326
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The evolution of the liquid and vapor phases of an iso-octane GDI spray was investigated in a constant volume vessel, under inert environment, using high-speed imaging techniques. The tests were performed in nitrogen, at temperatures and density varying between the operating conditions representative of late injection, flash boiling conditions and early injection in a GDI engine. Large scale parameters of the spray were obtained by processing Schlieren, shadowgraph, DBI and scattering images. The segmentation of spray images, for both the liquid and vapor phase, was carried out through an in-house image processing method. The method essentially involves three basic steps: an optimal filtering of the spray images by means of their regularization through variational methods; an original thresholding procedure based on the iterative application of the Otsu's method; the magnification of the Schlieren/Shadowgraph intensity pattern by means of the principal curvatures of the spray image surface. The boundaries of the vapor phase were obtained from the Schlieren and shadowgraph images of the spray. The processing method allows to accurately distinguish the contours of the vapor…
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Insect-Inspired Motion Sensing

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35993
Published 2020-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Researchers have taken inspiration from flying insects to demonstrate a miniaturized gyroscope, a special sensor used in navigation technologies. Gyroscopes sense rotational motions to provide directional guidance without relying on satellites, so they are immune to signal jamming and other cyber threats, making them ideal for aircraft and submarines.

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The Influence of the Content and Nature of the Dispersive Filler at the Formation of Coatings for Protection of the Equipment of River and Sea Transport

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University, Ukraine-Liubov Poberezhna
Kherson State Maritime Academy, Ukraine-Oleksandr Sapronov, Andriy Buketov, Anna Sapronova, Vitalii Sotsenko, Mykola Brailo, Serhii Yakushchenko, Serhii Smetankin, Andriy Kulinich, Viacheslav Kulinich
  • Journal Article
  • 05-13-01-0006
Published 2020-01-23 by SAE International in United States
To protect ship equipment of river and sea transport, it is suggested to use polymeric protective coatings based on epoxy diane oligomer ED-20, polyethylene polyamine (PEPA) curing agent and filler, which is a departure from industrial production. Thus the purpose of the work is analysis of major dependency of the properties on the content of fillers that allowed to revealed the critical filler content (furnace black) in composites to form a protective coating with the required set of characteristics. The infrared (IR) spectral analysis was used to investigate the presence of bonds on the surface of particles of the PM-75 furnace black, which allows us to assess the degree of cross-linking of the polymer. The influence of the content of dispersed furnace black on the physicomechanical and thermophysical properties and the structure of the protective coating is investigated. For the formation of the coating with increased adhesive properties, the optimum content of the additive is q = 25 parts by weight (pts.wt.), due to the increase in the number of C—O, C—C, C═O, C═C, C═O,…
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Robotic “Cockroach” Explores Underwater Environments

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35799
Published 2020-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

In nature, cockroaches can survive underwater for up to 30 minutes. A robotic cockroach was developed that can walk on land, swim on the surface of water, and walk underwater for as long as necessary.

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Qualified Hoses for Marine Applications

Hydraulic Hose and Hose Fittings Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1942/1_201912
  • Current
Published 2019-12-27 by SAE International in United States
The following list consists of hose data provided as of December, 2019, and is for convenience in determining acceptability of nonmetallic flexible hose assemblies intended for usage under 46 CFR 56.60-25. Where the maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) or type of fitting is not specified, use the manufacturer's recommended MAWP or type of fitting. This list has been compiled by SAE staff from information provided by the manufacturers whose product listings appear in this document. Manufacturers wishing to list their products in this document shall: a Successfully test their hose to the requirements of SAE J1942, Table 1. b Submit a letter of certification to the SAE J1942 test requirements for each specific type of hose tested (see sample table, Table 1) along with the test results. All sizes should be included in the same letter which must also include all of the information necessary to make a SAE J1942-1 listing. c The SAE will review the letter and may, at their discretion, request to see further test results. A copy of the submittal letter…
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Study on Multicomponent Fuel Spray with High Injection Pressure

Doshisha University-Jiro Senda, Eriko Matsumura
Doshisha University Graduate School-Kohsuke Nishiura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2282
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In previous study, the model for flash-boiling spray of multicomponent fuel was constructed and was implemented into KIVA code. This model considered the detailed physical properties and evaporation process of multicomponent fuel and the bubble nucleation, growth and disruption in a nozzle orifice and injected fuel droplets. These numerical results using this model were compared with experimental data which were obtained in the previous study using a constant volume vessel. The spray characteristics from numerical simulation qualitatively showed good agreement with the experimental results. Especially, it was confirmed from both the numerical and experimental data that flash-boiling effectively accelerated the atomization and vaporization of fuel droplets. However, in this previous study, injection pressure was very low (up to 15 MPa), and the spray characteristics of high pressure injection could not be analyzed. It is necessary to investigate the spray characteristics with high injection pressure for the application of multicomponent fuel to modern diesel engine.In this study, this model was validated by comparing with the results from experiment using constant volume vessel. The effects of initial…
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Vaporization and Turbulence Characteristics of High Pressure Gasoline Sprays Impinging on a Wall

Mazda Motor Corporation-Wu Zhang, Ryosuke Hara, Tatsuya Fujikawa, Masahisa Yamakawa
University of Hiroshima-Tomohiro Watanabe, Yukihiko Ichikawa, Keiya Nishida, Yoichi Ogata
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2247
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
To get a better understanding of the characteristics of the high pressure gasoline sprays impinging on a wall, a fundamental study was conducted in a high-temperature high-pressure constant volume vessel under the simulated engine conditions of in-cylinder pressures, temperatures, and wall temperatures. The injection pressure was varied from 20 to 120 MPa. The spray tip penetration, vapor mass distribution, and vaporization rate were quantitatively measured with the laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique. The velocity fields of the wall-impinging sprays under vaporizing conditions were measured with the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique using silicone oil droplets as tracers. The effects of injection pressure and spray/wall interactions on spray characteristics were investigated. The results showed that the increased injection pressure improved penetration, vaporization, and turbulence of the sprays.
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