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Conceptual Investigations on Full Optical Accessibility to Large-Bore Medium-Speed Engines

SAE International Journal of Engines

TUM LVK, Germany-Stephan Bernhard Karmann, Maximilian Prager, Georg Wachtmeister
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-03-0020
Published 2019-05-15 by SAE International in United States
Optically accessible engines are an essential tool to investigate the combustion process in internal combustion engines via optical and laser optical methods. These methods can be applied to analyze the mixing formation, injection, combustion, and emission formation in situ for a better understanding of the combustion process. The derived findings result in new potentials for increased efficiency and reduced emissions. While the application for passenger car- and truck-size engines is quite common, the application of such an optically accessible engine is rather rare for large-bore engines driving ships or power plants due to their huge scale. The following sections show a conceptual design study to make a large-bore dual-fuel (DF) engine with a bore of 350 mm and stroke of 440 mm fully optically accessible according to the Bowditch principle. As the layout was based on an already existing and working engine of the same principle but half the bore, numerical investigations of the critical parts of the presented large-scale fully optical engine were carried out to consolidate the feasibility of the design study. On…
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Exergoeconomic Analysis and Modelling of LM2500+G4 Engine for Marine Propulsion and Cogeneration Application

C. V. Raman College of Engg. Bhubaneswar-Aishi Sahu
GVP College of Engineering (Autonomous)-Mithilesh Kumar Sahu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0903
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States

The current global energy scenario demands for fuel efficient and cost effective thermal systems of energy conversion. It leads to investigation of techniques which can minimize the energy wastage and maximize the utilization of energy. In this regard the present paper proposes a configuration (LM2500+G4 marine engine manufactured by M/S GE Aviation for cogeneration application) for marine propulsion and cogeneration. The exhaust gas temperature of LM2500+G4 marine engine is around 800 K hence heat of this exhaust stream can be utilized to produce process steam for further use. In this particular work the aforesaid configuration has been exergoeconomically analyzed to predict the total cost rate (investment cost rate + fuel cost rate) of the system. The “Average Cost Theory” has been approached for the exergoeconomic analysis. The exergoeconomic analysis is the combined study of thermodynamic concepts and economic principles. Methodology utilizes the exergy concept of thermodynamics for cost assignment which is why it is called as “Exergoeconomic Analysis”. The present work deals with the thermodynamic performance prediction of proposed engine configuration as well as it also reveal the cost related data of the same. The results obtained from exergoeconomic analysis show that by generating steam in heat recovery steam generator the exergetic efficiency of cycle has been improved by 40%. The result of analysis also shows that investment cost flow rate ( Z. ), cost rate of fuel ( C.f ), total cost flow rate ( C.T ) and exergetic efficiency (ε) is being 0.2822 $/s, 0.3490 $/s, 0.6313 $/s and 53.90 % respectively.

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Investigating Effects of Different Influence Factors on the Dynamic Response of a Common-Rail Injector

Bauman Moscow State Technical University-Leonid Grekhov
Harbin Engineering University-Jianhui Zhao, Pengfei Yue, Kebiao Wei
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The electrical control common-rail injector (CRI) is a key component in marine diesel engines. Herein, a detailed fluid-mechanical-electric-magnetic coupling mathematic model regarding the CRI was established, considering the transient of fuel properties, different structure parameters of the CRI, and the nonlinear magnetization and magnetic saturation of magnetic materials of the high-speed solenoid valve (HSV) for the CRI. This model was verified by comparing the calculated injection rate with the experimental data at different injection pressures, and the good consistencies obtained proved the validity of this model. Based on this model, the effect of different factors on the dynamic response of the injector was investigated to prepare for the optimization. The results demonstrated the different structure parameters of the injector, such as the diameters of the inflowing control orifice (OZ) and outflowing control orifice (OA), maximum needle displacement, diameter of the control plunger, and driving strategy, influenced the dynamic response of the CRI with varying degrees. For the open response, the influence degree from high to low is the diameter of the control plunger, OA, OZ,…
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Hose and Hose Assemblies for Marine Applications

Hydraulic Hose and Hose Fittings Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1942_201903
  • Current
Published 2019-03-22 by SAE International in United States
SAE J1942, developed through the cooperative efforts of the U.S. Coast Guard and SAE, became effective August 28, 19911, as the official document for nonmetallic flexible hose assemblies for commercial marine use. This SAE Standard covers specific requirements for several styles of hose and/or hose assemblies in systems aboard commercial vessels inspected and certificated by the U.S. Coast Guard. It is intended that this document establish hose constructions and performance levels that are essential to safe operations in the marine environment. Refer to SAE J1273 for selection, installation, and maintenance of hose and hose assemblies. Refer to SAE J1527 for hose to convey gasoline or diesel fuel aboard small craft, including pleasure craft and related small commercial craft regulated directly or by reference under 33 CFR 183 Subpart J, and boats and yachts meeting American Boat and Yacht Council standards. SAE J1942-1 is a listing of the products which have been certified for use in the applications described in SAE J1942, Table 1, for fluid power, fuel oil, lube oil, water, and pneumatic systems. SAE…
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Influence of the Backpressure on Urea Sprays Generated by an Air-Blast Atomizer for Large-Scale SCR-Applications

Leibniz University Hannover-Markus Höltermann, Jan Wichmar, Friedrich Dinkelacker
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
In 2016, the latest step of emission standards for marine ships came into operation. As the emission limit for nitric oxides has decreased to approximately 25% of the former values, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) will play an important role to fulfil those limits. SCR is an established method in the field of trucks and heavy diesel cars, but applying it to ships requires further research and development. The demands on ship engines are different, not only due to the large scales but also because the engineering process is strongly based on numerical simulations. To allow the validation of simulations at well-defined conditions and to investigate the fundamental processes, e.g. of the injection of urea solution for marine applications, a high pressure hot gas test rig was built up at the ITV. The current work focuses on the injection of urea solution by an air-blast atomizer. The spray breakup is the initial part of the urea decomposition, which is why reliable validation data is needed for modelling and simulating the respective spray and chemical processes. Therefore,…
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Low-Temperature Coolant Circuit Nomenclature and Applications

Cooling Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3136_201811
  • Current
Published 2018-11-08 by SAE International in United States
The document provides clarity related to multiple temperature coolant circuits used in on- and off-highway, gasoline, and light- to heavy-duty diesel engine cooling systems. Out of scope are the terms and definitions of thermal flow control valves used in either low- or high-temperature coolant circuits. This subject is covered in SAE J3142.
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Carbon Monoxide Density Pattern Mapping from Recreational Boat Testing

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Collision Safety Engineering, L.C., USA-Mark Warner
  • Journal Article
  • 09-06-02-0008
Published 2018-10-04 by SAE International in United States
Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) gas can cause health risks for users of recreational boats and watercraft. Activities such as waterskiing, wakeboarding, tubing, and wakesurfing primarily utilize gasoline engine-driven vessels which produce CO as a combustion by-product. Recent watersports trends show an increase in popularity of activities which take place closer to the stern of the boat (such as wakesurfing) as compared to traditional waterskiing and wakeboarding. Advancements in gas emissions treatment in marine engine exhaust system designs have reduced risks for CO exposure in some boats. This article presents results from on-water testing of three recreational boats, reports average and maximum values of CO levels under various conditions, and exhibits mapping of the density of CO relative to the stern of the test vessels.
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Devices Providing Backfire Flame Control for Gasoline Engines in Marine Applications

Marine Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1928_201806
  • Current
Published 2018-06-12 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard covers the minimum requirements for design, construction, and testing of devices to prevent the propagation of backfire flame from within the gasoline engine to the surrounding atmosphere.
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Marine Propulsion System Wiring

Marine Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J378_201802
  • Current
Published 2018-02-24 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice covers the requirements for all marine inboard engine wiring, wiring assemblies, wiring components, and wiring connectors connected to microprocessors associated with the operation of the propulsion system, operating at 50 V or less. EXCEPTION—Outboard engines and engines in Personal Water Craft (PWC). NOTE: See ABYC E11 for additional requirements related to electrical installations on small craft.
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Marine Control Cable Connection - Engine Throttle Lever

Marine Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J961_201802
  • Current
Published 2018-02-24 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to provide guides toward standard conditions for operating marine engine throttles (gasoline or diesel) where push-pull cable control is applicable. For control cable information see SAE J917.
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