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Effect of Split Injection and Intake Air Humidification on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Marine Diesel Engine in Partially Premixed Low-Temperature Combustion Mode

Tianjin University-Yujie Cai, Ke Wang, Shiru Kong, Zhishang Bian
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0298
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this study was to investigate combined effects of split injection strategies and intake air humidification on combustion and emissions of a partially premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) marine diesel engine. In this research, a three-dimensional numerical model was established by a commercial code AVL-Fire to explore in-cylinder combustion process and pollutant formation factors in a four-stoke supercharged intercooled marine diesel engine under partial load at 1350 r/min. The novelty of this study is to combine different water-fuel ratios and fuel injection parameters (pilot injection timing and main injection timing) to find the optimized way to improve engine performance as well as NOx-soot emissions, thus meeting the increasingly stringent emissions restriction. The results indicate that as the main injection timing advances (-14°CA to -20°CA aTDC), the in-cylinder peak pressure increases by about 10%, the main injection ignition delay (MI ignition delay) becomes longer, the CA50 is advanced near the top dead center (TDC), which is effective to improve the indicated thermal efficiency (ITE). Meanwhile, soot emissions are reduced by about 50% compared with…
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Optical Characterization of the Combustion Process inside a Large-Bore Dual-Fuel Two-Stroke Marine Engine by Using Multiple High-Speed Cameras

Lund University-Alexios Matamis, Mattias Richter
MAN Energy Solutions-Johan Hult, Eric Baudoin, Stefan Mayer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0788
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Dual-fuel engines for marine propulsion are gaining in importance due to operational and environmental benefits. Here the combustion in a dual-fuel marine engine operating on diesel and natural gas, is studied using a multiple high-speed camera arrangement. By recording the natural flame emission from three different directions the flame position inside the engine cylinder can be spatially mapped and tracked in time. Through space carving a rough estimate of the three-dimensional (3D) flame contour can be obtained. From this contour, properties like flame length and height, as well as ignition locations can be extracted. The multi-camera imaging is applied to a dual-fuel marine two-stroke engine, with a bore diameter of 0.5 m and a stroke of 2.2 m. Both liquid and gaseous fuels are directly injected at high pressure, using separate injection systems. Optical access is obtained using borescope inserts, resulting in a minimum disturbance to the cylinder geometry. In this type of engine, with fuel injection from positions at the rim of the cylinder, the flame morphology becomes asymmetric. The optical spatial mapping and…
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Impact of Ethane Enrichment on Diesel-Methane Dual-Fuel Combustion

Aalto University-Zeeshan Ahmad, Ossi Kaario, Qiang Cheng, Martti Larmi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0305
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Over the past few years, the growing concerns about global warming and efforts to reduce engine-out emissions have made the dual-fuel (DF) engines more popular in marine and power industries. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel in DF engines has both the environmental and economic advantages over the conventional diesel combustion. However, the misfire phenomenon at lean conditions limits the operating range of DF combustion and causes emissions of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and unburned methane (methane-slip) in the environment. The greenhouse effect of methane is considered 28 times greater than CO2 over a 100-year perspective, which raises concerns for the governments and marine engine manufacturers. In efforts to reduce the UHC and methane-slip from DF engines, this study discusses ethane enrichment of diesel-methane DF combustion in a full-metal single-cylinder research engine under lean condition (λGFB = ~2.0) while keeping the total-fuel energy rather constant. The 99.9% pure methane is enriched with ethane in such a way that three gaseous-fuel blends of 0-20% ethane concentration could be achieved. The substitution rate of gaseous…
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Devices Providing Backfire Flame Control for Gasoline Engines in Marine Applications

Marine Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1928_202002
  • Current
Published 2020-02-25 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard covers the minimum requirements for design, construction, and testing of devices to prevent the propagation of backfire flame from within the gasoline engine to the surrounding atmosphere.
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Research of Fuel Characteristic of Dimethyl ether / High Viscosity & Incombustible matter Blend for Marine Diesel Engine

Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University-Yu MIHARA, Daiki KURO-OKA, Tomoki SHIRAHAMA, Kenta KUWAOKA, Takashi SUZUKI, Ichiro ASANO, Tomohisa DAN
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2229
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engine has fuel combustion capability in various high density oil such as residual fuels or biofuels derived from fossil or living matter. But for commercial use, these fuels except bio diesel fuel (BDF) should be heated, separated and filtered by equipment and dosed or mixed with additive or distillate oil etc. before being supplied to the engine in order to improve combustibility.This study aims to illuminate fuel characteristic of blend contained woody pyrolysis oil (WPO) which is high viscosity and incombustible, and dimethyl ether (DME) whose emission of combustion has no soot particle. This paper describes thermo-physical property of neat WPO and the blend on the basis of the evaluation of fuel fluidity by measurement and calculation of viscosity.According to the result, it was confirmed that the fluidity of WPO was improved by mixing DME and the approximate viscosity expressions at any temperature of WPO and the blend were good accuracy.
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Effect of alternative fuels on marine engine performance

Aalto University-Michal Wojcieszyk, Yuri Kroyan, Martti Larmi, Ossi Kaario, Kai Zenger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2230
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Marine transportation sector is highly dependent on fossil-based energy carriers. Decarbonization of shipping can be accomplished by implementing biobunkers into an existing maritime fuel supply chain. However, there are many compatibility issues when blending new biocomponents with their fossil-based counterparts. Thus, it is of high importance to predict the effect of fuel properties on marine engine performance, especially for new fuel blends. In the given work, possible future solutions concentrated on liquid fuels are taken into account. Under consideration are such fuels as biodiesel (FAME), hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), straight vegetable oil (SVO), pyrolysis oil, biocrude, and methanol. Knowledge about the behavior of new fuel in an existing engine is notably important for decision makers and fuel producers. Hence, the main goal of the present work is to create a model, which can predict the engine performance from the end-user perspective. For the purpose of modeling, only the latest research on marine fuels is taken into account. In the current approach, results from a representative measurement set-up are compared in order to create a uniform…
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A Study of Injection Directions on Improvement of Engine Performance and NOx Emission in A Low-speed Marine Engine

Key Laboratory for Power Machinery and Engineering of M.O.E,-Qian Sun, Wenxia Ji, Zhen Huang, Lei Zhu*
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2322
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation model for a two-stroke low-speed marine engine has been established in CONVERGE software, to study the impact of different injection directions on fuel consumption and emissions of the engine. The goal of this research was to investigate injection angles in horizontal and vertical directions respectively. According to the simulation results, “trade-off” relationship was found in both directions between fuel consumption and NOx emission. Based on these results, 8° and -16° were considered as optimal injection angles in horizontal and vertical directions. With the optimized injection angles, lower NOx emission can be achieved with a little penalty on fuel consumption.
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Experimental study of cylinder oil stripping behavior at the scavenge port of a low-speed two-stroke engine

Dalian University of Technology-Min Pan, Liyan Feng, Zhen Gong, Zhengran Yu, Hongjie Sun, Zixin Wang, Peng Yan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2335
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The stripping of cylinder oil at the scavenging ports of low-speed two-stroke marine engines is one of the main sources of floating oil droplets existing in cylinders. The combustion of these oil droplets is one of the major reasons of PM emissions and pre-ignition for dual-fuel engines. In order to investigate the stripping behavior, a prototype model and a test bench were set up to carry out the experiment of cylinder oil stripping behavior and single droplet deformation under different conditions. Meanwhile, a CFD model was established to analyze the actual scavenging flow field, and the verification results were obtained: in the case of excessive lubrication, a considerable amount of cylinder oil remains on the upper surface of the scavenge ports. Such cylinder oil can be blown into the cylinder when the ports are opened. Then the oil droplets floating in the cylinder or attaching to the exhaust valve form potential spontaneous combustion points, which leads to the worsening of PM emissions and the threat of pre-ignition, the most harmful abnormal combustion for Otto-cycle dual-fuel…
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Features of Mathematical Modeling in the Problems of Determining the Power of a Turbocharged Engine According to the Characteristics of the Turbocharger

SAE International Journal of Engines

Kherson State Maritime Academy, Ukraine-Igor Gritsuk, Maksym Ahieiev, Dmytro Pohorletskyi, Igor Khudiakov
National University “Odessa Law Academy”, Ukraine-Vadym Popeliuk
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-01-0001
Published 2019-10-08 by SAE International in United States
The features of modeling the working process of a turbocharged two stroke marine diesel engine (MDE) in order to reveal the relationship between the engine power and the operation modes of a turbocharger (TC) are discussed in the article. Based on the results of modeling, a model was obtained for the dependence of the power of the MDE on the parameters of the TC operation. As a basic parameter of the TC operation, the TC speed was chosen. The scavenging air temperature is selected as an additional parameter. The article describes the structure of a diagnostic system that allows recording the operating modes of a TC in a noncontact method. The research for vibroacoustic fields of the G70-883kW marine engine was carried out by the author on ship “SEMINOLE,” in the process of research a noncontact vibroacoustic method was used to determine the TC speed. An analysis of the obtained experimental results demonstrates that the use of the averaged model of the dependence of the engine power on the TC speed for one engine family…
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A Coupled Tabulated Kinetics and Flame Propagation Model for the Simulation of Fumigated Medium Speed Dual-Fuel Engines

Ghent University-Gilles Decan
Lund University-Sebastian Verhelst
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The present work describes the numerical modeling of medium-speed marine engines, operating in a fumigated dual-fuel mode, i.e. with the second fuel injected in the ports. This engine technology allows reducing engine-out emissions while maintaining the engine efficiency and can be fairly easily retrofitted from current diesel engines. The main premixed fuel that is added can be a low-carbon one and can additionally be of a renewable nature, thereby reducing or even completely removing the global warming impact. To fully optimize the operational parameters of such a large marine engine, computational fluid dynamics can be very helpful. Accurately describing the combustion process in such an engine is key, as the prediction of the heat release and the pollutant formation is crucial. Auto-ignition of the diesel fuel needs to be captured, followed by the combustion and flame propagation of the premixed fuel. In this work, an approach based on tabulated kinetics has been used, to include detailed chemistry while still maintaining acceptable computation times. To allow for the modeling of a fumigated dual-fuel engine, this approach…
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