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Anisotropic material behavior and design optimization of 3D printed structures

University of Kentucky-Jordan Garcia, Robert Harper, Coilin Bradley, John Schmidt, Y Charles Lu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0228
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Traditional manufacturing processes such as injection or compression molding are often enclosed and pressurized systems that produce homogenous products. In contrast, 3D printing is exposed to the environment at ambient (or reduced) temperature and atmospheric pressure. Further, the printing process itself is mostly “layered manufacturing”, i.e., it forms a three-dimensional part by laying down successive layers of materials. Those characteristics inevitably lead to inconsistent microstructure of 3D printed products and thus cause anisotropic mechanical properties. In this paper, the anisotropic behaviors of 3D printed parts were investigated by using both laboratory coupon specimens (bending specimens) and complex engineering structures (A-pillar). Results show that the orientation of the infills of 3D printed parts can significantly influence their mechanical properties. Parts with 0-degree filament orientation are seen to have the most favorable responses, including Young’s modulus, maximum strength, failure strain, and toughness. The findings also suggest that the 3D printed products could be theoretically “designed” or “tailored” by adjusting the infill angles to achieve optimal performance. The 3D printed A-pillar structure has been designed by utilizing the…
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A Robust Methodology for Predicting the Fatigue Life of an Automotive Closures System Subjected to Hinge and Check Link Load

Ford India Pvt., Ltd.-Nirmal Puthuvayil, Sivasankari S
RLE India Pvt., Ltd.-Thoheer Zaman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0599
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Quality in the automotive industry symbolizes the development and the manufacturing of vehicles whose specifications meet customer requirements. Among the quality issues, opening and closing effort of any closures in a vehicle is a characteristic that strongly affects the customer first opinion about vehicle design. The closure opening and closing effort is affected by different uncertainties like opening angle, load to the check-link, hinge stoppage, materials and manufacturing process. A check stop & hinge stop load durability cycle occurs when a customer opens the closures beyond the closure detent position with a force applied on the check link or hinge check stops. Due to few uncertainties like abuse opening, manufacturing imperfections, weak mounting locations, the closures will be subjected to fatigue failure. The present study is aimed to introduce a probabilistic frame-work for fatigue life reliability analysis that addresses the uncertainties associated with door opening-closing effort due to check-hinge loads, door closure opening angles and hinge stop tolerance. A fatigue life probabilistic model of various closure systems was developed using Monte-Carlo simulation, where the stress…
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Material model selection for numerical crankshaft deep rolling process simulation

Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica-Luiz Aun Fonseca, Alfredo Rocha de Faria
University of Waterloo-Hamid Jahed, John Montesano
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1078
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Residual stress prediction arising from manufacturing processes provides paramount information for the fatigue performance assessment of components subjected to cyclic loading. The determination of the material model to be applied on the numerical model should be taken carefully. This study focus on the estimation of residual stresses generated after deep rolling of cast iron crankshafts. The researched literature on the field employs the available commercial material codes without closer consideration on their reverse loading capacities. To mitigate this gap, a single element model was used to compare potential material models with tensile-compression experiments. The best fit model was then applied to a previously developed crankshaft deep rolling numerical model. In order to confront the simulation outcomes, residual stresses were measured in two directions with real crankshaft specimens that passed through the same modeled deep rolling process. Electrolytic polishing was used to etch the region of interest and enable in-depth residual stress analysis through X-ray diffraction method. The comparison revealed the model’s ability to follow the residual stress state tendency, predicting compressive stresses at the surface,…
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Innovative additive manufacturing process for successful production of 7000 series aluminum alloy components using Smart Optical Monitoring System

SenSigma LLC-Jay Choi, Alex Rice
University of Michigan-Jyoti Mazumder
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1300
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft components are commonly produced with 7000 series aluminum alloys due to its weight, strength, and fatigue properties. Auto Industry is also choosing more and more aluminum component for weight reduction. Current additive manufacturing (AM) methods fall short of successfully producing 7000 series aluminum alloys due to the reflective nature of the material along with elements with low vaporization temperature. Moreover, lacking in ideal thermal control, print inherently defective products with such issues as poor surface finish alloying element loss and porosity. All these defects contribute to reduction of mechanical strength. By monitoring plasma with spectroscopic sensors, multiple information such as line intensity, standard deviation, plasma temperature or electron density, and by using different signal processing algorithm such as vector machine training or wavelet transforming, AM defects have been detected and classified. For composition analysis, the ratio of the maximum intensities of Mg(I)/Al(I) shows a strong trend with the amount of Zn and Mg in the powder, and the results are extremely promising regarding the ability to use the online spectra for real time determination…
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Spatially Optimized Diffusion Alloys: A Novel Multi-Layered Steel Material for Exhaust Applications

Arcanum Alloys Inc.-Zachary Detweiler, David Keifer, Daniel Bullard
Tenneco Inc.-Adam Kotrba, Tony Quan, Winston Wei
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1051
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A novel Spatially Optimized Diffusion Alloy (SODA) material has been developed and applied to exhaust systems, a very aggressive environment with high temperatures and loads, as well as excessive corrosion. Traditional stainless steels disperse chromium homogeneously throughout the material, with varying amounts ranging from 11% to 18% dependent upon its grade (e.g. 409, 436, 439, and 441). SODA steels, however, offer layered concentrations of chromium, enabling an increased amount along the outer surface for much needed corrosion resistance and aesthetics. This outer layer, approximately 70µm thick, exceeds 20% of chromium concentration locally, but is only 3% in bulk, offering selective placement of the chromium to minimize its overall usage. And, since this layer is metallurgically bonded, it cannot delaminate or separate from its core, enabling durable protection throughout manufacturing processes and full useful life. The core material may be of various grades, however, so this study employs interstitial free steel (low carbon), which offers not only commercial advantages, but also eases manufacturing operations, as it is more formable than stainless steel grades. The material and…
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CAE Modeling Static and Fatigue Performance of Short Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Coupons and Components

FCA US LLC-Congyue Wang, Mingchao Guo, Mohan Shanmugam, Ramchandra Bhandarkar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1309
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fiber reinforced polypropylene (FRPP) is a typical anisotropic composite and its material properties highly depend on the fiber orientations within the material. To improve accuracy in prediction of durability performance of structures made of this kind of composite material, simulation of manufacturing process is necessary to obtain distribution of fibers and their orientations at every location of the structure. This paper describes a CAE modeling techniques to simulate 1) injection molding process, 2) static and fatigue performance of coupons and 3) static and fatigue performance of components made of 30% FRPP. Details of CAE model setup, analysis procedures and correlation between analysis and test results are presented. In this study, various fiber orientation (0, 20, 90 degrees & knit line), temperature (-40, 23 and 80 degree C) and mean stress (R=-1.0, -0.5, -0.2, 0.1 and 0.4) have been considered. To demonstrate correlation, battery trays made of this FRPP have been tested subjected to block cycle loads, results of which have been discussed.
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Automotive Dimensional Quality Control with Geometry Tree Process

FCA US LLC-James Cole, Yuqin Wang, Robert Bertucci
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0480
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Geometry Tree is a term describing the product assembly structure and the manufacturing process for the product. The concept refers to the assembly structure of the final vehicle (the Part Tree) and the assembly process and tools for the final product (the Process Tree). In the past few years, the Geometry Tree-based quality process was piloted in the FCA NAFTA region and has since evolved into a standardized quality control process. In the Part Tree process, the coordinated measurements and naming convention are enforced throughout the different levels of product sub-assemblies and measurement processes. The Process Tree, on the other hand, includes both prominently identified assembly tools and the mapping of key product characteristics to key assembly tools. The benefits of directly tying critical customer characteristics to actual machine components that have a high propensity to influence them is both preventive and reactive. This article describes the integrated Geometry Tree quality process and how it has been implemented at the FCA vehicle assembly plants and in the dimensional data management system.
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Multi-Objective Optimization of Sheet Metal-Polymer Hybrids Manufactured by The Integrated Process of Deep Drawing-Back Injection Molding

Clemson University (CUICAR)-Saeed Farahani, Farzam Malmir, Deepak Aggarwal, Srikanth Pilla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0622
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lightweight constructions can no longer be achieved solely through material substitution. To stay competitive, design parameters and manufacturing technologies should be taken into consideration as well. The integrated process of Deep Drawing-Injection Molding (DDIM) is such an advanced process in which the sheet metal blank is first deformed by tool movement and then calibrated to the shape of the cavity using polymer melt pressure during the injection process. Therefore, the traditional processes of sheet metal forming and injection molding are combined into one step operation, thus reducing the process steps and required machinery. Even though the process has its own challenges, the best combination of weight, performance, cost, and quality can be achieved by defining a multi-objective optimization problem with respect to the influencing design parameters. This study aims to optimize the various parameters of the sheet metal-polymer structure using Taguchi-based Grey optimization. A system of orthogonal arrays is used as the design of experiment (DOE) in order to evenly distribute the design variables in the design space. Moreover, S/N ratio graphs and ANOVA tool…
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Residual stress analysis for additive manufactured large automobile parts by using neutron and simulation

Honda R & D Americas Inc-Alan Seid
Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Tomohiro Ikeda, Satoshi Hirose, Hisao Uozumi, Tatsuya Okayama, TAKASHI KATSURAI
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1071
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Metal additive manufacturing has high potential to produce automobile parts, due to its shape flexibility and unique material properties. On the other hand, residual stress which is generated by rapid solidification causes deformation, cracks and failure under building process. To avoid these problems, understanding of internal residual stress distribution is necessary. However, from the view point of measureable area, conventional residual stress measurement methods such as strain gages and X-ray diffractometers, is limited to only the surface layer of the parts. Therefore, neutron which has a high penetration capability was chosen as a probe to measure internal residual stress in this research. By using time of flight neutron diffraction facility VULCAN at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, residual stress for mono-cylinder head, which were made of aluminum alloy, was measured non-distractively. From the result of precise measurement, interior stress distribution was visualized. According to the result, bottom area where was just above a base plate showed higher stress gradient than top where was the farthest side from a base plate. This trend came from restriction of…
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Hybrid forming – a novel Manufacturing Technique for metal-LFT structural parts

University of Siegen-Daniel Heidrich, Tobias Kloska, Xiangfan Fang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0235
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Hybrid structural parts combining aluminum or steel sheets with long glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics (LFT) offer a great opportunity to reduce component weight for automotive applications. But due to high manufacturing cost, metal-LFT hybrid components are still scarcely used in automotive large-scale production. Thus in this work a novel cost- and time efficient manufacturing process for simultaneous metal sheet forming and compression molding of long fiber reinforced thermoplastics to manufacture automotive lightweight components is presented. In this manufacturing process, which is referred to as “Hybrid forming”, the molten LFT is used as a forming medium in the manner of well-known hydroforming processes. After forming the metal sheet by the molten LFT in combination with the rigid die, the LFT solidifies and forms a local reinforcement structure in the hybrid component. Since the metal sheet can be pre-coated with a bonding agent prior to the forming process, a firmly bonded connection between metal and LFT can be achieved. For proof of concept a longitudinal control arm in a multi-link rear axle is chosen. By utilizing Hybrid…