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Studying Ignition Delay Time of Lubricant Oil Mixed with Alcohols, Water and Aromatics in IQT and CVCC

Abu Dhabi Polytechnic-Hatsari Mitsudharmadi
King Abdullah University of Science & Technology-Sumit Maharjan, Ayman Elbaz, William Roberts
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1422
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The auto-ignition of liquid fuel and lubricant oil droplets is considered as one of the possible sources of pre-ignition. Researchers are constantly finding new ways to form advanced lubricant oil by changing its composition and varying different oil additives to prevent the occurrence of this event. In this study, three sets of mixtures are prepared. First set of mixtures was prepared by adding different alcohols namely ethanol, methanol and propanol, to the commercial lubricant oil (SAE 15W-40) in ratio of 1 % - 5 % by volume to investigate the mixtures’ ignition delay time (IDT) following standard ASTM D6890 procedure in an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) and a custom built 4 liters constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC). For the CVCC, experiments were carried out in ambient air environment at 300 °C with varying pressure ranging from 4 bar - 22 bar at 6 bar interval pressures. Second set of mixtures were prepared by mixing SAE 15W-40 with aforementioned alcohols (1 % vol.) and H2O (1 % vol.). Lastly, third set of mixtures were prepared by…
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Validation of a Theoretical Model for the Correction of Heat Transfer Effects in Turbocharger Testing through a Quasi-3D Model

Politecnico di Milano-Gianluca Montenegro, Matteo Tamborski, Augusto Della Torre
Universita Degli Studi di Genova-Silvia Marelli
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1010
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In the last few years, the effect of diabatic test conditions on compressor performance maps has been widely investigated leading some Authors to propose different correction models. The accuracy of turbocharger performance map constitute the basis for the tuning and validation of a numerical 1D procedure, usually adopted for the engine-turbocharger matching. Actually, it is common practice in automotive applications to use simulation codes, which require as an input the value of efficiency. Therefore, the ability to correct the measured performance maps taking into account internal heat transfer would allow the implementation of commercial simulation codes used for engine-turbocharger matching calculations. The practical purpose of an adiabatic test program is to obtain an accurate measurement of the work transfer, and of the real efficiency of compressor and turbine (unaffected by internal and external heat transfer rates). In fact, the heat flow leads to an apparent increase of the power absorption and an apparent drop in efficiency of the compressor. However, lack of understanding of the heat transfer effects as well as the high costs associated…
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Non-Contacting Finger Seal Piston for Oil less Engines

Université de Sherbrooke-Pascal Boudreau, Mathieu Picard
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1096
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The current quest to reduce CO2 emissions combined to new technologies has sparked an interest in revisiting radically different engine configuration concepts, such as adiabatic and split-cycle engines. For both of these concepts to achieve their full potential, the combustion chamber must then be sealed without lubricating oil. A promising approach, that has yet remained elusive, is to lubricate the piston-liner interface with gases. This paper explores the concept of using non-contacting finger seals, a sealing technology developed for gas turbines, to seal piston engines. The finger seals, made of a gas-lubricated pad at the end of a flexible beam, are fixed on a rotating piston that uses the centrifugal force to close the piston-liner gap. A physics-based fluid-structure model is developed to predict the position of the finger elements and sealing performances. The model shows that the radial displacement of the fingers naturally creates a convergent profile with the liner that generates sufficient aerodynamic pressure to prevent the piston to contact the liner. The results also show that the achievable leaking area could be…
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Durability Study of a Light-Duty High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System Using E10 Gasoline

Aramco Research Center-Tom Tzanetakis, Mark Sellnau, Vincent Costanzo, Michael Traver
Argonne National Laboratory-Aniket Tekawade, Brandon Sforzo, Christopher F. Powell
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0616
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this study, a 500-hour test cycle was used to evaluate the durability of a prototype high pressure common rail injection system operating up to 1800 bar with E10 gasoline. Some aspects of the hardware were modified from their baseline design in order to accommodate an opposed-piston, two-stroke engine application and mitigate the impacts of exposure to gasoline. Overall system performance was maintained throughout testing as fueling rate and rail pressure targets were continuously achieved. Although evidence of vapor formation in the low-pressure part of the system was observed, there was no significant physical damage to the associated components. Injectors showed no deviation in their flow characteristics after exposure to gasoline and high resolution imaging of the nozzle tips and pilot valve assemblies did not indicate the presence of cavitation damage. The high pressure pump did not exhibit any performance degradation during gasoline testing and teardown analysis after 500 hours showed no evidence of cavitation erosion. Despite the lack of lubricity-improving additives in the gasoline, all other fuel-wetted components survived the test cycle without any…
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Development of JASO GLV-1 0W-8 Low Viscosity Engine Oil for Improving Fuel Efficiency considering Oil Consumption and Engine Wear Performance

Aichi Machine Industry Co.,Ltd.-Keisuke Yoshida
Nissan Automotive Technology Co., Ltd.-Satoshi Kawamura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1423
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Hybrid electric vehicles, electric vehicles and other powertrain systems with high energy efficiency are being put on the market mainly in Japan, U.S., Europe and China for the purpose of improving fuel economy. However, vehicles equipped with only a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) still account for the vast majority of vehicles in use globally. From the standpoint of reducing CO2 emissions, improving the fuel economy of ICEs is still a very important issue. In recent years, lowering the viscosity of lubricating oils to reduce churning resistance has been actively pursued as a specific approach for improving fuel economy. Toward that end, 0W-16 fuel-saving engine oil has been put on the market. In addition, SAE 12 and SAE 8 were established in the SAE J300 viscosity classification in 2015 as low viscosity grades having viscosity even lower than that of the existing SAE 16 grade. Meanwhile, because SAE 12 and SAE 8 did not have any official quality standards, a standardization study was undertaken at the behest of Japanese vehicle manufacturers, which led to the…
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Development of Ultra Low Viscosity 0W-8 Engine Oil

JXTG Nippon Oil & Energy Corp.-Shintaro Kusuhara, Yu Misaki
Toyota Motor Corporation-Kazuo Yamamori, Yuta Uematsu, Kazuyoshi Manabe, Itsuki Miyata
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1425
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In the automotive industry, electrification of vehicles such as HVs, PHVs, FCs and EVs is in progress in order to cope with the serious global environmental problems. On the other hand, in 2030, 70% of vehicles are expected to be equipped with internal combustion engines. Therefore, further fuel consumption improvement of the internal combustion engine is indispensable for CO2 reduction. Although lowering the viscosity of engine oil is an effective way to improve fuel consumption, but lowering the viscosity is also a concern for decreased in the wear resistance. Therefore, it is important to achieve both improved fuel efficiency and reliability. We have developed new 0W-8 engine oil of ultra-low viscosity, and achieved an improvement in fuel efficiency by 0.8% compared to the commercial 0W-16 engine oil. For new this oil, we reduced the friction force under boundary lubrication by applying an oil film former and calcium borate detergent. This oil film former is increased the film thickness without increasing the oil viscosity. The calcium borate detergent enhances the friction reduction effect of MoDTC. By…
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The role of NOx in engine lubricant oxidation

Infineum UK, Ltd.-David R. Coultas
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1427
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Engine technology trends like downsizing, direct injection and effective lean NOx aftertreatment have created challenging environments for lubricating oils. Longer contact times of the lubricant with fuel and NOx, higher sump temperatures and higher NOx levels in blow-by gas promote nitration-oxidation driven by the action of NOx and air on hydrocarbons. Nitration-oxidation has often been overlooked as a mechanism of oil oxidation in real world engines. Indeed, the emphasis is almost exclusively on iron catalysed oxidation in bench tests purporting to protect modern engines against lubricant oxidation. This paper will demonstrate that a proprietary bench nitration-oxidation test is capable of reproducing trends in nitrate ester formation and consumption seen in real engines, which also fully explain the resulting impact on lubricant oxidation without the use of iron catalysts.
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Elucidation of the Sulfide Corrosion Mechanism in Piston Pin Bushings

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Ryuta Motani, Kazuki Maeyama, Kenta Yoshii, Shinji Oshida, Hiroki Masuda, Tomohiro Ikeda, Tatsuya Okayama, Shinichi Takahashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1079
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Today, downsizing is realizing lighter and more compact engines, but at the same time, the use of turbochargers and other supercharging devices in order to supplement power and torque is increasing their power density, resulting in higher thermal and mechanical loads. In such environment, corrosion of the copper alloy bushes (piston pin bushes) that are press-fitted into the small ends of the conrods is becoming an issue. It is known that automotive bearing materials such as bushes suffer sulfidation corrosion as a result of reacting with an extreme-pressure additive (Zn-DTP) in the lubricating oil, but the reaction paths remain unclear. The research discussed in this paper therefore tried to elucidate the reaction paths in the reaction between Zn-DTP and copper in actual vehicle environments. Unit corrosion tests were conducted in order to identify the effect of the state of degradation of the oil and its temperature and copper content on corrosion. The results of these tests suggested that the direct reaction between copper and Zn-DTP was not the main factor in the corrosion under study,…
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Role of lubricating oil properties in exhaust particle emissions of an off-road diesel engine

Neste Corporation-Kari Kulmala
Tampere University-Panu Karjalainen, Topi Rönkkö, Jorma Keskinen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0386
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Particle number emissions from an off-road diesel engine without exhaust after-treatment were studied by using five different heavy-duty lubricating oils in the engine. The study extends understanding how the properties of lubricating oil affect the emissions of the smallest nanoparticles from a modern off-road diesel engine. The lubricants were selected among the performance classes of the European Automobile Manufacturers Association, at least one lubricant from each category intended for heavy-duty diesel engines. Particle size distributions were measured by means of an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS), but particle mass emissions, soot emissions, gaseous emissions and the basic engine performance were also determined. During the non-road steady cycle, the most of the differences were detected at the particle sizes of 6–15 nm. In most cases, the lowest particle quantities were emitted when the highest performance category lubricant was used. Based on the results of this study, the low contents of Zn, P, and S in lubricating oil contributed to the reduced emission factors for engine-out nucleation mode particles at any load. In addition, the low content…
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CFD Simulation of Transmission for Lubrication Oil Flow Validation and Churning Loss Reduction

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Bhupinder Singh, Ved Prakash Choudhary, Arun Kumar, Chandan chopra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1089
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Rapidly changing emission and fuel efficiency regulations are pushing the design optimization boundaries further in the Indian car market which is already a very cost conscious. Fuel economy can be improved by reducing moving parts friction and weight optimization. Driveline or Transmission power losses are major factor in overall efficiency of rotating parts in a vehicle. Transmission efficiency can be improved by using low viscosity oil, reducing oil quantity and reducing churning losses in Car Transmission. Changes like low viscosity and reduced oil volume give rise to challenges like compromised lubrication and durability of rotating parts. This further leads to extended design cycles for launching new cars with better transmission efficiency and fuel economy into the market. Design cycle time can be reduced by using CFD simulation for oil flow validation in the early design stage. CFD simulation of Transmission is challenging due to interaction of fluid and multiple gears/shafts rotating at high speed. It is also complex as lubrication is done only by splash generated by gears and oil flow thru narrow galleries further…