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Development of Dedicated Lubricant for Hydrogen Fueled Spark Ignition Engine

Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-K A Subramanian
Indian Oil Corporation Limited-Sauhard Singh, Verinder Kumar Bathla, Reji Mathai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2511
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Hydrogen has low ignition energy ensures easy ignition of the ultra-lean mixture of H2+air also. The flame speed of hydrogen is about five times higher than methane and gasoline which allows hydrogen fuelled IC engines to have relatively reduced cyclic variations than that of with methane and gasoline. High flame speed also helps to make the combustion closer to constant volume which enhances the thermal efficiency of hydrogen fuelled IC engine. High octane number of hydrogen makes it suitable for its application in Spark ignition (SI) engines. Since the hydrogen combustion in spark ignition engine generates water which can interfere with the lubricant performance, different lubricant is to be developed for this purpose. In this background, the present work is aimed at the development of dedicated lubricant for hydrogen fuelled SI engine. This paper presents the various parameters required for evaluating different lubricants for hydrogen fuelled genset. Existing CNG genset has been converted into hydrogen genset with modification in intake manifold assembly, engine hardware system, ECU modification with adequate modification in exhaust system. State of…
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A Comparative Tribological Performance of Lubricating Oils with Zinc Dialkyl Dithiophosphate and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Additives

Archit Bimal Shah, Karan Kothari
Vellore Institute of Technology-Anil Payyappalli Mana
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0174
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The present work compares the tribological properties of ZnO (Zinc Oxide) nanoparticle based lubricant with ZDDP (zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate) based lubricant. The nanolubricant was prepared by mixing the nanoparticles in base oil followed by ultrasonification and ZDDP based lubricant was prepared by mixing ZDDP and stirring with base oil. Base oil used was mineral base oil. Both the lubricants were tested at three different temperatures, loads and roughness values. The test was carried out on AISI 52100 steel samples prepared by wire cutting and were grinded to three different levels of surface roughness. Friction and wear tests were performed using a reciprocating sliding tribo-tester at three different loads and temperatures. Taguchi orthogonal array was used to reduce the number of experiments. SEM, EDS and AFM analysis were carried out to study the surface wear phenomenon. The coefficient of friction was found to be low in the case of ZnO nanolubricant but wear was found to be high compared to ZDDP based lubricant.
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Emission and Tribological Studies on Nano CuO/Jatropha Methyl Ester/Synthetic Mineral Oil in a Two-Stroke Engine

Bannari Amman Institute of Technology-Anbalagan Ramakrishnan
Vellore Institute of Technology-Govindasamy Rajamurugan, Prabu Krishnasamy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0095
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In lieu of the drastic growth of the vehicle population, there is a huge consumption of fossil fuels and mineral oils for mobility. This leads to depletion in fossil fuels and mineral oils which are the by-products of petroleum. These fossil fuels can’t sustain for a long period of time because of its toxicity. In order to reduce the usage of existing mineral oil for lubrication, a source of non-edible oil from Jatropha curcus is processed as jatropha methyl ester (JME). It is holding high viscosity, density and easy blend with base oil. In this current work, the wear resistance of the lubricating oil is enhanced by the addition of nano-copper oxide particle blend with the base oil. The emission performance and tribological behavior have been experimentally tested in 98.2CC two-stroke air cooled engine. The 20% of JME blend with CuO nano particle provides better emission performance and wear characteristics than the other combination of blends.
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Fuel-Lubricant Interactions on the Propensity for Stochastic Pre-Ignition

Driven Racing Oil-Lake Speed
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Bradley Zigler, Jon Luecke
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
This work explores the impact of the interaction of lubricant and fuel properties on the propensity for stochastic pre-ignition (SPI). Findings are based on statistically significant changes in SPI tendency and magnitude, as determined by measurements of cylinder pressure. Specifically, lubricant detergents, lubricant volatility, fuel volatility, fuel chemical composition, fuel-wall impingement, and engine load were varied to study the physical and chemical effects of fuel-lubricant interactions on SPI tendency. The work illustrates that at low loads, with fuels susceptible to SPI events, lubricant detergent package effects on SPI were non-significant. However, with changes to fuel distillation, fuel-wall impingement, and most importantly engine load, lubricant detergent effects could be observed even at reduced loads This suggests that there is a thermal effect associated with the higher load operation. It was hypothesized that the thermal effect was associated with lube oil nitrogenation. To test this theory, nitromethane (CH3NO2) was blended at 6.5% by volume CH3NO2 resulted in significant sensitivity to lubricant additive package effect on SPI, even at reduced loads where no lubricant sensitivity was observed without…
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Efficient Test Bench Operation with Early Damage Detection Systems

BEA Testing GmbH-Matthias Pouch, Carsten Küpper
RWTH Aachen University-Thomas Laible, Stefan Pischinger
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The efficient operation of powertrain test benches in research and development is strongly influenced by the state of “health” of the functional test object. Hence, the use of Early Damage Detection Systems (EDDS) with Unit Under Test (UUT) monitoring is becoming increasingly popular. An EDDS should primarily avoid total loss of the test object and ensure that damaged parts are not completely destroyed, and can still be inspected. Therefore, any abnormality from the standard test object behavior, such as an exceeding of predefined limits, must be recognized at an early testing time, and must lead to a shutdown of the test bench operation. With sensors mounted on the test object, it is possible to isolate the damage cause in the event of its detection. Advanced EDDS configurations also optimize the predefined limits by learning new shutdown values according to the test object behavior within a very short time.In this paper, the expectations on an EDDS and its general structure are presented and discussed. The advantages and disadvantages in test bench operation are analyzed and compared…
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A Multiscale Cylinder Bore Honing Pattern Lubrication Model for Improved Engine Friction

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Istanbul Technical University, Turkey-Osman Taha Sen, Ozgen Akalin
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0010
Published 2019-07-02 by SAE International in United States
Three-dimensional patterns representing crosshatched plateau-honed cylinder bores based on two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of measured surfaces were generated and used to calculate pressure flow, shear-driven flow, and shear stress factors. Later, the flow and shear stress factors obtained by numerical simulations for various surface patterns were used to calculate lubricant film thickness and friction force between piston ring and cylinder bore contact in typical diesel engine conditions using a mixed lubrication model. The effects of various crosshatch honing angles, such as 30°, 45°, and 60°, and texture heights on engine friction losses, wear, and oil consumption were discussed in detail. It is observed from numerical results that lower lubricant film thickness values are generated with higher honing angles, particularly in mixed lubrication regime where lubricant film thickness is close to the roughness level, mainly due to lower resistance to pressure flow. Although, shear stress values are lower for higher honing angles, significant friction force observed in the expansion stroke with high honing angles is primarily due to metal-to-metal contact and increased viscous shear as…
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FITTING, LUBRICATION, HYDRAULIC, SURFACE CHECK, STRAIGHT THREADS, STEEL, TYPE II

G-3, Aerospace Couplings, Fittings, Hose, Tubing Assemblies
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS15002D
  • Current
Published 2019-05-20 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Development of Engine Test Method to Discriminate Engine Oils and Additives in Terms of Motoring Torque

Indian Oil Corporation-Deepak Saxena
Indian Oil Corporation Ltd.-A.S. Ramadhas, Punit Kumar Singh, Sarita Seth, Reji Mathai, Shyam Singh, S.S.V. Ramakumar
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Improvement in fuel economy and reduction in emissions are the two major driving forces in the advancement of automotive engine technologies, fuel quality, lubricants, and aftertreatment devices. Engine design, operating conditions such as speed and load, and engine oil behavior have a significant influence on engine friction and then the vehicle fuel economy. There is no standard short duration engine test available to evaluate engine oil’s friction. This study developed a test protocol to discriminate friction reduction efficacy of engine oils/additives to support in the development of engine oils. The engine test facility was modified to conduct the motoring test over the speed range of 1000 - 4500 rpm and at 50 - 100 °C coolant and oil temperatures. Different viscosity grades and additive chemistry i.e. combination of friction modifiers & viscosity modifiers was evaluated over the motored torque test. Repeatability of test results was also ensured by conducting the test many times under the same temperature/speed conditions. High viscosity index engine oils have shown better performance compared to low viscosity index oils at all…
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Analysis of the Impact of Production Lubricant Composition and Fuel Dilution on Stochastic Pre-Ignition in Turbocharged, Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

FEV North America Inc.-Patrick Haenel, Rob de Bruijn, Dean Tomazic, Henning Kleeberg
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The occurrence of abnormal combustion events leading to high peak pressures and severe knock can be considered to be one of the main challenges for modern turbocharged, direct-injected gasoline engines. These abnormal combustion events have been referred to as Stochastic Pre-Ignition (SPI) or Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI). The events are characterized by an undesired, early start of combustion of the cylinder charge which occurs before or in parallel to the intended flame kernel development from the spark plug. Early SPI events can subsequently lead to violent auto-ignitions that are often referred to as Mega- or Super-Knock. These heavy knock events lead to strong pressure oscillations which can destroy production engines within a few occurrences. SPI occurs mainly at low engine speed and high engine load, thus limiting the engine operating area that is in particular important to achieve good drivability in downsized engines. Recent experimental SPI studies have linked this phenomenon strongly to engine oils.While numerous studies have been published using target blended oils, the presented study focuses on the impact of lubricants with production level…
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Synthesizing Renewable Oils for Use in Lubricants

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34138
Published 2019-04-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Industrial machinery, agricultural equipment, transportation vessels, and home applications depend on lubricants; however, they leave a heavy environmental footprint. Common lubricants, oils, greases, and emollients typically consist of mineral, or petroleum, base oils — often up to 90 percent by weight. These mineral base oils are highly volatile and tend to thicken quickly, which means that lubricants need to be replaced often, generating waste.