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Characteristics of Auto-ignition for Lubricants and Lubricant/Gasoline based on An Innovative Single Droplet Combustion System

Tongji University-Yang Yu, Kaifeng Pan, Jun Deng, Zongjie Hu, Wei Xie, Zhijun Wu, Liguang Li
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1428
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to the advantages of low weight, low emission and good fuel economy, downsized turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are widely-applied nowadays. However, Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) phenomenon observed in these engines restricts their improvement of performance. Some researchers have shown that auto-ignition of lubricant in the combustion chamber has a great effect on the LSPI frequency. To study the auto-ignition characteristics of lubricant, an innovative single droplet auto-ignition measurement system for lubricant and its mixture is designed and developed, with better accuracy and effectiveness. The experiments are carried out by hanging lubricant droplets on the thermocouple node under active thermo-atmosphere provided by a small Dibble burner. The auto-ignition process of lubricant droplets is recorded by a high-speed camera. Influences of different base oil types, viscosities, calcium contents, initial droplet diameters, co-flow speeds, new oil, used oil and blending ratios of lubricant and gasoline on the ignition delay time of droplets are investigated at different droplet temperatures. The co-flow field temperature varies from 823K to 1323K. Equivalent diameters of droplets, 0.99mm, 1.24mm and 1.63mm, generated…
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Assessing the Impact of Lubricant and Fuel Composition on LSPI and Particulate Emissions in a Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

FCA US LLC-Andrew Huisjen, Asim Iqbal, Ken Hardman
Shell Global Solutions (Deutschland) GmbH-Jannik Reitz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0610
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Downsized turbocharged gasoline direct-injection (TGDI) engines with high specific power and torque can enable reduced fuel consumption in passenger vehicles while maintaining or even improving on the performance of larger naturally aspirated engines. However, high specific torque levels can lead to abnormal combustion phenomena such as knock and Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI). LSPI, in particular, can limit further downsizing due to resulting and potentially damaging mega-knock events. Here, we characterize the impacts of lubricant and fuel composition on LSPI frequency in a TGDI engine while specifically exploring the correlation between fuel composition, particulate emissions, and LSPI events. Our research shows that oil composition has a strong impact on LSPI frequency and that LSPI frequency can be reduced through a carefully focused approach to lubricant formulation. We observed significant improvement in the maximum BMEP achievable with zero LSPI events using both prototype and market-representative lubricant formulations. Fuels blended with a high polyaromatic content were shown to increase LSPI frequency significantly, and also were shown to produce higher particulate mass (PM) and particulate number (PN) emissions. Fuel…
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Interactive Effects between Sheet Steel, Lubricant and Measurement System

General Motors LLC-Jatinder P. Singh
University of Colorado Denver-Luis Rafael Sanchez Vega, Eduardo Corral
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0755
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study assessed the interaction between sheet steel, lubricant and measurement system under typical sheet forming conditions. Deep Drawing Quality Bare, Electrogalvanized and Hot Dip Galvanized mild sheet steel, were tested under a Draw Bead Simulator (DBS). Lubricant conditions varied from thoroughly dry (0% lube) to overlubricated (>6 g/m2); with 1g of lubricant per m2 as the target of general usage. Mixed lubrication cases, with incremental amounts of a lubricant applied over an existing base of 1 g/m2 rust protection oil, were analyzed. The results show distinctive differences and similarities on friction between the bare material and the coatings. While friction on the bare substrate was higher than the coatings under lubricated conditions, it was significantly more tolerant to dry conditions. Stick-slip behavior was studied as a measurement system response to intermittent friction between the testing tools. These measurement test responses, and sheet surface texture changes during testing were discussed.
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The role of NOx in engine lubricant oxidation

Infineum UK, Ltd.-David R. Coultas
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1427
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Engine technology trends like downsizing, direct injection and effective lean NOx aftertreatment have created challenging environments for lubricating oils. Longer contact times of the lubricant with fuel and NOx, higher sump temperatures and higher NOx levels in blow-by gas promote nitration-oxidation driven by the action of NOx and air on hydrocarbons. Nitration-oxidation has often been overlooked as a mechanism of oil oxidation in real world engines. Indeed, the emphasis is almost exclusively on iron catalysed oxidation in bench tests purporting to protect modern engines against lubricant oxidation. This paper will demonstrate that a proprietary bench nitration-oxidation test is capable of reproducing trends in nitrate ester formation and consumption seen in real engines, which also fully explain the resulting impact on lubricant oxidation without the use of iron catalysts.
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Understanding vapor and solution phase corrosion of lubricants used in electrified transmissions

Lubrizol-Gregory Hunt, Christopher Prengaman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0561
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this study, the corrosion rates of commercially available lubricants that are found in electrified and conventional transmissions are measured in the vapor and solution phase across a range of operating temperatures using the wire corrosion test. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of performing vapor and solution phase corrosion measurements in real time across a range of temperatures and offers an efficient and cost-effective way to screen fluid chemistries over a range of potential corrosion situations. Corrosion measurements such as these, when interpreted correctly provide reliable data on which to base appropriate safety margins during the design phase.
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Investigation on Tribological Performance of Nano Zno and Mixed Oxide of Cu – Zn as Additives in Engine Oil.

Hindustan Institute of Technology & Science-Bharadwaj Ramakrishnan, Sangeethkumar Elumalai, Jaikumar Mayakrishnan, Induja Saravanan, S Jenoris Muthiya
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1095
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lubrication plays an essential role in wear reduction of various mechanisms, eliminating surface to surface contact of components. In the automotive field the lubricants, in the form of oils or greases, are presented in motors, gearboxes, distributors, differentials, pumps, bearings etc. The quality and the condition of lubricants influence the performance through the properties as high pressure resistance, viscosity and viscosity index, anti-wear and anti-corrosion resistance etc. The Proper lubrication augments the efficiency and the reliability of engines and protects against corrosion and wear. In an internal combustion engine, almost 33% of the energy produced by the fuel during combustion was wasted due to very high friction between the moving parts in the engine because the engine oil could not play a effective role during in different operating condition. Nanoparticles used as additives in the engine oil can exhibit good friction reduction and anti-wear behavior. The present study aims to enhance the tribological performance of engine oil SAE(20W-40) by employing nano zinc oxide and mixed oxides of copper and zinc as additives. The zinc oxide…
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Assessment of Elastomer Volume Swelling Behavior in Aero-Derived Gas Turbine Engine Lubricants - Short Duration Test

E-34 Propulsion Lubricants Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP7355
  • Current
Published 2020-02-20 by SAE International in United States
This method is used for determining the volume swelling effect of aero-derived gas turbine engine lubricants on elastomeric materials. It provides insight into the expected performance of a candidate lubricants impact upon elastomer swell and provides data to determine if the candidate lubricant meets specification requirements. This ARP is based upon Federal Standard 791, Method 3604.
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A Computational Study of the Lubricant Transport into Oil Control Ring Groove

Sloan Automotive Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Tech-Tianshi Fang, Zhen Meng, Sebastian Ahling, Tian Tian
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2362
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Lubricant transport into an oil control ring (OCR) groove through the clearance between the lower flank of the OCR and the groove was studied. A primary driving force of such lubricant transport is a dynamic pressure on the outer end of the clearance. The magnitude of the pressure depends on the flow pattern in the skirt chamfer region. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was employed to simulate the multiphase flow involving lubricant and gas in a skirt chamfer region. A correlation to predict the dynamic pressure was proposed and validated. The amount of lubricant transport into an OCR groove was found remarkable in a high-speed full-load condition.
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Lubricant Impact on Friction by Engine Component: A Motored Friction Tear Down Assessment of a Production 3.6L Engine

Ricardo Inc.-Stephen Cakebread
Ricardo UK Ltd-Phil Carden, Andrew de Vries
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2239
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Worldwide, Fuel Economy (FE) legislation increasingly influences vehicle and engine design, and drives friction reduction. The link between lubricant formulation and mechanical friction is complex and depends on engine component design and test cycle. This Motored Friction Tear Down (MFTD) study characterizes the friction within a 3.6L V6 engine under operating conditions and lubricant choices relevant to the legislated FE cycles. The high-fidelity MFTD results presented indicate that the engine is a low-friction engine tolerant of low viscosity oils. Experiments spanned four groups of engine hardware (reciprocating, crankshaft, valvetrain, oil pump), five lubricants (four candidates referenced against an SAE 0W-20) and five temperature regimes. The candidate lubricants explored the impact of base oil viscosity, viscosity modifier (VM) and friction modifier (FM) content. The results indicate that (i) a prototype SAE 0W-8 fluid generated the largest overall reduction in friction, (ii) the valvetrain group responded well to FM content, and (iii) an SAE 0W-20 with alternative VM performed remarkably well at low temperatures (-7°C to 30°C). In order to understand the significance of that engine friction…
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Development of Low Viscosity 0W-16 Fuel-Saving Engine Oil using a Synergistic Optimization of an Innovative Base Oil and Performant Additives while Maintaining Engine Durability in a ILSAC GF6-B Environment

INFINEUM-CONSIGNY Mathieu, HERRY Camille
TOTAL Marketing & Services-CHAMPAGNE Nicolas, USSA-ALDANA Paula
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2240
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Lowering fuel consumption whilst maintaining engine life continues to be a challenge for the lubricant industry. Forthcoming ILSAC GF-6 specification and new emission regulations make this challenge even harder to overcome. Knowledge concerning innovative polyalkylene glycol (PAG) chemistry combined with expertise in engine oil formulation (additives and mineral base oils) and a deep understanding of the friction within the engine were used to develop a 0W- 16 engine oil with better fuel economy performance than other 0W-16 oils present in the market.Indeed, to accurately measure the friction on several part of the engine, a 1.2 L supercharged gasoline engine was first dismantled to measure the lubricant friction and wear capabilities of different lubricant formulations (containing group III base oil, additives and OSP HVI) on different engine parts. An initial optimization of the individual formulation components was realized to reduce the friction as much as possible whilst still maintaining wear protection performance. Additives were chosen to interact synergistically with OSP HVI. A second optimization was subsequently carried out using the whole engine in a friction torque…
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