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Light Duty Truck Rear Axle Thermal Modeling

FCA-Mohammad Nahid
FCA US LLC-Joydip Saha, Sadek Rahman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1388
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
More stringent Federal emission regulations and fuel economy requirements have driven the automotive industry towards more sophisticated vehicle thermal management systems to best utilize the waste heat and improve driveline efficiency. The final drive unit in light and heavy duty trucks usually consists of geared transmission and differential housed in a lubricated axle. The automotive rear axle is one of the major sources of power loss in the driveline due to gear friction, churning and bearing loss affecting vehicle fuel economy. These losses vary significantly with lubricant viscosity. Also the temperatures of the lubricant are critical to the overall axle performance in terms of power losses, fatigue life and wear. In this paper, a methodology for modeling thermal behavior of automotive rear axle with heat exchanger is presented. The proposed model can be used to predict the axle lubricant temperature rise. It also can be used to study the effect of coolant temperature on the axle warm-up and efficiency for a typical EPA fuel economy driving cycle.Thermal axle consists of automotive rear axle with a…
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Effect of Fuel and Lubricant on Engine Vibration

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-Jose Mautone, Juan Gutierrez, Hélder Almeida Junior
Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto-Claudio Marcio Santana
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1015
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vibration problems in internal combustion engines produce premature wear on the internal components of the engine, which contributes both to reduce the lifespan of the engine itself as well as cause discomfort to the occupants of the vehicle. Thus, since it is impossible to totally eliminate vibrations from engines, it is important to understand the sources of vibration production and control them to acceptable levels. The general objective of this paper is to measure the vibration in the areas that undergo greater efforts due to the processes of combustion and mechanical forces. These areas are the fixed bearings located to the extremes of the crankshaft. The specified objective of this study is to correlate these levels of crankshaft engine vibration relative to the fuel used, ethanol and gasoline, and assess the influence of lubricant oils on the vibration levels as a function of the viscosity of the lubricant. The results demonstrated that the vibration intensity of the engine increases with increasing engine speed and load. In all operating conditions, the ethanol-run engine has higher vibration…
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Developing High-Performance Motorcycle Oils

Maxima Racing Oils, Kawasaki Motors Corp. USA-Mike Marcella, Aaron Johnson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0505
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Published motorcycle lubricant research often focuses on developments to meet certain specifications, regulatory requirements, or a combination of the two. Seemingly missing from the literature is research where the primary goal is development of a lubricant that enables maximum torque, power and acceleration from a machine for the purpose of winning races. The present study combines the two areas of research, where a high-performance motorcycle engine oil platform is developed to be used in competition, while simultaneously meeting the necessary regulations and specifications to be useful for commuters and leisure riders alike. Well-known are the demands on a motorcycle oil, which must lubricate and protect the crankcase, clutch and gears, all of which have competing requirements such that a strategy to improve the performance in one area can cause a detriment in another. Formulating for racing engines that are typically much more powerful than production versions further exacerbates these dichotomies, where the traditional strategies for gaining power through the lubricant of reducing viscosity or adding friction-reducing chemistries can leave the clutch and gears open to…
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The Study of Friction Modifiers to Improve Fuel Economy for WLTP with Low and Ultra-Low Viscosity Engine Oil

ADEKA Corporation-Kenji Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi Hiramatsu, Ryo Hanamura, Yukiya Moriizumi
ADEKA Europe GmbH-Sascha Heiden
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2205
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Applying friction modifier (FM) in low viscosity engine oil is one well known cost effective approach for improving a fuel economy of vehicles. At first, the characteristics and mechanisms of FMs on tribological phenomena were studied with surface analysis technics. The performance of FMs was also evaluated with engine component test and motored engine test to understand the friction property of FMs in engine application. Then the effect of driving cycle, lubricant viscosity and FMs in fuel economy performance under chassis dynamo were studied.Among tested FMs, molybdenum dialkyl dithiocarbamate (MoDTC) was the most effective at boundary lubrication, which is considered significantly important friction area for WLTP, latest procedure for fuel economy test, with low and ultra-low viscosity engine oil.
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Lubricants Technology Applied to Transmissions in Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicles

Lubricants Research Laboratory, Idemitsu Kosan Co., LTd.Ichi-Keiichi Narita, Daisuke Takekawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2338
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this study is to investigate how lubricants used for transaxles in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) give an impact on the cooling performance for electric motors. As a result, reducing lubricant viscosity improve heat transfer in both natural and forced convection conditions. Quantitative analysis could reveal that kinetic viscosity and heat conductivity of fluids are highly influential on the cooling performance. In addition, we investigated the effect of lubricant additive on fatigue life in bearing components by using a thrust needle roller bearing tester. Extreme pressure agent could control a morphology of the bearing raceway surface, playing a role in extending a fatigue life of the bearing.
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Art of fuel economy lubricant formulation: How appropriate fuel economy assessment tools and new technologies are opening-up new formulation spaces for the next generation fuel economy lubricants

Infineum Japan Ltd.-Tsuyoshi Matsui
Infineum UK Ltd.-Thomas Featherstone, Peter Wright
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2242
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Designing fuel economy lubricants is an art; finding the right balance between fuel economy and durability requirements is complex, with many trade-offs. To open new formulation spaces with ever increasing fuel economy, a deep understanding of how lubricating oils respond to different drive cycles, engine/transmission type and any coating properties, e.g. DLC, is required.In this paper, we describe how the implementation of WLTC requires lubricant optimization to deliver improved fuel economy under this test cycle and therefore, lubricant viscosity reduction becomes more important. We also illustrate optimization of the sludge system is key to reducing overall viscosity of lubricants for ultra low viscosity application, such as in SAE 0W- 8 viscosity grade oils. To meet the cleanliness challenges in an SAE 0W-8 environment, we describe a developmental sludge handling system with improved cleanliness at constant viscosity to conventional SAE 0W-8 lubricants. A SAE 0W-8 demonstration oil with the developmental sludge handling system at equivalent sludge handling to a conventional system showed lower viscosity properties and demonstrated improved fuel economy performance in a motored rig test…
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Lubricating Characteristics and Typical Properties of Lubricants Used in Aviation Propulsion and Drive Systems

E-34 Propulsion Lubricants Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5433C
  • Current
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) establishes guidance for the specification of formulated lubricant properties which contribute to the lubricating function in bearings, gears, clutches, and seals of aviation propulsion and drive systems.
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Petroleum Base Instrument Bearing Lubricant Viscosity 15

AMS B Finishes Processes and Fluids Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS3055B
  • Current
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers the requirements for a refined paraffinic petroleum-base lubricant.
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Analysis of the Increase Level of Vibration in an Internal Combustion Engine due to the Degradation of the Lubricating Oil

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-Claudio Marcio Santana, Jose Mautone, helder almeida
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
When analyzing vibrations in internal combustion engines, it is noticed that the greatest sources of vibrations are generated by combustion and mechanical forces. These forces occur over a wide frequency range and are transmitted to the outer surface of the engine through several paths, such as through the piston mechanism, connecting rod, crankshaft and engine block. As a result of the action of these forces, the external surfaces of the engine are subjected to vibrations of various amplitudes. Vibration problems in internal combustion engines are common due to the wide variety of parts and components that make up such engines. The crankshaft undergoes transverse, longitudinal and torsional vibrations due to the dynamics of the stresses sustained mainly during the combustion phase of the engine. The effects of vibration produce premature wear on the internal components of the engine, which contributes both to reduce the lifespan of the engine itself as well as cause discomfort to the occupants of the vehicle. Thus, since it is impossible to totally eliminate vibrations from engines, it is important to…
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Automotive Gear Lubricant Viscosity Classification

Fuels and Lubricants TC 3 Driveline and Chassis Lubrication
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J306_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-06 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard defines the limits for a classification of automotive gear lubricants in rheological terms only. Other lubricant characteristics are not considered.
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