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Identifying the limitations of the Hot Tube test as a predictor of lubricant performance in small engine applications

The Lubrizol Corporation-Jason Hanthorn, Jessica Schmiesing
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0510
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The Hot Tube Test is a bench test commonly used by OEMs, Oil Marketers and Lubricant Additive manufacturers within the Small Engines industry. The test uses a glass tube heated in an aluminum block to gauge the degree of lacquer formation when a lubricant is subjected to high temperatures. This test was first published by engineers at Komatsu Ltd. (hence KHT) in 1984 to predict lubricant effects on diesel engine scuffing in response to a field issue where bulldozers were suffering from piston scuffing failures [1]. Nearly 35 years after its development the KHT is still widely used to screen lubricant performance in motorcycle, power tool and recreational marine applications as a predictor of high-temperature piston cleanliness - a far cry from the original intended performance predictor of the test. In this paper we set out to highlight the shortcomings of the KHT as well as to identify areas where it may still be a useful screening tool as it pertains to motorcycle applications.
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Alternative Engine Oil Formulating Solutions to Reduce Low Speed Pre-Ignition

Chevron Energy Technology Company-Amir Maria, Theresa Gunawan
Chevron Oronite Company LLC-Ian Elliott, Richard Cherpeck
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2153
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Many modern engine platforms use turbochargers to meet higher fuel economy performance, which is often combined with downsizing the engine displacement. Operating downsized, turbocharged, direct injection engines at low speeds and high loads has led to an abnormal combustion phenomenon known as Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), wherein the fuel-air mixture ignites before the spark occurs. LSPI can lead to extremely high pressures in the combustion chamber, which can damage hardware such as pistons, piston rings, and spark plugs.Lubricants, fuels, and engine operating conditions have been shown to impact LSPI. Any of these can be modified to improve LSPI performance. One solution which has been used widely in the industry is reformulating the lubricant additive package. In particular, calcium-based detergents have been shown to promote LSPI, while magnesium detergents appear neutral to LSPI. Reducing the usage of calcium detergents can impact other performance areas such as deposit control and fuel economy, and limits formulating flexibility. Finding an additive solution to LSPI which does not require a reduction in calcium allows for more component options in formulating…
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Lubricants Technology Applied to Transmissions in Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicles

Lubricants Research Laboratory, Idemitsu Kosan Co., LTd.Ichi-Keiichi Narita, Daisuke Takekawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2338
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this study is to investigate how lubricants used for transaxles in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) give an impact on the cooling performance for electric motors. As a result, reducing lubricant viscosity improve heat transfer in both natural and forced convection conditions. Quantitative analysis could reveal that kinetic viscosity and heat conductivity of fluids are highly influential on the cooling performance. In addition, we investigated the effect of lubricant additive on fatigue life in bearing components by using a thrust needle roller bearing tester. Extreme pressure agent could control a morphology of the bearing raceway surface, playing a role in extending a fatigue life of the bearing.
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Studies on Characteristics of Nanoparticles Generated in a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine

HORIBA, Ltd.-Kunio Tabata, Motonobu Takahashi, Kenji Takeda, Kazuya Tsurumi
SUBARU CORPORATION-Yasuyuki Kiya, Shota Tobe, Akira Ogura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2328
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Particles generated from lubricant in a gasoline direct injection (*GDI) engine were investigated in detail with the aim to understand the influence of components in lubricant on the amount of particles generated as well as their size. Analytical approach employed in this study was real-time engine tests combined with X-ray spectroscopic and electron-microscopic analyses. Real-time engine tests where particle number (PN) and particle size distribution were consecutively measured with oil consumption for lubricants with different formulas enabled us to extract information regarding lubricant-derived particles. This can be achieved only when sulfur species in lubricant are used as a “tracer” and thus, sulfur-free fuel possessing low PM Index (i.e., isooctane) needs to be used for the measurements.It was revealed that the size of particles increased with an increase in oil consumption in the vicinity of 10 nm, and such particles were assumed to be mainly generated as a result of combustion of metal-based additives used in lubricant. Moreover, STEM-EDX images strongly indicated that the particles with a ~10 nm diameter are composed of metal oxides, sulfates…
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Lubricating Characteristics and Typical Properties of Lubricants Used in Aviation Propulsion and Drive Systems

E-34 Propulsion Lubricants Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5433C
  • Current
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) establishes guidance for the specification of formulated lubricant properties which contribute to the lubricating function in bearings, gears, clutches, and seals of aviation propulsion and drive systems.
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Fuel-Lubricant Interactions on the Propensity for Stochastic Pre-Ignition

Driven Racing Oil-Lake Speed
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Bradley Zigler, Jon Luecke
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
This work explores the impact of the interaction of lubricant and fuel properties on the propensity for stochastic pre-ignition (SPI). Findings are based on statistically significant changes in SPI tendency and magnitude, as determined by measurements of cylinder pressure. Specifically, lubricant detergents, lubricant volatility, fuel volatility, fuel chemical composition, fuel-wall impingement, and engine load were varied to study the physical and chemical effects of fuel-lubricant interactions on SPI tendency. The work illustrates that at low loads, with fuels susceptible to SPI events, lubricant detergent package effects on SPI were non-significant. However, with changes to fuel distillation, fuel-wall impingement, and most importantly engine load, lubricant detergent effects could be observed even at reduced loads This suggests that there is a thermal effect associated with the higher load operation. It was hypothesized that the thermal effect was associated with lube oil nitrogenation. To test this theory, nitromethane (CH3NO2) was blended at 6.5% by volume CH3NO2 resulted in significant sensitivity to lubricant additive package effect on SPI, even at reduced loads where no lubricant sensitivity was observed without…
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Morphological Characterization of Gasoline Soot-in-Oil: Development of Semi-Automated 2D-TEM and Comparison with Novel High-Throughput 3D-TEM

University of Nottingham-Ephraim Haffner-Staton, Antonino La Rocca, Alasdair Cairns, Michael Fay
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0042
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Characterization of soot nanoparticle morphology can be used to develop understanding of nanoparticle interaction with engine lubricant oil and its additives. It can be used to help direct modelling of soot-induced thickening, and in a more general sense for combatting reductions in engine efficiency that occur with soot-laden oils. Traditional 2D transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization possesses several important shortcomings related to accuracy that have prompted development of an alternative 3D characterization technique utilizing electron tomography, known as 3D-TEM. This work details progress made towards facilitating semi-automated image acquisition and processing for location of structures of interest on the TEM grid. Samples were taken from a four cylinder 1.4 L gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engine operated in typically extra-urban driving conditions for 20,284 km, with automatic cylinder deactivation enabled. Soot nanoparticles were extracted from the used oil drawn from the sump, and prepared on TEM support grids. From a feedstock of chosen grid locations, 30 soot nanoparticles were reconstructed and characterized in 3D and morphological characterization results compared to those derived using 2D-TEM. Results…
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RETRACTION NOTICE

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Andhra University-I.N. Niranjan Kumar
Andhra University and Lakireddy Bali Reddy College of Engineering-K.N.D. Malleswara Rao
  • Journal Article
  • 04-11-02-0010.1
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Combined Fuel and Lubricant Effects on Low Speed Pre-Ignition

Southwest Research Institute-Michael Clifford Kocsis, Thomas Briggs, Garrett Anderson
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Many studies on low speed pre-ignition have been published to investigate the impact of fuel properties and of lubricant properties. Fuels with high aromatic content or higher distillation temperatures have been shown to increase LSPI activity. The results have also shown that oil additives such as calcium sulfonate tend to increase the occurrence of LSPI while others such as magnesium sulfonate tend to decrease the occurrence. Very few studies have varied the fuel and oil properties at the same time. This approach is useful in isolating only the impact of the oil or the fuel, but both fluids impact the LSPI behavior of the engine simultaneously.To understand how the lubricant and fuel impacts on LSPI interact, a series of LSPI tests were performed with a matrix which combined fuels and lubricants with a range of LSPI activity. This study was intended to determine if a low activity lubricant could suppress the increased LSPI from a high activity fuel, and vice versa. The results showed that a low activity fuel was insensitive to the lubricant used…
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The Effect of Pressure, Temperature and Additives on Droplet Ignition of Lubricant Oil and Its Surrogate

King Abdullah University of Science & Tech.-Sumit Maharjan, William Roberts, Ayman Elbaz
Saudi Aramco, Research and Development-Yasser Qahtani
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Numerous studies have attributed pre-ignition events in turbocharged spark ignited engines to the auto-ignition of lubricant oil-fuel mixture droplets. These droplets result from the interaction of the directly injected fuel spray on the lubricant oil film on the cylinder walls, causing fuel splashing to pull oil off the walls, forming droplets. The dilution of the oil by the fuel also changes lubricant oil droplet properties. Therefore, it is important to understand lubricating oils, with and without fuel dilution, as a possible ignition source in pre-ignition and super knock events.In this work, a constant volume (4 L) combustion chamber (CVCC) that allows the introduction of a single droplet of lubricating oil has been built. It is capable of operation at elevated pressures and temperatures. To simulate the droplet-induced pre-ignition event, a droplet injection system was incorporated into the vessel. The oil droplet was suspended on the junction of a thermocouple where the instantaneous internal droplet temperature was measured throughout the oil droplet lifetime. The experiments were carried out in an air atmosphere heated to 300 °C.…
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