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Materials for DPF and its Cleaning Methodologies

ARAI Academy-Kamalkishore Vora, Kartik Gurnule
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2565
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Accumulation of ash in the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) with engine operating over the time is a major concern for all vehicle manufacturers, with BS VI and BS VII emission norms mandating the use of DPF. Ash deposition leads to increase in pressure drop across the filter and more frequent regeneration pattern, which can lead to sintering. It can hamper the capacity of soot loading, properties of DPF substrate material and can lower catalyst activity in case of Catalysed-DPF. Hence, removal of ash is important by defining the DPF cleaning methods. Primary source of ash is lubricant oil, taking part in the combustion. Lubricant additives like detergents and anti-wear agents are responsible for formation of metallic ash inside the DPF. Secondary source of metallic ash is fuel and engine wear out. The present paper elucidates the preparation of DPF samples including coating and canning of DPF substrates, with proper GBD. Pressure drop and weight with and without coating is estimated and validated through actual measurement of fresh as well as soot loaded samples. Soot loading…
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Fuel-Lubricant Interactions on the Propensity for Stochastic Pre-Ignition

Driven Racing Oil-Lake Speed
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Bradley Zigler, Jon Luecke
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
This work explores the impact of the interaction of lubricant and fuel properties on the propensity for stochastic pre-ignition (SPI). Findings are based on statistically significant changes in SPI tendency and magnitude, as determined by measurements of cylinder pressure. Specifically, lubricant detergents, lubricant volatility, fuel volatility, fuel chemical composition, fuel-wall impingement, and engine load were varied to study the physical and chemical effects of fuel-lubricant interactions on SPI tendency. The work illustrates that at low loads, with fuels susceptible to SPI events, lubricant detergent package effects on SPI were non-significant. However, with changes to fuel distillation, fuel-wall impingement, and most importantly engine load, lubricant detergent effects could be observed even at reduced loads This suggests that there is a thermal effect associated with the higher load operation. It was hypothesized that the thermal effect was associated with lube oil nitrogenation. To test this theory, nitromethane (CH3NO2) was blended at 6.5% by volume CH3NO2 resulted in significant sensitivity to lubricant additive package effect on SPI, even at reduced loads where no lubricant sensitivity was observed without…
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Morphological Characterization of Gasoline Soot-in-Oil: Development of Semi-Automated 2D-TEM and Comparison with Novel High-Throughput 3D-TEM

University of Nottingham-Ephraim Haffner-Staton, Antonino La Rocca, Alasdair Cairns, Michael Fay
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0042
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Characterization of soot nanoparticle morphology can be used to develop understanding of nanoparticle interaction with engine lubricant oil and its additives. It can be used to help direct modelling of soot-induced thickening, and in a more general sense for combatting reductions in engine efficiency that occur with soot-laden oils. Traditional 2D transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization possesses several important shortcomings related to accuracy that have prompted development of an alternative 3D characterization technique utilizing electron tomography, known as 3D-TEM. This work details progress made towards facilitating semi-automated image acquisition and processing for location of structures of interest on the TEM grid. Samples were taken from a four cylinder 1.4 L gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engine operated in typically extra-urban driving conditions for 20,284 km, with automatic cylinder deactivation enabled. Soot nanoparticles were extracted from the used oil drawn from the sump, and prepared on TEM support grids. From a feedstock of chosen grid locations, 30 soot nanoparticles were reconstructed and characterized in 3D and morphological characterization results compared to those derived using 2D-TEM. Results…
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RETRACTION NOTICE

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Andhra University-I.N. Niranjan Kumar
Andhra University and Lakireddy Bali Reddy College of Engineering-K.N.D. Malleswara Rao
  • Journal Article
  • 04-11-02-0010.1
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Combined Fuel and Lubricant Effects on Low Speed Pre-Ignition

Southwest Research Institute-Michael Clifford Kocsis, Thomas Briggs, Garrett Anderson
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Many studies on low speed pre-ignition have been published to investigate the impact of fuel properties and of lubricant properties. Fuels with high aromatic content or higher distillation temperatures have been shown to increase LSPI activity. The results have also shown that oil additives such as calcium sulfonate tend to increase the occurrence of LSPI while others such as magnesium sulfonate tend to decrease the occurrence. Very few studies have varied the fuel and oil properties at the same time. This approach is useful in isolating only the impact of the oil or the fuel, but both fluids impact the LSPI behavior of the engine simultaneously.To understand how the lubricant and fuel impacts on LSPI interact, a series of LSPI tests were performed with a matrix which combined fuels and lubricants with a range of LSPI activity. This study was intended to determine if a low activity lubricant could suppress the increased LSPI from a high activity fuel, and vice versa. The results showed that a low activity fuel was insensitive to the lubricant used…
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The Effect of Pressure, Temperature and Additives on Droplet Ignition of Lubricant Oil and Its Surrogate

King Abdullah University of Science & Tech.-Sumit Maharjan, William Roberts, Ayman Elbaz
Saudi Aramco, Research and Development-Yasser Qahtani
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Numerous studies have attributed pre-ignition events in turbocharged spark ignited engines to the auto-ignition of lubricant oil-fuel mixture droplets. These droplets result from the interaction of the directly injected fuel spray on the lubricant oil film on the cylinder walls, causing fuel splashing to pull oil off the walls, forming droplets. The dilution of the oil by the fuel also changes lubricant oil droplet properties. Therefore, it is important to understand lubricating oils, with and without fuel dilution, as a possible ignition source in pre-ignition and super knock events.In this work, a constant volume (4 L) combustion chamber (CVCC) that allows the introduction of a single droplet of lubricating oil has been built. It is capable of operation at elevated pressures and temperatures. To simulate the droplet-induced pre-ignition event, a droplet injection system was incorporated into the vessel. The oil droplet was suspended on the junction of a thermocouple where the instantaneous internal droplet temperature was measured throughout the oil droplet lifetime. The experiments were carried out in an air atmosphere heated to 300 °C.…
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Numerical Analysis on the Potential of Reducing DPF Size Using Low Ash Lubricant Oil

Shell Commercial Fuels and Lubricants-Fan Liu
Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc.-Jason Brown
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is necessary for diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent emission regulations. Many studies have demonstrated that the lubricant derived ash has a significant effect on DPF pressure drop and engine fuel economy, and this effect becomes more and more severe with the increasing of operating hours of the DPF because the ash accumulated in the DPF cannot be removed by regeneration. It is reported that most of the DPFs operated with more ash than soot in the filter for more than three quarters of the time during its lifetime [1]. In order to mitigate this problem, the original engine manufacturers (OEM) tend to use an oversized DPF for the engine. However, it will increase the costs of the DPF and reduce the compactness of the engine aftertreatment system.With the development of the lubricant additives technology, some OEMs and lubricant oil manufacturers are concerning that if there is any possibility to reduce DPF size using low ash lubricant oil. In this work, a numerical DPF model was built to estimate the…
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Lubricants, Industrial Oils, and Related Products - Classification

Fuel and Lubricants TC2 Industrial Lubricants
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • MS1000_201808
  • Current
Published 2018-08-29 by SAE International in United States
This index provides an overview of lubricants and symbols for the purpose of assisting the user in the identification of the appropriate product and relevant SAE specification. The aim is to better determine the best lubricant to be used for a particular application. If containers used for shipping lubricants are also to be marked, the same identification and symbols should be used. See also ISO 5169 Machine tools - Presentation of lubrication instructions.
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RETRACTED: Improved Lubrication Properties and Characterization of GO Nanoparticles as Lubricant Additives on Hypereutectic Al-17Si/AISI25100 Steel Sliding Pair

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Andhra University-I.N. Niranjan Kumar
Andhra University and Lakireddy Bali Reddy College of Engineering-K.N.D. Malleswara Rao
  • Journal Article
  • 04-11-02-0010
Published 2018-06-14 by SAE International in United States
SAE International has retracted this article.
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Influence of Solid Additives in Performance of Tripot-Type Constant Velocity Joints

Nexteer Automotive-Eduardo Mondragon-Parra, Jeffrey Courville, James Harder
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The global trend to reduce CO2 emissions, combined with the popularity of Sport Utility Vehicles (SUV’s), has prompted automakers to design and manufacture lighter vehicles with suspension architectures that may require halfshafts (HS’s) to operate at higher continuous angles than in the past. Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) characteristics of a halfshaft, as well as its durability, are functions of the operating angle and the lubricating grease in the joints. Newer vehicles require driveline solutions that can provide consistent dynamic performance over a wide range of operating angles. Tripot-type Constant Velocity Joints (CVJ’s) are commonly used as inboard joints in a halfshaft. Through proper grease selection, premium tripots may be lubricated with greases containing solid additives, which provide consistent dynamic performance and durability.
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