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Application of Low-Mass Corning® FLORA® Substrates for Cold-Start Emissions Reduction to Meet Upcoming LEV III SULEV30 Regulation Requirement

Corning-Jason Warkins, Tinghong Tao, Min Shen, Song Lyu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0652
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With upcoming US Tier 3/LEV III emissions regulation set for full implementation in 2025, significant efforts are being made within the industry to meet the fleet average SULEV30 requirement. Under the current vehicle technology, cold-start emissions generated in the first sixty seconds can make up to 70+% of total tailpipe emission over the FTP-75 certification cycle. Therefore, the improvement in the performance of catalyzed substrates during cold-start becomes essential for total tailpipe emissions reduction. Low-mass substrate technology offers a significant reduction in time to light-off, enabling a reduction in cold-start emissions while meeting customer mechanical durability and thermo-mechanical requirements. The ability of this lower-mass high porosity substrate to improve light-off time compared to conventional substrates has been measured through fundamental heat transfer modeling and vehicle dynamometer testing, which verified delivery of up to 20% improvement in total tailpipe emissions over the entire emissions cycle and across a wide array of vehicle platforms with various engine cold-start calibration technologies. Alternatively, low-mass substrate technology can be applied with reductions in platinum group metals (PGM) to maintain equivalent…
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Vehicle Emission Solutions for China 6b and Euro 7

Umicore AutoCat (China) Co., Ltd.-Gu Weiwei
Umicore Autocat (China) Co., Ltd.-Xiangwei Meng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0654
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Combinations of CC1 TWC and CC2 coated gasoline particulate filters (cGPF) were aged by 4-mode and fuel cut aging to simulate 200K kilometers of in-use aging in China and Europe, respectively. Separate combinations of catalysts were then evaluated on two low emission engines using the WLTC driving cycle. Catalyst volume and PGM mass were varied in the CC1. OSC/washcoat amounts were varied at constant PGM loading in the GPF. For the Chinese application, after the four-mode aging, it was found that the CC1 TWC catalyst volume should be greater than 1.0 L. High levels of OSC were needed in the GPF to meet CO and NOx emission targets. For the European application, after fuel cut aging, Euro 6d emissions were met with any combination of TWC and GPF catalysts. If the gaseous regulations for Euro 7 are similar to China 6b, the CC1 TWC catalyst should also be great than 1.0 L in order to meet CO and NOx emissions. Over all, results imply that CC1 TWC design is most critical for gaseous emissions. More…
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Energy Management of Dual Energy Source of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles

China FAW Group Co.,Ltd.-Haoyuan Song, Yuanzhi Liu, Zhao Yu
Jilin University Automotive Engineering College-Yongqiang Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0595
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the growing shortage of oil resources and the increasingly strict environmental regulations, countries are vigorously developing new energy vehicles, and as a truly zero-emission vehicle in the application, fuel cell electric vehicles can not only completely replace gasoline cars in term of fuel, but also have the advantages of high energy conversion efficiency, short hydrogenation time and long driving range. For Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle (FCEV), and the Energy Management Control Strategy is the "core" of the whole vehicle control system, which has a direct and significant effect on the power and economy of the vehicle. In this paper, the "dual energy source system" composed of fuel cell and power battery is taken as the research object. Based on the proposed power system structure, a fuel cell hybrid power management control strategy is designed, and the simulation model based on Matlab/Simulink and real vehicle are adopted to perform performance verification on standard operating conditions. The strategy aims at optimizing the power and economy, sets the target control value of the SOC, coordinates the…
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EDITORIAL: The case for hybrids remains strong

Automotive Engineering: March 2020

Editor-in-Chief-Lindsay Brooke
  • Magazine Article
  • 20AUTP03_05
Published 2020-03-01 by SAE International in United States

What's the most effective business strategy for achieving a zero-emission future? In a utopian world, the legacy automakers that are still committed to nasty tailpipes, catalysts and liquid-hydrocarbon fuel would simply end production of all IC-engine vehicles one day and switch over to battery-electrics the next. Everybody pushes a big red button and voila!-it's done. Strident and impractical environmentalists, of whom I know a few, would love it.

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Analysis of the economic, technological and environmental feasibility of hybridization and electrification of the national fleet of light vehicles

Cento Federal de Educação Tecnológica – CEFET MG-Fernando Antonio Rodrigues Filho, Letícia Morato Torres
Instituto Federal de Minas Gerais – IFMG-Thiago Augusto Araújo Moreira
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0283
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Vehicles powered by internal combustion engines correspond to 99.7% of the global fleet. Unfortunately, most of them runs with fossil fuels and contribute with over than 70% of CO and 20% of CO2 emitted to atmosphere. Global climate change has become a major issue and stringent legislation has been forcing the scientific community to seek a feasible solution for this issue. Renewable fuels, hybrid and electric vehicles have been pointed out as the answer for harmful greenhouse gases emissions. This paper demystifies the wrong belief that ICE will be totally replaced by electric vehicles in short and medium time. The zero emission vehicle (ZEV) terminology applied to EV must abolished since it is not true, as 65% of global electricity is generated from non-renewable sources. Despite of being more efficient, hybrid vehicles are still economically unfeasible. The low global fleet percentage of hybrid and electric vehicles associated with the current growth rate prove mathematically that their market share will not change significantly in short time. Those facts associated with the CO2-free status of renewable fuels…
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Mercedes Vision AVTR concept a beacon for sustainability

Automotive Engineering: January/February 2020

Paul Seredynski
  • Magazine Article
  • 20AUTP02_11
Published 2020-01-01 by SAE International in United States

At the keynote for the 2020 Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas, Mercedes-Benz unveiled its VISION AVTR concept vehicle representing a far-forward look at the company's future design, materials and technologies. Inspired by the James Cameron film Avatar (with the director on hand at CES for its reveal), and representing a sustainable vision of zero-emission mobility, the VISION AVTR concept was introduced by Ola Källenius, M-B's chairman of the board.

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Environmental and Health Impact of Electric and Hydrogen Light Vehicles: The Case of an Italian Small City

University of Roma Tor Vergata-Luca Andreassi, Giacomo Falcucci
University of Tuscia-Andrea Luigi Facci, Stefano Ubertini
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
As the emission regulations get more and more stringent in the different fields of energy and environmental systems, the electric and fuel cell electric vehicles have attracted growing attention by automakers, governments, and customers. Research and development efforts have been focused on devising novel concepts, low-cost systems, and reliable electric/fuel cell powertrain. In fact, electric and fuel cell vehicles coupled with low-carbon electricity sources offer the potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and exposure to tailpipe emissions from personal transportation.In particular, Pedal Assisted Bicycles popularity is rising in urban areas due to their low energy consumption and environmental impact. In fact, when electrically moved, they are zero emission vehicles with very low noise emissions, as well. These positive characteristics could be even improved by coupling a PAB with a fuel cell based power generation system, thus increasing the vehicle autonomy without influencing their emissions and consumption performances.In this paper, four types of vehicles are compared from an environmental and accessibility point of view: conventional car, bus, electric PAB and hydrogen fuel cell PAB; for such…
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A Practical Recuperated Split Cycle Engine for Low Emissions and High Efficiency

Dolphin N2 Ltd-Nicholas Owen, Fabrizio Treccarichi
Hiflux Limited-David Barnes, Tanzi Besant
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The Recuperated Split Cycle Engine is a new type of ICE, offering a step change in efficiency and tailpipe emissions. It targets the heavy duty, long-haul sector (trucks, off-highway, rail, shipping), where electrification is most challenging, and distributed generation, where capacity is required to support rising electrification. The engine separates cold (induction, compression) and hot (combustion, expansion) parts of the cycle; waste exhaust heat is recovered between them via a recuperator, as in a recuperated gas turbine. Recent research presented at this conference [1] shows that the sonic airflows seen in the induction event give rise to extraordinary fuel mixing and clean, cool combustion, with potential for after-treated emission levels between SULEV and zero-impact (either unmeasurable or below ambient). Recuperation and thermal insulation of the hot cylinder (both feasible within the capability of common materials) also enable high thermal efficiency, with a flatter efficiency map than a conventional ICE. Combining the two attributes, and introducing sustainable fuels, places this readily manufactured, affordable technology on a par with battery-electric and fuel cell propulsion. Results from simulation…
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The Development of a NOx Reduction System during the Fuel Cut Period for Gasoline Vehicles

Heesung Catalysts-Jinwoo Song, Jun Lee
Hyundai Motor Company-Muyoung Choi, Eunsang Lee, Sangjin Ma, Sangmin Lee, Jungmin Seo, Seungbeom Yoo
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Generally, vehicles do not need power during deceleration. Therefore, the fuel efficiency can be improved by stopping the fuel injection in this period. However, when the fuel cut is activated, NOx is emitted immediately after fuel cut. During the fuel cut period, a large amount of fresh air flows into the catalytic converter installed on a vehicle since there is no combustion. Thus, the catalytic materials are converted into an oxidizing atmosphere. As a result, NOx purification performance of the catalyst deteriorates, and eventually NOx is emitted when combustion restarts. The quantity of NOx in this period is relatively small. However, in case of increasing fuel cuts, emission problem could arise. Therefore, in order to meet the stringent regulation such as LEV III-SULEV20 or 30, the number of fuel cuts need to be limited. The problem is that this strategy leads to a disadvantage of fuel efficiency. In order to solve this problem, in this study, the principle and process of NOx during the fuel cut period was analyzed in detail and then a new…
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A Comparison on Emission Characteristics between Passenger Car Using Gasoline (Including HEV) and Diesel Fuel according to the Various Test Mode

Induk University-Hyun Gu Roh
National Institute of Environmental Research-Hyung Jun Kim, Jong Tae Lee, Yunsung Lim, Jihoon Keel, Youdeug Hong
Published 2019-03-25 by SAE International in United States
In the whole world, emission regulations for vehicles with internal combustion engine have been dramatically strengthened to reduce air pollutions of urban area. Recently, SULEV and EURO-6 emission standard were applied to the gasoline and diesel vehicles in Korea, respectively. Therefore, emission characteristics on passenger car using gasoline including HEV and diesel fuel according to the various test modes were conducted in this study. In order to this investigation, exhaust emission characteristics of gasoline and diesel vehicles were measured and analyzed by using chassis dynamometer (Chassis dynamometer 48˝compact 2WD, AVL) and emission analyzer (MEXA-7000 series, Horiba). Test vehicles were selected the 3 domestic models of a car in Korea. For analysis on emission characteristics according to driving cycles including certification mode, NEDC, FTP-75 and WLTP modes was applied. From these results, it can be shown that all test vehicle models meet the emission standard. In the diesel vehicles, NOx emission in FTP-75 and WLTP mode dramatically increased compared to NEDC mode. CO2 emission of gasoline vehicles have higher level than that of diesel vehicles. Also,…
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