Your Selections

Show Only


File Formats

Content Types













Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Boobala Krishnan D, T Vijayan, Apurbo Kirty
Mahindra Research Valley-Himanshi Dua
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2571
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Keywords – Miniaturization, Low Profile (LP) Relays, Low Profile (LP) Fuses, Fuse box, Wiring Harness Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective With the exponential advancement in technological features of automobile’s EE architecture, designing of power distribution unit becomes complex and challenging. Due to the increase in the number of features, the overall weight of power distribution unit increases and thereby affecting the overall system cost and fuel economy. The scope of this document is to scale down the weight and space of the power distribution unit without compromising with the current performance. Methodology Miniaturization involves replacing the mini fuses and J-case fuses with LP mini and LP J-case fuses respectively. The transition doesn’t involve any tooling modification and hence saves the tooling cost. Furthermore, to address stringent weight and space targets, LP mini fuses and LP J-case fuses were further replaced with micro-2 fuse and M-case fuse respectively. Similarly, micro relay and mini relay were replaced with Ultra micro and High current micro relay respectively. Results We took MPV segment vehicle for our initial testing and validation…

Performance Gains of Load Sensing Brake Force Distribution in Motorcycles

Force Motors-Apurva Chakraborty
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2426
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Commercial motorcycles and scooters incorporate independent circuits for front and rear brake actuation, thus precluding load dependent brake force distribution. In all cases of manual brake force modulation between the front and rear wheels, there is poor compensation for the changes in wheel loads on the account of longitudinal weight transfer, thus making it is challenging to provide an adequate braking force to each wheel. The ratio in which the braking force should be distributed between the front and the rear wheels is dependent on the motorcycle geometry, weight distribution, mechanical sizing of braking system components, and is a variable based on the deceleration. This connotes that a fixed value of front and rear braking forces can be optimized for only a narrow range of motorcycle’s deceleration. Maximum braking performance occurs just prior to wheel lockup, as a sliding tire provides less grip than a rolling tire. This is also the scenario when both the tires are doing the maximum work in decelerating the motorcycle. Therefore, an optimal brake force distribution is one that locks…

Development of low cost life saving system for Automotive vehicles during Road Accidents.

Tata Technologies, Ltd.-Sachin Madhukarrao Pajgade
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2460
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
According to research study 45% of death cause due to not getting help on time to the injured person. Research has proven that if injured person is not found any option of help then they also loose the power to fight such critical situation due to psychological effect. When vehicle met accident, people are not getting on time support, this delay is the major cause of death in developing nations. Presently there is no any robust system available in market for passenger & commercial vehicles which helps to provide on time help to the injured persons & saves human life. In current situation low cost life saving device is need of our society. This paper deals with the design & development of the low cost-life saving device. This paper also comprises the scenario when any vehicle meet an accidents within certain speed limit then how the intelligent life saving device will work & save the life's. Further it explains the type of life saving device design, logical programming and system packaging. The system has been…

Improved update-over-the-air solution through standardization of ‘software/firmware package format and flash jobs’

Elektrobit India-Pavithra Kumaraswamy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2435
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates and proposes the possibilities of standardizing the software/firmware package format and flash jobs in order to provide the possibility of productizing the update-over-the-air solution regarding on-board vehicle components and make use of it in all OEMs with minimum configuration changes and customization. The update-over-the-air solution in the automotive sector is provided by various suppliers and needs to be customized to meet various OEMs requirements. Possible Variants of OEM requirements are: • Variant 1 o Customer Portal + Backend + vehicle on-board components solution from supplier • Variant 2 o Customer Portal + Backend solution from OEM o Vehicle on-board components from supplier • Variant 3 o Backend from OEM o Customer Portal + vehicle on-board components from supplier ODX, VBF, and many other formats from OEMs include software/firmware packages. With variant 1, these different formats are converted into one supplier proprietary format and is saved in backend and understood by the vehicle on-board components for re-programming of target ECUs. With variant 2 and variant 3, these different OEM formats have to be…

Investigation of Dry sliding Wear behavior of AA8011 reinforced with Zirconium Oxide and Aluminium Oxide Hybrid Composites processed through Multi direction forging

Sri Krishna College of Engg. and Tech.-Sathishkumar Kuppuraj, Soundararajan Ranganathan, Sathishkumar Aruchamy, Shanthosh Gopal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0057
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The present work focused on fabricating hybrid composites of AA8011 with reinforcement particles of Zr2O3 and Al2O3 was taken equal (5wt%) weight percentage respectively. The hybrid composites were casted in square shape (50x50x50 mm size) under the optimal stir casted process parametric condition, further it was taken for forging process. The prepared three samples were induced for uni-direction (x), bi- direction (x and y) and multi direction (x,y and z) forging route and the response of micro hardness of 68,81 and 96 VHN were obtained due to microstructural phase changes with uniform distribution of particles in the matrix. Further the forged hybrid composites were investigated for tribological tests under dry sliding condition in a Pin-on-Disc tribometer apparatus by varying the load of 5,10,15,20 N and by adjusting the sliding speed as 200, 450 and 800 rpm respectively. The outcomes uncovered all the samples that the wear rate increments with increase in load and coefficient of friction shows decrement at most extreme load conditions. Wear rate increases with increase in sliding speed and coefficient of friction…

A Case Study on the Importance of Implementing an Obsolescence Material Management in an Aerospace Manufacturing Supplier Industry Environment

GITAM School of Technology-Mani Rathinam Rajamani, Eshwaraiah Punna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0145
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Obsolescence Material management plays an important and vital role in today’s modern Aerospace manufacturing, Aerospace Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul industry as well as Aerospace Distributors. Aerospace vehicles have a considerable longer product life-cycle when compared to any other consumer goods like automobile and electronics industry. With the advent of new, disruptive technologies, many sources and supplies of materials including COTS and Standard catalogue parts, components and goods, which are widely used in an Aerospace manufacturing environment, are diminishing at a considerable rate and thus result in their obsolescence before the end disposal of the product life cycle. It is one of the leading causes to the sale of counterfeit and fraudulent parts and components, which can result in considerable deterioration of Quality and Cost to Customer. This technical paper emphasizes on the need for implementation of an effective Obsolescence management framework which an Aerospace company can follow through defining, deploying and sustaining Obsolescence Management through Policy, Procedures, Process and People methodology to be followed at manufacturing, maintenance and to identify proactively, notify and mitigate the…

A Parametric Study on Electrothermally Actuated Novel Compliant Micro-gripper

NIT-Kishor Bharadwaj, Thillaigovindan Ramesh
VIT-Renold Elsen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0032
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
At Micron-levels, Thermal Actuation provides higher forces compared to the largely-used electrostatic mode of actuation. To achieve larger displacements at lesser voltages, the principle of Electro thermal actuation is used. It works on the principle of selective non-uniform Joule heating; which results in thermal expansion of the specimen due to constraints. The gripper proposed in this work is analyzed using FEA and is fabricated using Aluminum and stainless steel to achieve quicker response. The in-plane displacement, strain, stress, current density and temperature have been predicted for different magnitudes of current-voltage combination that the gripper sustains. It was found that, micro gripper performs well under 1v giving 60µm displacement. Parametric sweep was carried out using commercially available FEA software package; COMSOL Multiphysics, to study and analyse the effect of different parameters on the performance of the gripper. It has been observed that the displacement increases with the increase in applied voltage.

The Analysis of Brake Squeal Noise Related to the Friction Properties of Brake Friction Materials

Hyundai Motor Company-Sang-mok Lee, Jung Hoon Woo, Dong Won Kim
Hyundai Motor Company & KIA Motors Corporation-Younggu Cho
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2132
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The friction properties related to squeal noise was analyzed with the development histories and simplified computational method. Firstly, the development histories were investigated especially focusing on the case which the friction materials were modified to improve squeal noise occurrence. Based on the histories, the friction properties of selected friction materials were newly measured using dynamometer. The average friction coefficient levels, torque oscillations, the increment of friction coefficient during full-stop, and etc. were compared with the squeal noise occurrence, and the results showed that increase of friction properties cause production of squeal noise. The result suggested that the size of friction energy was important factors related to triggering the squeal noise. Also, the contact conditions between rotor disc and friction materials were significant factors deciding the noise occurrence. We performed simplified computational analysis using MATLAB program to prove the effect of friction energy on the noise occurrence. The friction surfaces were roughly designed and the distribution of contact plateaus was controlled to simulate different contact conditions. The different contact conditions were designed and performed sliding at…

Stability of Wheel Tractors during Braking

Kharkiv Technical University of Agricult-Zadorozhnia Viktoriia
Kharkov National Auto and Highway University-Mikhail Podrigalo, Mykhailo Kholodov, Dmytro Klets, Yevhen Dubinin, Borys Savchenkov, Alexander Koryak, Oleksandr Polianskyi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2142
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The dynamic distribution of normal reactions between the axles of the wheeled tractor has a significant impact on the stability against skidding and the wheeled tractor braking effectiveness. At the same time, the clarification of the normal reactions distribution between the axles allows to choose more rational braking forces distribution between the axles.It is shown that the best way to ensure the highest braking efficiency is the braking mode when the rear wheels of the tractor are at the blocking limit. An assessment of the expediency of installing brake mechanisms on only one axle of the tractor was made.The increase of braking efficiency of wheeled tractors with all brake wheels provided that they ensure directional stability is considered. The laws of braking forces distribution between the axles of wheel tractors for different sequence of wheels locking are determined.Using the method of partial accelerations an improved method for estimating the effect of a brake system on the stability of wheeled tractor is proposed. The criterion in the form of angular acceleration in the road plane ώz,…

Probabilistic Method for Assessing the Stability of Multi-Axle Vehicle When Braking

Kharkiv Gymnasium № 39-Tetyana Abramova
Kharkov National Auto and Highway University-Mikhail Podrigalo, Dmytro Klets, Dmytrii Abramov
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2146
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The stability of the vehicle when braking is one of the most important operational properties that determine traffic safety. This article proposes a probabilistic method for estimating the sustainability of multi-axle vehicles based on the model of normal distribution of the stability coefficient values. The solution to the problem of stability of a multi-axle vehicle during braking is connected with the determination of the dynamic distribution of normal road reactions between the axles. To assess the stability of the vehicle is used as an indicator of the stability factor representing the ratio of the stabilizing moment to moment, the perturbing skid. When the values of the stability coefficient is greater than or equal to unity, the movement is stable, and otherwise it is unstable. For a multi-axle vehicle, determining the dynamic normal road reactions on the axles is possible after disclosing the static uncertainty of the physical model of the car, which is a multi-support beam. The solution to this problem involves the use of the "three sigma" rule. The maximum possible value of the…