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Aircraft Plenum Air Outlet Optimization Method

Embraer-Fernando Stancato
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0021
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
It is possible to observe a growing interest by mobility industry toward a increased passenger comfort perception. This tendency is being characterized in the aviation sector by interior project that would guarantee the passenger comfort in entertainment, ergonomics, lightning, air quality, acoustics and thermal environment. Regarding this last three aspects, the air distribution through the plenum has a great impact on them. In this work it is presented a method to select the best outlet orifice configuration. The method was applied on seven different plenums. Acoustic evaluation was done using a rig experiment. Based on noise levels of each configuration, the dominant frequency range is identified. Objectives metrics, such as overall levels, speech interference level (SIL3) and loudness were applied. Subsequently, subjective analysis was conducted using the paired comparison method. Finally, an acoustic performance classification was established. Draft effect and air temperature distribution inside the cabin was done using CFD simulation. Besides that, a one-dimensional duct model was done for each configuration to evaluate plenum velocity and pressure distribution. Through these models, it was possible…
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Innovative Bulb for Compact Headlamps Design

General Motors Mercosur-Israel João Cancino Junior
LUMILEDS-João Guilherme Sônego, Raphael Nunes de Souza
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0066
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The Single beam reflector usage with H4 halogen bulb type is adopted in low cost emerging market countries that represent a very important segment for General Motors South America region.Currently, GM engineering tech centers have developed several different solutions for H4 halogen bulb reflector type that have their package, in terms of dimensions, to meet legal requirement and performance. Taking that into consideration, this new H19LL bulb development represents a great opportunity to find out an innovative new design with reduced mass and consequently cost reduction.Besides, it could allow enhancing reflectors portfolio as well as enabling Design Studio to better define customer driven theme for the vehicle appearance.
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Finned surfaces in air-cooled internal combustion engine: influence of geometry and flow conditions

Federal Institute of Espírito Santo - IFES-Gomes C. L., Arruda C. A. M., Sian J. G. A, Schaeffer L. C., Favalessa L. B., Monhol F. A. F.
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0160
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The internal combustion engine cooling is very important to its proper functioning, since high temperatures can shorten the durability of internal components and hence increase fuel consumption. In air-cooled engines it is common to use extended surfaces (fins), which provide an increase in the convective and radiative heat exchange. Thus, the present work investigates the phenomenon of convection between the external air and the motor casing through computational simulations. The finite differences method was applied for two fin geometry (annular and rectangular). The temperature distribution and the heat transfer rate in the fin were obtained for different ambient temperatures (20 - 40 °C) and flow rates (0 - 25 m/s). The analysis was based on a typical 150-cylinder motorcycle engine with fins made of 204-aluminum alloy. It was observed that under zero flow conditions and ambient temperature of 30 °C there was a temperature gradient of 38.49 °C on the annular fins and only 7.76 °C on the rectangular ones. For forced convection conditions (at 25 m / s) the gradient on the annular fins…
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Development of a test rig to evaluate the performance of Front-End Accessory Drive systems

VIBROACUSTICA-Celso Kenzo Takemori, Diego Wilian da Silva, Edmar Baars
ZEN S.A. Indústria Metalúrgica-Alvaro Canto Michelotti, Lucas Figueiro Berto, Pedro Palma Pastorelli, Andre Francioso Ferreira
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0296
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The increased adoption of downsized engines along with higher electrical demand is generating a challenge to the Front-End Accessory Drive (FEAD) system functioning and validation. One alternative to speed up the validation of potential design solutions is the in-vehicle experimental tests approach. Nevertheless, experimental data collection during in-vehicle FEAD evaluation imposes some challenges due to, for instance, packaging space constraints and sample rate required to capture the dynamic events during vehicle operation, among others. In order to overcome this limitation, the objective of this research is focused in the development of a customized test rig that emulates FEAD layout of an actual automobile in a simulated operating condition. This equipment could contribute in research studies focusing in critical performance parameters, allowing complete data acquisition and evaluation of potential design trade-offs that could maximize overall performance of the system, as the test rig could also allow the study of the impact of different layouts or operational configurations in the overall system efficiency. Therefore, the test rig design intent is to have a configurable layout that can…
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Modularity and connectivity: a case study of the development by the local product engineering of a car multimedia system for application on multiple models

GROUPE PSA-GUSTAVO DE SOUZA LIMA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0039
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
In the context of high and rising development, validation and certification costs of new components for automotive applications, not only but particularly within the electric and electronic perimeters, the re-use or modularization of components among different car models has become a non-negotiable drive for the car industry in order to increase investments efficiency and foster costs reductions. On another spectrum, it is very salient in the Brazilian market the demand for vehicle-embedded technology, mainly connectivity, surprisingly even more than in other leading automotive markets as the United States. This paper presents a real case study of the complex application of a new multimedia system on a broad range of vehicles produced in two different plants, sold in the Brazilian market under two different brands belonging to the same automotive group. The whole process was led by the local product engineering team using a successful modular strategy, which allowed the achievement of important scale economies–in both purchasing and manufacturing terms–, as well as the upgrade of the connectivity offer and the connected perceived quality, while preserving…
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Rivets, Carbon Steel, Procurement Specification for

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS7225B
  • Current
Published 2020-01-03 by SAE International in United States

This procurement specification covers aircraft quality solid rivets and tubular end rivets made from a carbon steel of the type identified under the Unified Numbering System as UNS G10100.

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Digital Automotive AC Pulldown Prediction in a Real Driving Condition

Dassault Systemes Simulia-Vijaisri Nagarajan
Dassault Systemes, Simulia Corp-Chin-Wei Chang, Kamalesh Bhambare, Adrien Mann, Edward Tate, Abdelhakim Aissaoui
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5090
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
Automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are always striving to deliver fast Air-Conditioning (AC) pulldown performance with consistent distribution of cabin temperature to meet customer expectations. The ultimate test is the OEM standard, called “AC Pull Down,” conducted at high ambient temperature and solar load conditions with a prescribed vehicle drive cycle. To determine whether the AC system in the vehicle has the capacity to cool the cabin, throughout the drive cycle test, cabin temperature measurements are evaluated against the vehicle target. If the measured cabin temperatures are equal or lower than the required temperatures, the AC system is deemed conventional for customer usage.In this paper, numerical predictions of the cabin temperatures to replicate the AC pulldown test are presented. The AC pulldown scenario is carried out in a digital Climatic Wind Tunnel simulation. The solution used in this study is based on a coupled approach. With this method, convection is solved using PowerFLOW, a Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM)-based flow solver, while conduction/radiation are solved using PowerTHERM thermal solver. Cooling loads, reproducing a drive cycle with…
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Analysis on flow motion and combustion process in pre-chamber and main chamber for low-speed two-stroke dual-fuel engine

China Ship Power Institute Co. Ltd.-Teng Liu
Harbin Engineering University-Long Liu, Yue Wu, Qian Xiong
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2175
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Low-speed two-stroke dual-fuel engines has been paid more attention due to the energy efficiency design index and Tier III emissions limitations issued by International Marine Organization. Although the dual-fuel engines have strong merits on emissions reduction, which can reach the IMO Tier III without aftertreatment, the power output is much lower than that of diesel engines. Therefore, the dual-fuel engine is also needed to improve continuously. However, the mixing and combustion processes in the engine have not been fully understood. In this study, a 3D-CFD model of the dual-fuel engine was established using CONVERGE to explore the mixing and combustion processes. Locally embedding fine grids are considered at scavenging ports, natural gas injection ports, pre-chamber. The model was validated by experimental in-cylinder pressure. Then, the flow motion, mixing of natural gas and air, flow in pre-chamber, torch and combustion in main-chamber were analyzed based on swirl variation, flow velocity distribution, equivalence ratio distribution and torch propagation.
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Effects of ratio and dwell of split injection on fuel spray and mixture formation process under evaporating, non-reacting condition

University of Hiroshima-Jaeheun Kim, Shinichi Kakami, Keiya Nishida, Yoichi Ogata
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2323
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The effects of split injections of a diesel spray was evaluated in a constant volume chamber under evaporating, non-reacting condition. Laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique was utilized for the mixture concentration measurement, using a diesel surrogate fuel consists of n-tridecane and 2.5% of 1-methylnaphthalene in volume basis. While fixing the total injected fuel mass of 5.0 mg/hole, the effects of split ratio in mass basis and the dwell time (or injection interval) were investigated. Among the split ratios conducted in the current study (3,7, 5:5 and 7:3), the split ratio of 7:3 was the optimum for lean mixture formation regarding the overall distribution of the equivalence ratio at end-of-injection (EOI) timing. The air entrainment wave at the EOI timing of the first injection allowed the fuel at the vicinity of the nozzle to become leaner at a faster rate. It was thought that, the split ratio of 7:3 provided an adequate amount of fuel quantity and vapor penetration to fit into the fuel-lean region formed from the first injection. The increase of the dwell time…
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OH, soot and temperature distributions of wall-impinging diesel fuel spray under different wall temperatures

Tianjin University-Lei Feng, Yu Wang, Beiling Chen, Chao Geng, Wentao Yi, Yanqing Cui, Haifeng Liu, Zunqing Zheng, Hu Wang, Mingfa Yao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2184
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
OH, soot and temperature distributions of wall-impinging diesel fuel spray were investigated in a high-temperature high-pressure constant volume combustion vessel. The ambient temperature (Ta) was set as 773 K, and the wall temperature (Tw) was set as 523 K, 673 K, 773 K, respectively. Three different injection pressures (Pi) of 60 MPa, 100 MPa, 160 MPa, and the ambient pressures (Pa) of 4 MPa were applied. The OH spatial distributions of wall-impinging spray were measured by the method of OH chemiluminescence imaging. Two-color pyrometry was applied to evaluate the spatial distributions of KL factor and flame temperature of wall-impinging spray. The results reveal that, OH chemiluminescence is observed in the region near the impingement point firstly. The regions of high OH chemiluminescence intensity and high KL factor appear in the location near the wall surface along the whole combustion process. As the wall temperature increases, the appearance time of the OH moves up, the intensity and area of OH chemiluminescence increase. Besides, KL factor and the average flame temperature, the soot formation and oxidation rates…
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