The SAE MOBILUS platform will continue to be accessible and populated with high quality technical content during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. x

Your Selections

Lithium-ion batteries
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

Magazine

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Investigation on the Dynamic Behaviour of a Torque Transmission Chain for an Innovative Hybrid Power Unit Architecture

Università degli Studi di Modena-Valerio Mangeruga, Matteo Giacopini, Saverio Barbieri, Michele Russo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0013
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In this contribution, the mechanical torque transmission between the Elecrtic Motor (EM) and the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) of a P0 architecture hybrid power unit is analysed. In particular, the system is made up of a brand new, single-cylinder 480cc engine developed on the basis of the Ducati "959 Superquadro" V90 2-cylinders engine. The thermal engine is assisted by a custom electric motor (30 kW), powered by a Li-Ion battery pack. The Ducati "959 Superquadro" engine is chosen because of its high power-to-weight ratio, and for taking advantage of its V90 2-cylinders layout. In fact, the vertical engine head is removed and it is replaced by the electric motor directly engaged to the crankshaft using the original valvetrain transmission chain, thus achieving a very compact package. This solution could be suitable for many V-type engines and aims to obtain a small hybrid power unit for possible motorcycle/small vehicle applications. The original timing chain object of this study is a silent chain, which is commonly employed as a transmission component in hybrid power unit because it…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A Detailed Finite Element Thermal Analysis of a 18650 Format Battery Cell for Automotive Applications

University of Modena and Reggio Emilia-Saverio Giulio Barbieri, Valerio Mangeruga, Dario Cusati, Matteo Giacopini, Francesco Cicci
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0022
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a methodology for the thermal analysis of a cylindrical Li-Ion battery cell. In particular, the 18650 format is considered. First, an electrical current drain cycle is applied to measure the electrical internal resistance of the cell and to estimate the consequent thermal energy release. A battery cell is then dissected and the inner structure is reproduced in detail with the adoption of microscopic images. By this way, the heat generation areas and the different thermal paths are correctly identified. Thermal Finite Element analyses are performed faithfully reproducing the inner geometry of the cell, and different cooling strategies are compared. The numerical results are then validated versus experimental evidence obtained considering the thermal behaviour of a small section, made by three cells, of a water cooled battery pack. The proposed approach can drive the design process towards more efficient battery pack cooling strategies. The numerical model may be then applied to perform thermo-structural analyses and, consequently, structural failures of the battery cells might be predicted.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Simulation Methodology for design and development of Li-ion Cell and Battery Pack

ICAT-Akash Saxena, Gopal Singh Rathore, Adesh Kumar Chauhan, Shubham chawla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0009
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
The thermal management of Li-ion Cell/ battery pack while charging-discharging plays a significant role in the development of Electric Vehicles, as increase in rate of charge-discharge leads to higher heat generation which decrease the life of li-ion cell drastically, it also increases the possibility of hazard. The present paper reports the simulation methodology for optimizing the design of li-ion cell by performing the simulation to study the variation of potential difference, heat generation and temperature distribution across the cell on different charging- discharging cycles. These simulations lead for better cell design with lesser heat generation. The Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis is performed for the better thermal management of the battery pack so that maximum heat dissipation could take place. It is expected that this simulation methodology gives an edge in the designing of li-ion cell and battery packs and optimising the performance of cell/ battery pack and ensure the safety.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Thermal Management and Performance Characteristic of Electric Vehicle

Tata Motors Ltd-Sanjoy Biswas, Asmita Ghate
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0022
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
Thermal Management System is one of key parallel branch for internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle over 4 decades as it ensures performance of power train/engine or after treatment system or HVAC (Climate control). In automotive industry, Range Anxiety and safety of Electric Vehicle (EV) are the hot topic of discussion. This paper is dealing with some importance aspects of thermal management system and their link with the performance/Safety Parameter of Electric vehicle. Battery Cooling or Battery thermal management System (BTMS or BCS) and Traction cooling system (TCS) are coupled with near conventional HVAC circuit. BTMS plays important role to ensure performance of Li-ion Battery pack which is indirectly related with Range and safety of electric vehicle. Similar, other 2 Cooling circuit has major role to ensure vehicle performance and comfort. Here, Thermal management system become utmost important to overcome the challenge of range and safety concern of EV along with many other factors. Also, Thermal management system sited in key research arena along with battery technology for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Thermal Analysis of Parallel Connected Li-Ion Batteries For Hybrid Aircraft

Anadolu University-Hikmet Karakoç
Howard University-Nadir Yilmaz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0891
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Improving the energy performance of batteries will certainly increase the reliability of electric aircraft and thus their penetration into the market. To achieve this goal, battery management systems are required to keep the temperature below the safety limits and make the temperature distribution as even as possible within the battery pack and cells. Li-ion batteries are suitable for electric aircraft due to their high specific energy and advantage of energy density. In this study, 20 14.6 Ah prismatic batteries were connected in 2 parallel 10 series. Three-dimensional thermal analysis was performed for forced and natural transport conditions under 4 different discharge rates (0.5C, 1C, 2C, 2.5C) of the batteries. The study was conducted with Ansys Fluent. The NTGK Empirical model was chosen and a simple algorithm was used. A second order upwind method was chosen for pressure, momentum and energy equations. Batteries were tested for mesh independency. When the number of nodes in natural transport was increased from 43,204 to 345,560, the change in heat transfer was 0.1%. As the current rate given to the…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A Fundamental study on the effects of Electrically Heated Catalyst on State of Charge of the battery pack for a series hybrid electric vehicle at cold start.

NE Chemcat Corp.-Makoto Nagata
Waseda University-Suchitra Sivakumar, Hajime Shingyouchi, Xieyang Yan, Toshinori Okajima, Kyohei Yamaguchi, Jin Kusaka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0444
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Battery models are recently being developed as one of a component of the powertrain system of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) to predict the State of Charge (SOC) accurately. The electric components like the Electrically Heated Catalyst (EHC) which is used to reach the catalyst light off temperature in advance are being employed in the powertrain of HEVs. The EHC draws power from the battery pack of the HEV. Therefore, sufficient energy should be stored in the battery pack of an HEV to power the auxiliary components in the powertrain. In a series hybrid electric vehicle system, the engine is primarily used to charge the battery pack. Therefore, it is important to develop a control strategy that triggers the engine start/stop conditions and reduces the frequency of engine operation to minimize the equivalent fuel consumption. A battery pack model was constructed in MATLAB-Simulink to investigate the SOC variation of a high-power lithium ion battery during extreme engine cold start conditions (-7°C) with and without the application of EHC. An electrically heated catalyst (EHC) was also simulated…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

RCs Equivalent Circuit Model Parameters Characterization

Yousef Firouz
Siemens PLM Corp.-Saeed Siavoshani, An Li
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1180
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In the last decade, the equivalent circuit models have been utilized to model the lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicle applications. Different researchers have proposed a variety of equivalent circuit models from simple to complex ones. The parameters required to describe and build these equivalent circuit models are being extracted from the Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC) Test data. This paper describes the process of the extraction of the equivalent circuit model parameters to build the battery models using different test methodologies such as HPPC and its modified versions. It also presents a case study with validated test results for a commercial light weight EV. Firstly, showing how the cell is characterized and then how the pack level cooling is developed to reach the required range based on an aggressive drive cycle. This is then integrated in to a full system level simulation to capture various interactions such as control on pack and thermal behavior in the vehicle environment.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Mechanical Response of Laterally-Constrained Prismatic Battery Cells under Local Loading

Tsinghua University-Feiyu Xiao, Bobin Xing, Yong Xia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0200
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The crash safety of lithium-ion batteries has received great attention in recent years because of their growing popularity in electric vehicles. However, the safety issues of prismatic batteries have not been thoroughly studied; in particular, the mechanical responses of prismatic battery cells with lateral constraints under varied loading conditions still remain unclear.In this study, indentation tests are conducted to study the mechanical response of prismatic battery cells. Fixtures providing lateral constraint which simulates the real packing situation in battery module are designed. Firstly, the effects of lateral constraints on coupled mechanical and electrical responses of prismatic battery cells are analyzed and discussed. Secondly, dynamic indentation tests of prismatic cells with lateral constraints are carried out. The response of the stacked batteries under local loading is revealed. Thirdly, non-destructive X-ray computed tomography imaging technique is employed to detect the fracture patterns in battery cells caused by indentation.The results of indentation tests indicate that the indentation depth and the peak force for the battery internal failure are affected by the side constraint conditions and the responses of…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

PHEV hybrid vehicle system efficiency and battery aging optimization using A-ECMS based algorithm

FCA USA LLC-Yang Liang, Sandeep Makam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1178
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Minimizing lithium ion battery aging and maximizing overall system efficiency are key engineering design objectives for plug-in electric hybrid vehicles (PHEVs). To quantitatively optimize the aging and system efficiency, an Adaptive Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (A-ECMS) based optimization method is implemented within vehicle simulation code. Battery charge and discharge cycling is modeled using equivalent circuit modeling techniques where circuit parameters are updated based on estimated aging effects. These aging effects are predicted through a so-called single particle model wherein particle interactions are neglected, and solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer aging is predicted for graphite anode. The proposed aging model is calibrated against available battery aging data for similar batteries. Steady state capacity fade map under given environmental conditions and various battery states of charge and current levels are predicted. A battery capacity fade map is generated, and then used in the AECMS optimization function to adjust aggressiveness of the PHEV power split decisions. The results of a single objective (pure efficiency based), and a multi-objective (battery aging and efficiency are weighted to form an objective…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Improving battery safety and longevity through uncertainty modeling of lithium-ion batteries and preventing the local over-charge/over-discharge

Trine University-Changhong Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0450
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The battery electrodes are porous and have complicated microstructures due to irregular sizes and shapes of pores. Electrode design parameters like porosity, thickness, particle size, and conductivity can vary from one local area to another in one cell. Even under the normal operating range, some local areas may experience over-charge/over-discharge, extensive degradation, and rapid heat generation. These local events are not easy to observe or measure at the beginning and can eventually lead to catastrophic failure of the whole cell if no actions are taken. Therefore, the uncertainty of these parameters has a significant effect on the longevity and safety of batteries. Most of the electrochemical battery models assume design parameters have constant values in a cell which is not able to capture the uncertainty described above. To prevent any catastrophic failure, the applied current should be cut off before any over-charge/over-discharge and rapid heat generation caused by these random local areas. In this work, a new method is developed to simulate random local events and design new control strategies to increase longevity and safety.…