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Low Voltage Powertrain in Light Electric Vehicles

  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2467
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Engineering objective Light Electric Vehicles (LEV) with Li-ion batteries suffer from short battery life and poor efficiency, due to low grade electronics. Battery management systems (BMS) cannot always keep the pack in balance, and after cell voltages drift, capacity of the pack diminishes and some cells may destruct, causing a fire. The paper describes a novel approach to LEV powertrains using parallel connected battery cells & control methodology that keep cells in balance naturally, thereby eliminating BMS and hence safer to use. Li-Ion cells with different chemistries can be used and superior thermal management reduces temperature rise, resulting in longer battery life. Methodology Based on the original invention by the author, the system circuit schematics was designed and simulated using OrCAD PSpice. After obtaining results from the simulation, the first prototype device was constructed and tested in laboratory. Heat mapping and thermo couples were used to find hot spots and improve the efficiency, at the same time creating a thermal pattern that was easy to cool. Different components were tested to find the most efficient…

EV Cell Chemistry for the Indian Market

Robert Bosch Engg. & Buss. Soln. Ltd.-Prabhakar G, Tarang Garg
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2479
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Chemical reaction inside a cell, converts chemical energy into electrical energy and causes electric current to flow. If electric current passes backwards in a cell, it charges the cell. In a Li-Ion battery Lithium ions move from negative electrode to positive electrode during discharge and backwards when charging. The characteristics of a good Li-Ion Battery are: - High no of Cycle Times (Recharge) - High C Rating (Charging & Discharging), causing no degradation to performance - High Energy Density - Low Heat dissipation - Safe during operation against hazards - No impact of Overcharging or Undercharging - Reasonable cost For the EV Space in Indian region, top 3 most important requirements are as follows: - much higher cycle times than available in the most popular NMC cell chemistry - battery performance not impacted by charging or discharging at higher temperatures - Lowest cost that can drive the market adoption In this paper we will detail our the proposed solution for the Cell Chemistry which is suitable for Indian Market and also can be adopted by…

Design and Development of Industrial Automotive Battery Management system

Dipali Dange, Radhika Ballal L
Assistant professor, COE, Pune-Meera Murali
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2498
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Battery operated vehicle need accurate management system because of its quick changes in State of charge (SOC) due to aggressive acceleration profiles and regenerative braking. Li-ion battery needs control over its operating area for its safe working. So, the main objective of the proposed system is to develop a BMS having algorithms to estimate accurate SOC, predict degradation parameters, balance individual cells, manage cell temperature, and provide safe area of operation defined by voltage and temperature. Proposed methodology uses Model-based Design approach wherein nonlinear behavior of battery is modeled as Equivalent Circuit Model to compute the SOC and degradation effect on battery to decide the end of life of battery, also performing inductive Active balancing on cells to equalize the charge. proposed algorithms communicate with the vehicle ECU through CAN to assist the driver for runtime estimation, time for battery swapping, Alerts. Li-ion cells undergo current tests like pulsed charge-discharge, and transient response is effectively captured with parameter estimation with various degraded cells. Estimated model used in system and build battery stack. Balancing algorithm designed…

Thermal Management of Li-Ion Battery Pack using GT-SUITE

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-Sushant Mutagekar
NoonRay Energy Pvt. Ltd.-Kaushal Kumar Jha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2500
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Objective It is very important to simulate the battery pack being built to understand its behavior when used in applications especially Electric vehicles (EV). All Li-Ion cells are not the same. They need to be characterized before building any battery pack. Hence modeling the battery pack to simulated its performance in the actual conditions becomes important. Methodology To understand the behavior of cells in the on-field environment, they are tested at various conditions like different rates of charging/discharging, various depth of discharge (DOD), ambient temperature, etc. HPPC test is also performed on cells to derive its RC model equivalent model. GT Suite simulation software is used to model the Li-Ion cell using the testing data. Depending on the pack configuration, the modeled cell is connected in the required series and parallel configuration, to study the battery pack with respect to aging, performance and cooling requirements. Results The performance and aging of the battery pack are studied using the cell model. Cooling is designed in such a way that there are no hotspots in the battery…

Coupled Electro-Chemical and Thermal Modeling for Cylindrical Lithium-ion Batteries

Automotive Research Association of India-Ravindra Kumar, Prashant Pathare, Shantanu Waman, Gargi Moharil
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2488
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The shift over of the automobile sector from the ICE to the electric drives is imminent due to arising global issues of pollution and ever rising pressure on the demand of the natural resources due to lower efficiency of the ICE drives. This has led to uprising of the Lithium-ion batteries, with addition of the burden of living to expectation of clean energy and higher efficiencies. Alongside, with limitation in the availability of the lithium-ion batteries they carry a hefty price tag with them, hence causing huddles in the research. Lack of research leads to failure of batteries and may cause life threatening situations when operating in the vehicle. In order to insight the working of the cylindrical lithium-ion batteries under different driving and environmental conditions a methodology is developed for the coupled electro-chemical and thermal phenomenon. This allows anticipating the behaviour of the battery under different conditions that influence its performance. The 18650 battery with three different chemistries i.e. Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminium Oxide (NCA), Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) and Lithium Iron…

Real world energy efficiency calculation for e-Rickshaws - A Comparative study (Lead Acid Vs Lithium Ion Battery vehicles)

Ola Electric Mobility Pvt Ltd.-Nishit Jain, Smit Gupta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2486
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
E-Rickshaws are receiving considerable attention as a sustainable passenger transportation in Indian mobility space. As per the recent reports, more than 1.5 million e-rickshaws are currently operating in the country. These are quieter, cleaner and convenient mode for last mile connectivity and are typically used for short distance (<10Km) commutation. For owners, these vehicles offer value in terms of affordability and operating cost. Challenge for manufacturers is to design a vehicle which balances the requirements of both passengers and owners. Energy efficiency (Energy consumption per Km) influences such critical decisions. There is always a difference between the catalog value and actual on-road Energy efficiency figures and therefore it's important to really understand owner requirements w.r.t. market where vehicle is going to be operated. In this study, we collected data for different types of E-rickshaws in real world scenarios in city operations and determined the energy efficiency of these vehicles. Also, we attempted to compare energy efficiency figures with different battery chemistry(Lead acid and Lithium Ion vehicles). The data can provide deep insights from design and…

Fuel Cell-Based Powertrain Analysis for Tramway Systems

Università della Calabria-Petronilla Fragiacomo, Francesco Piraino
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0248
To be published on 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a comparison of three different hybrid powertrains is analysed. The numerical model is used to simulate powertrain behaviour in rail application, on a pre-set drive cycle, composed of many acceleration and decelerations, in order to test the components features. The numerical model is dynamic and it is implemented in Matlab-Simulink environmental. A proton exchange membrane fuel cell (FC) is used; it is the most used in transport applications, thanks to its lower temperature compared to the other fuel cell types, which allows fast start up operation and rapid demand changes. A standard supercapacitor (SC), given by higher power density, is utilized as the energy storage system (ESS), Regarding the battery (B), two types are considered, because the battery is used both as prime mover and main component of the ESS; Li-ion batteries are chosen, owing to their good trade-off between specific power and energy. Therefore, three configurations, FC-SC, FC-B and B-SC, are analysed. The vehicle model takes into account other components. The regenerative brake system is used to recover energy during the…

A Coupled Lattice Boltzmann-Finite Volume Method for the Thermal Transient Analysis of an Air Cooled Li-ion Battery Module for Electric Vehicles with Porous Media Insert Modeled at REV Scales

University Of Rome TOR VERGATA-Gino Bella
University of Rome Niccolò Cusano-Daniele Chiappini, Laura Tribioli
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0242
To be published on 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Lithium ion batteries are the most promising candidates for electric and hybrid electric vehicles, owe to their ability to store higher electrical energy. As a matter of fact, in automotive applications, these batteries undergo frequent and fast charge and discharge processes, which are associated to internal heat generation, which in turns causes temperature increase. Thermal management is therefore crucial to keep temperature in an appropriate level for safe operation and battery wear prevention. In a recent work authors have already demonstrated the capabilities of a coupled lattice Boltzmann-Finite Volume Method to deal with thermal transient of a three dimensional air-cooled Li-ion battery at different discharging rates and Reynolds numbers. Here, in order to improve discharge thermal capabilities and reduce temperature levels of the battery itself, a layer of porous medium is placed in contact with the battery so to replace a continuum solid aluminum layer. Many studies, which have already demonstrated how the porous media can improve thermal performance of heat exchange systems, are present in recent literature. There is a large number of models…

Low Cost, Fireproof, and Light Aircraft Interior

Sardou Societe Anonyme-Max Sardou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1857
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Low cost, fireproof, and light aircraft interior Fire is a dramatic issue in aircraft nowadays, especially with composite air crafts. An additional issue is the dangerous use of flammable Li-Ion batteries in a lot of appliances. we propose in order to avoid dramas to produce aircraft interiors, fire doors, cargo bay walls, as well than cargo container able to contain a fire inside them, with our ceramic composite called TOUGHCERAM ®. We have developed a low-cost, ceramic, damage tolerant, this ceramic is flexible between minus 100°C and plus 350°C. TOUGHCERAM ® poly-crystalize between 60°C and 110°C and can be reinforced with fibbers like carbon or basalt one. TOUGHCERAM ® survive 90 minutes to a propane 1900°C torches. TOUGHCERAM ® does not burn, nor smoke. In this paper we will explain how it is possible to develop a fully mineral ceramic offering such unique mechanical and fire properties.

Design of a Hybrid Power Unit for Formula SAE Application: Packaging Optimization and Thermomechanical Design of the Electric Motor Case

University of Modena and Reggio Emilia-Valerio Mangeruga, Matteo Giacopini, Saverio Giulio Barbieri, Fabio Berni, Enrico Mattarelli, Carlo Rinaldini
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0197
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the development of a parallel hybrid power unit for Formula SAE application. In particular, the system is made up of a brand new, single-cylinder 480 cc internal combustion engine developed on the basis of the Ducati “959 Superquadro” V90 2-cylinder engine. The thermal engine is assisted by a custom electric motor (30 kW), powered by a Li-Ion battery pack. The performance of the ICE has been optimized through CFD-1D simulation (a review of this activity is reported in a parallel paper). The main design goal is to get the maximum amount of mechanical energy from the fuel, considering the car typical usage: racing on a windy track. The Ducati “959 Superquadro” engine is chosen because of its high power-to-weight ratio, as well as for its V90 2-cylinder layout. In fact, the vertical engine head is removed and it is subsequently replaced by the electric motor directly engaged to the crankshaft using the original valvetrain transmission chain, thus achieving a very compact package. The mechanical behaviour of the original chain is investigated for…