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Experimental Investigation of Electric Vehicle Performance and Energy Consumption on Chassis Dynamometer Using Drive Cycle Analysis

SAE International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, Energy, Environment, & Policy

CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum, India-Gananath Doulat Thakre
Indian Institute of Petroleum CSIR, India-Robindro Lairenlakpam
  • Journal Article
  • 13-01-01-0002
Published 2019-12-02 by SAE International in United States
This article reports an experimental study carried out to investigate the vehicle performance and energy consumption (EC) of an electric vehicle (EV) on three different driving cycles using drive cycle analysis. The driving cycles are the Indian Driving Cycle (IDC), Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) and Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC). A new prototype electric powertrain was developed using an indigenous three-phase induction motor (3PIM), Li-ion battery (LiB) pack, vector motor controller, and newly developed mechanical parts. In this research work, a pollution-causing gasoline car (Maruti Zen) was converted into an EV by using the new powertrain. The EV conversion vehicle was used as the test vehicle. After the removal of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) the new powertrain was integrated with the vehicle’s gearbox (GB) system which was configured on a single motor, fixed gear configuration having a gear ratio of 1.28:1. The EV performance tests were carried out on the chassis dynamometer that followed the driving cycles. The maximum speed test showed a top speed of 64 km/h for the EV.…
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Low Voltage Powertrain in Light Electric Vehicles

Deki Electronics-Shubham Rai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2467
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Engineering objective Light Electric Vehicles (LEV) with Li-ion batteries suffer from short battery life and poor efficiency, due to low grade electronics. Battery management systems (BMS) cannot always keep the pack in balance, and after cell voltages drift, capacity of the pack diminishes and some cells may destruct, causing a fire. The paper describes a novel approach to LEV powertrains using parallel connected battery cells & control methodology that keep cells in balance naturally, thereby eliminating BMS and hence safer to use. Li-Ion cells with different chemistries can be used and superior thermal management reduces temperature rise, resulting in longer battery life. Methodology Based on the original invention by the author, the system circuit schematics was designed and simulated using OrCAD PSpice. After obtaining results from the simulation, the first prototype device was constructed and tested in laboratory. Heat mapping and thermo couples were used to find hot spots and improve the efficiency, at the same time creating a thermal pattern that was easy to cool. Different components were tested to find the most efficient…
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EV Cell Chemistry for the Indian Market

Robert Bosch Engineering & Business Solutions, Ltd.-Prabhakar G, Tarang Garg
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2479
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Chemical reaction inside a cell, converts chemical energy into electrical energy and causes electric current to flow. If electric current passes backwards in a cell, it charges the cell. In a Li-Ion battery Lithium ions move from negative electrode to positive electrode during discharge and backwards when charging. The characteristics of a good Li-Ion Battery are: - High no of Cycle Times (Recharge) - High C Rating (Charging & Discharging), causing no degradation to performance - High Energy Density - Low Heat dissipation - Safe during operation against hazards - No impact of Overcharging or Undercharging - Reasonable cost For the EV Space in Indian region, top 3 most important requirements are as follows: - much higher cycle times than available in the most popular NMC cell chemistry - battery performance not impacted by charging or discharging at higher temperatures - Lowest cost that can drive the market adoption In this paper we will detail our the proposed solution for the Cell Chemistry which is suitable for Indian Market and also can be adopted by…
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Design and Development of Automotive Battery Management System

Dipali Dange, Radhika Ballal
Assistant professor, COE, Pune-Meera Murali
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2498
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Battery operated vehicle needs accurate management system because of its quick changes in State of Charge (SoC) due to aggressive acceleration profiles and regenerative braking. Li-ion battery needs control over its operating area for the safe working. The main objective of the proposed system is to develop a BMS having algorithms to estimate accurate SoC, balance individual cells, thermal management, and provide safe area of operation defined by voltage and temperature. Proposed methodology uses Coulomb Counting as well as Model-based Design approach wherein nonlinear behavior of battery is modeled as Equivalent Circuit Model to compute the SoC and degradation effect on battery to decide the end of life of battery. Also performing Inductive Active Balancing on cells to equalize the charge. The study aims on deploying the model-based system on embedded platform which would help industry to reduce the model development time and focus on development of controlling algorithms for high end users. Active Balancing Architecture proposed here reduces the complexity of algorithm and at the same time decreases the balancing time.
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Thermal Management of Li-Ion Battery Pack using GT-SUITE

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-Sushant Mutagekar
NoonRay Energy Pvt Ltd.-Kaushal Kumar Jha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2500
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Objective It is very important to simulate the battery pack being built to understand its behavior when used in applications especially Electric vehicles (EV). All Li-Ion cells are not the same. They need to be characterized before building any battery pack. Hence modeling the battery pack to simulated its performance in the actual conditions becomes important. Methodology To understand the behavior of cells in the on-field environment, they are tested at various conditions like different rates of charging/discharging, various depth of discharge (DOD), ambient temperature, etc. HPPC test is also performed on cells to derive its RC model equivalent model. GT Suite simulation software is used to model the Li-Ion cell using the testing data. Depending on the pack configuration, the modeled cell is connected in the required series and parallel configuration, to study the battery pack with respect to aging, performance and cooling requirements. Results The performance and aging of the battery pack are studied using the cell model. Cooling is designed in such a way that there are no hotspots in the battery…
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Real World Energy Efficiency Calculation for e-Rickshaws - A Comparative Study (Lead Acid Vs Lithium Ion Battery Vehicles)

Ola Electric Mobility Pvt Ltd.-Nishit Jain, Smit Gupta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2486
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
E-Rickshaws are receiving considerable attention as a sustainable passenger transportation in Indian mobility space. As per the recent reports, more than 1.5 million e-rickshaws are currently operating in the country. These are quieter, cleaner and convenient mode for last mile connectivity and are typically used for short distance (<10 Km) commutation. For owners, these vehicles offer value in terms of affordability and operating cost. Challenge for manufacturers is to design a vehicle which balances the requirements of both passengers and owners. Energy efficiency (Energy consumption per Km) influences such critical decisions. There is always a difference between the catalog value and actual on-road Energy efficiency figures and therefore it's important to really understand owner requirements w.r.t. market where vehicle is going to be operated. In this study, we collected data for different types of E-rickshaws in real world scenarios in city operations and determined the energy efficiency of these vehicles. Also, we attempted to compare energy efficiency figures with different battery chemistry (Lead acid and Lithium Ion vehicles). The data can provide deep insights from…
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STATE OF CHARGE

Automotive Engineering: November/December 2019

Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP11_01
Published 2019-11-01 by SAE International in United States

With just 16 hours to complete a three-state, 600-plus-mile roundtrip, we judge whether the nation's non-Tesla fast-charging network is a match for the new breed of long-range EVs like Jaguar's inspired 2019 I-Pace.

It's a trip we've done scores of times with barely a thought. From our home near SAE International headquarters in western Pennsylvania to the metro Detroit area is approximately 300 miles (483 km) of highway driving. We often do it in four-and-a-half hours without a stop of any kind, much less for fuel. Some diesels and hybrids, and even a few conventional gasoline vehicles, can knock off the entire roundtrip on a single tankful.

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Recommended Practice for Determining Material Properties of Li-Battery Separator

Battery Materials Testing Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2983_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States
This SAE RP provides a set of test methods and practices for the characterization of the properties of Li-battery separator. The test methods in this RP have been grouped into one of three categories: 1 Separator material parameters: Minimum set of separator properties to be measured. 2 Chemistry/customer-specific parameters: Properties that are dependent on the application, customer needs and/or requirements, manufacturing process, etc. This RP will include the current best practice methodologies for these tests, with an understanding that the best practice methodologies are evolving as more information is learned. 3 R&D parameters: Properties that are dependent on the application, customer needs and/or requirements, manufacturing process, etc. The methodologies in this third section are under development and have not yet achieved broad application. It is not within the scope of this document to establish criteria for the test results, as this is usually established between the materials supplier and seperator manufacturer and the user. This is especially true where this document specifies a range of target values, or an open testing parameter. In these cases,…
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A Coupled Lattice Boltzmann-Finite Volume Method for the Thermal Transient Analysis of an Air-Cooled Li-Ion Battery Module for Electric Vehicles with Porous Media Insert Modeled at REV Scales

University of Rome Niccolò Cusano-Daniele Chiappini, Laura Tribioli
University of Rome Tor Vergata-Gino Bella
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Lithium ion batteries are the most promising candidates for electric and hybrid electric vehicles, owe to their ability to store higher electrical energy. As a matter of fact, in automotive applications, these batteries undergo frequent and fast charge and discharge processes, which are associated to internal heat generation, which in turns causes temperature increase. Thermal management is therefore crucial to keep temperature in an appropriate level for safe operation and battery wear prevention.In a recent work authors have already demonstrated the capabilities of a coupled lattice Boltzmann-Finite Volume Method to deal with thermal transient of a three-dimensional air-cooled Li-ion battery at different discharging rates and Reynolds numbers. Here, in order to improve discharge thermal capabilities and reduce temperature levels of the battery itself, a layer of porous medium is placed in contact with the battery so to replace a continuum solid aluminum layer. Many studies, which have already demonstrated how the porous media can improve thermal performance of heat exchange systems, are present in recent literature. There is a large number of models for representing…
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Fuel Cell-Based Powertrain Analysis for Tramway Systems

Università della Calabria-Petronilla Fragiacomo, Francesco Piraino
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a comparison of three different hybrid powertrains is analysed. The numerical model is used to simulate powertrain behaviour in rail application, on a pre-set drive cycle, composed of many acceleration and decelerations, in order to test the components features.The numerical model is dynamic and it is implemented in Matlab-Simulink environmental.A proton exchange membrane fuel cell (FC) is used; it is the most used in transport applications, thanks to its lower temperature compared to the other fuel cell types, which allows fast start up operation and rapid demand changes. A standard supercapacitor (SC), given by higher power density, is utilized as the energy storage system (ESS), Regarding the battery (B), two types are considered, because the battery is used both as prime mover and main component of the ESS; Li-ion batteries are chosen, owing to their good trade-off between specific power and energy.Therefore, three configurations, FC-SC, FC-B and B-SC, are analysed.The vehicle model takes into account other components. The regenerative brake system is used to recover energy during the deceleration phases, and the…
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