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Validation Testing of Lithium Battery Performance-Based Packaging for use in Air Transportation (SAE G-27)

National Research Council Canada-Khalid Fatih, Manuel Hernandez
Transport Canada-Ian Whittal, Kiran Shoib
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0042
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The SAE G-27 committee was tasked by ICAO to develop a performance-based packaging standard for lithium batteries transported as cargo on aircraft. The standard details test criteria to qualify packages of lithium batteries & cells for transportation as cargo on-board passenger aircraft. Lithium batteries and cells have been prohibited from shipment as cargo on passenger aircraft since 2016. This paper summarizes the results of the tests conducted by Transport Canada and National Research Council Canada to support the development of this standard with evidence-based recommendations. It includes a description of the test specimens, the test set up, instrumentation used, and test procedures following the standard as drafted to date. The study considered several lithium-ion battery and cell chemistries that were tested under various proposed testing scenarios in the draft standard. The aim was to assess the feasibility of proposed tests, and to determine whether the tests are able to accurately capture hazards which may arise from a catastrophic battery or a cell failure within the package. Laboratory results were also simulated with Computational Fluid Dynamics…
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Effect of Tab Cooling on Large-Format Lithium-Ion Pouch Cells

Kasetsart University-Kanchai Theinglim, Poowanart Poramapojana
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2261
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Battery thermal management systems can extend service life time while operating Lithium-ion batteries in hot and humid climates. To study thermal and electrochemical behaviors of a large format cell for the tab cooling method, this paper presents a Dual Potential Multi-Scale Multi-Domain (MSMD) approach using the equivalent circuit model in ANSYS Fluent software. A pouch cell of 25 Ah consists of N1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) cathode and graphite anode is used for the model validation. The simulation results present the effect of tab cooling temperature at different discharge rates as well as the effect of the cell surface area and its thickness.
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Experimental Investigation of Electric Vehicle Performance and Energy Consumption on Chassis Dynamometer Using Drive Cycle Analysis

SAE International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, Energy, Environment, & Policy

CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum, India-Gananath Doulat Thakre
Indian Institute of Petroleum CSIR, India-Robindro Lairenlakpam
  • Journal Article
  • 13-01-01-0002
Published 2019-12-02 by SAE International in United States
This article reports an experimental study carried out to investigate the vehicle performance and energy consumption (EC) of an electric vehicle (EV) on three different driving cycles using drive cycle analysis. The driving cycles are the Indian Driving Cycle (IDC), Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) and Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC). A new prototype electric powertrain was developed using an indigenous three-phase induction motor (3PIM), Li-ion battery (LiB) pack, vector motor controller, and newly developed mechanical parts. In this research work, a pollution-causing gasoline car (Maruti Zen) was converted into an EV by using the new powertrain. The EV conversion vehicle was used as the test vehicle. After the removal of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) the new powertrain was integrated with the vehicle’s gearbox (GB) system which was configured on a single motor, fixed gear configuration having a gear ratio of 1.28:1. The EV performance tests were carried out on the chassis dynamometer that followed the driving cycles. The maximum speed test showed a top speed of 64 km/h for the EV.…
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Akasol packs industry-leading energy density into new battery design

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: December 2019

Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP12_08
Published 2019-12-01 by SAE International in United States

Projecting the market for full-electric and hybrid-electric commercial vehicles will continue to expand, Germany-based lithium-ion battery specialist Akasol recently announced production-readiness of a newly-developed battery pack that sets an energy-density benchmark. The company's president also confirmed Akasol will build a manufacturing facility in the Detroit area targeted to begin production in mid-2020.

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How battery technology will drive truck electrification

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: December 2019

Alexander Schey
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP12_10
Published 2019-12-01 by SAE International in United States

The past three years have seen a major shift in the perception around electrified commercial vehicles, including trucks, driven by a variety of factors that have come together at this particular time. These factors include a growing awareness and acceptance of the impact of CO2 emissions on climate change and the dangers of diesel emissions-most notably highlighted by the Volkswagen emissions scandal-alongside a growing maturity and improved cost profile on electric vehicle (EV) technology. As a result, fleet owners and OEMs now consider e-trucks much more seriously.

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Design and Development of Automotive Battery Management System

Assistant Professor, COE, Pune-Meera Murali
Associate Professor, COE, Pune-D.N. Sonawane
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2498
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Battery operated vehicle needs accurate management system because of its quick changes in State of Charge (SoC) due to aggressive acceleration profiles and regenerative braking. Li-ion battery needs control over its operating area for the safe working. The main objective of the proposed system is to develop a BMS having algorithms to estimate accurate SoC, balance individual cells, thermal management, and provide safe area of operation defined by voltage and temperature. Proposed methodology uses Coulomb Counting as well as Model-based Design approach wherein nonlinear behavior of battery is modeled as Equivalent Circuit Model to compute the SoC and degradation effect on battery to decide the end of life of battery. Also performing Inductive Active Balancing on cells to equalize the charge. The study aims on deploying the model-based system on embedded platform which would help industry to reduce the model development time and focus on development of controlling algorithms for high end users. Active Balancing Architecture proposed here reduces the complexity of algorithm and at the same time decreases the balancing time.
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Real World Energy Efficiency Calculation for e-Rickshaws - A Comparative Study (Lead Acid Vs Lithium Ion Battery Vehicles)

Ola Electric Mobility Pvt Ltd.-Nishit Jain, Smit Gupta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2486
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
E-Rickshaws are receiving considerable attention as a sustainable passenger transportation in Indian mobility space. As per the recent reports, more than 1.5 million e-rickshaws are currently operating in the country. These are quieter, cleaner and convenient mode for last mile connectivity and are typically used for short distance (<10 Km) commutation. For owners, these vehicles offer value in terms of affordability and operating cost. Challenge for manufacturers is to design a vehicle which balances the requirements of both passengers and owners. Energy efficiency (Energy consumption per Km) influences such critical decisions. There is always a difference between the catalog value and actual on-road Energy efficiency figures and therefore it's important to really understand owner requirements w.r.t. market where vehicle is going to be operated. In this study, we collected data for different types of E-rickshaws in real world scenarios in city operations and determined the energy efficiency of these vehicles. Also, we attempted to compare energy efficiency figures with different battery chemistry (Lead acid and Lithium Ion vehicles). The data can provide deep insights from…
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STATE OF CHARGE

Automotive Engineering: November/December 2019

Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP11_01
Published 2019-11-01 by SAE International in United States

With just 16 hours to complete a three-state, 600-plus-mile roundtrip, we judge whether the nation's non-Tesla fast-charging network is a match for the new breed of long-range EVs like Jaguar's inspired 2019 I-Pace.

It's a trip we've done scores of times with barely a thought. From our home near SAE International headquarters in western Pennsylvania to the metro Detroit area is approximately 300 miles (483 km) of highway driving. We often do it in four-and-a-half hours without a stop of any kind, much less for fuel. Some diesels and hybrids, and even a few conventional gasoline vehicles, can knock off the entire roundtrip on a single tankful.

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2019 'Create the Future' Electronics/Sensors/IOT Category Winner: Early Detection of Battery Faults

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35447
Published 2019-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States
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Recommended Practice for Determining Material Properties of Li-Battery Separator

Battery Materials Testing Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2983_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States
This SAE RP provides a set of test methods and practices for the characterization of the properties of Li-battery separator. The test methods in this RP have been grouped into one of three categories: 1 Separator material parameters: Minimum set of separator properties to be measured. 2 Chemistry/customer-specific parameters: Properties that are dependent on the application, customer needs and/or requirements, manufacturing process, etc. This RP will include the current best practice methodologies for these tests, with an understanding that the best practice methodologies are evolving as more information is learned. 3 R&D parameters: Properties that are dependent on the application, customer needs and/or requirements, manufacturing process, etc. The methodologies in this third section are under development and have not yet achieved broad application. It is not within the scope of this document to establish criteria for the test results, as this is usually established between the materials supplier and seperator manufacturer and the user. This is especially true where this document specifies a range of target values, or an open testing parameter. In these cases,…
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