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Design of Light Weight Footstep Using Continuous Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Praveen Kumar, Vivek KV Shenoy, Ashish Kumar Sahu, Srivatsa Sriperumbudur, Anton Kumanan, K V Balaji
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Utility or Off-road vehicles are characterized with their higher ground clearances. Higher ground clearance of vehicle requires the vehicle to have footsteps for easy entry and exit of passengers from the vehicle. A typical foot step construction consists of structural steel brackets with an Aluminum or plastic top panel. Conventional steel construction is heavier to meet weight bearing capacity and durability requirements. Our objective of this work is to explore lightweight materials which can meet these performance requirements with a lighter construction. We chose to study the continuous glass fiber reinforced plastic as an alternative to the metal construction.
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Lightweight Exosuit Combines Robotics and Functional Apparel

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35263
Published 2019-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Between walking and running, human gaits can cover a wide range of speeds; for example, at low speeds, the metabolic rate of walking is lower than that of running in a slow jog. The opposite also is true: at high speeds, the metabolic cost of running is lower than that of speed-walking.

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Development of Multi-Material Overhead Stowage Systems for Commercial Aircrafts by Using New Design and Production Methods

3D Systems GmbH-Gunnar Fick
Composite Technology Center / CTC GmbH-Marc Fette
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Innovative, lightweight and cost-efficient aircraft components require the use of modern lightweight materials and efficient production technologies. A promising technology is the combination of chopped fiber Sheet Molding Compounds (SMC) and pre-impregnated, continuous fiber fabrics processed by single-stage compression molding. The so-called Hybrid SMC Technology obtains cost-efficiency as well as time-saving production of loaded and functional aircraft components. However, reliable design principles for components and computing methods for predicting the material behavior have to be developed for a use in aviation industry. Hence, this paper deals with the development of materials, fabrics, manufacturing processes and computing methods related to the Hybrid SMC Technology. Those developments are demonstrated and validated by the implementation of a lightweight multi-material overhead stowage compartment (OHSC) using new design approaches as well as assembly principles.
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Lightweight Wheel Bearing with Dissimilar Materials for Vehicle

Hyundai Motor Group-Jaehee Lee
Iljin Global-Inha Lee, Seonho Lee, Heechan Shim, Jungyang Park
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Limited fossil fuel resources, air pollution, and global warming all drive strengthening of fuel economy and vehicle emission standards globally. Much R&D continues to be dedicated to improve fuel efficiency of automobiles and to reduce exhaust gasses. These include improvement of engine/driveline performance for higher efficiency, development of alternative energy, and minimization of air resistance through aerodynamic design optimization. OEM weight reduction-focused research has extended into chassis components (steering knuckle, brakes, control arms, etc.) in sequence from body-in-white(BIW). Wheel bearings, one of the core components of a driveline and part of a vehicle’s unsprung mass, are also being required to reduce weight. Conventionally, wheel bearings have achieved “lightweighting” primarily through design optimization methods. They have been highly optimized today using steel based materials. Opportunities for further mass optimization are increasingly limited and so the focus of this study is integration of lighter-materials into steel bearing components for weight savings. Both aluminum and CFRP were considered in the study for partial integration into the steel hub flange which interfaces directly with the wheel. The application of…
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Benefit of a Lightweight Frunk

Autoneum Management AG-Federico Di Marco, Flavio Pezzani, Andreas Daving, Luca Mazzarella
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Due to the increasing number of battery electric vehicles (BEVs), the engineering fields regarding driving comfort and NVH issues are becoming more and more challenging: many new factors affect the development of BEVs NVH package. The noise sources related to the powertrain are different from the traditional ones of internal combustion engines, for instance due to the presence of tonal components, strong harmonics and potential whining noise.To satisfy NVH specifications and the need for lightweight solutions to increase driving range, it is important to mask as much as possible the noise coming from the engine bay with materials both lightweight and acoustically performing. Moreover, for electric vehicles new interesting solutions are possible with the introduction of new components that do not find room under the hood of ICE or hybrid vehicles. These components, if properly designed, could lead to significant NVH benefits. The present paper reports the NVH effects of one of these new components, the frunk, a small compartment inside the engine bay, functionally similar to the trunk.In this paper, the design-by-simulation of a…
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A step-change in the cost of CFRP

Automotive Engineering: May 2019

Stuart Birch
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP05_03
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

Williams Advanced Engineering reveals secrets behind its innovations aim to move carbon fiber into the mobility mainstream.

A joke in the auto industry about CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced polymer) is that the “C” stands for “costly.” So, any manufacturing process that solves this significant drawback of the ultra-lightweight material's use outside of Formula One racing and exotic supercars, could change the vehicle-production game.

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Destructive Mechanism Solution of Aluminum Secondary Ingot

Honda R & D Co., Ltd.-Yoshiro Iwata
University Professor-Hiroyuki Toda
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Secondary ingot aluminum is used as a material for many automobile parts because it enables to simultaneously reduce weight and lower costs. However, it is unclear whether secondary ingot aluminum is used with an accurate understanding of the material characteristics. This research identified the actual factors in how parts that use secondary ingot aluminum fracture, and examined methods for enhancing the mechanical properties. The relationship between mechanical properties and part strength when secondary ingot aluminum is used in automobile parts was clarified. The fracturing factors of metal material parts were formerly evaluated by two-dimensional microstructure observation and facture surface observation. This research used high-resolution CT to evaluate the microstructure in three dimensions. In-situ observations of fracturing behavior were also made in order to clarify how the shapes of intermetallic compounds in secondary ingot aluminum influence mechanical properties, and methods for enhancing mechanical properties were examined. A study of parts shape using high pressure die-cast parts, which often use secondary ingot aluminum materials, was also carried out to accurately understand the mechanical properties. The results showed…
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Multi-Material Topology Optimization and Multi-Material Selection in Design

General Motors-Balbir Sangha, Manish Pamwar
Queen's University-Stephen Roper, Garrett Vierhout, Daozhong Li, Il Yong Kim
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
As automakers continue to develop new lightweight vehicles, the application of multi-material parts, assemblies and systems is needed to enhance overall performance and safety of new and emerging architectures. To achieve these goals conventional material selection and design strategies may be employed, such as standard material performance indices or full-combinatorial substitution studies. While these detailed processes exist, they often succeed at only suggesting one material per component, and cannot consider a clean-slate design; here, multi-material topology optimization (MMTO) is suggested as an effective computational tool for performing large-scale combined multi-material selection and design. Unlike previous manual methods, MMTO provides an efficient method for simultaneously determining material existence and distribution within a predefined design domain from a library of material options. This allows designers to produce performance-driven concepts and obtain valuable component insights such as optimum material configuration and composition.Presented in this paper are conventional multi-material selection and design techniques, with an emphasis on MMTO background, theory, and implementation. Existing challenges within MMTO for material selection and design are presented in a numerical case study, demonstrating…
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Shed Light on Vehicle Structural Integrity

Luna Innovations Inc.-Nick Scott, Nur Aida Abdul Rahim
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The ability to validate design models is critical, especially when accounting for real-world operating conditions. Lightweight materials, such as plastics and carbon fibers, are becoming more prevalent throughout vehicles enabling greater fuel efficiency and safety standards to be met. These materials provide new challenges for validation, requiring more sensors and data to be understood. The use of high-definition fiber-optic sensing (HD-FOS) can provide the data density needed for verifying the performance of these new parts relative to the design intent. With its ability to provide up to 1000 discrete strain locations per meter of fiber, this measurement tool can serve as inputs into computer-aided engineering (CAE) models. Experiments test the ability of the HD-FOS system to make the necessary design measurements demonstrated on a truck under normal driving conditions. Sensors bonded to the lower control arms and a supporting member recorded strain measurements every 1.3 mm along these parts. These locations were chosen for their sensitivity to strain during vehicle operation. The test conditions included highway driving at 113 km/h including a run over rumble…
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Efficiency of Particle Damping on Lightweight CFRP Structures

Autoneum Management AG-Rainer Stelzer, Théophane Courtois
Inspire AG-Oscar Chesa, Markus Zogg
Published 2019-02-05 by SAE International in United States
Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) are becoming a common solution to minimize the structural weight in aerospace and automotive applications. The dynamic response of such lightweight structures presents higher acceleration levels than equivalent metallic designs. Hence, damping techniques whose performance depends on accelerations like particle damping (PD) have a strong potential to damp them. This paper intends to demonstrate how vibrations on CFRP structures can be efficiently damped with PD, resulting in an added weight reduction compared to an equivalent viscoelastic treatment. First, it is analytically put in evidence how the usage of CFRP materials increases the performance of PD on a rectangular clamped plate. This is followed by a parametric study which permitted to improve the performance of the dampers by better understanding their characteristic behavior under vertical excitations. After optimizing the damper design, the paper finishes with an experimental comparison of PD and a viscoelastic constrained-layer treatment on steel and CFRP flat panels, which experimentally shows how the advantage of using PD increases when the CFRP sample is considered.
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