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Concept Study on Windshield Actuation for Active Control of Wind Noise in a Passenger Car

Fraunhofer Institute LBF-Thorsten Koch, Jonathan Millitzer, William Kaal PhD, Georg Stoll, Matthias Schmidt
Hyundai Motor Company-Joong-Kwan Kim, Jinmo Lee, ChiSung Oh, Kang-Duck Ih
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1535
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The windshield is an integral part of almost every modern passenger car. Combined with current developments in the automotive industry such as electrification and the integration of lightweight material systems, the reduction of interior noise caused by stochastic and transient wind excitation is deemed to be an increasing challenge for future NVH measures. Active control systems have proven to be a viable alternative compared to traditional passive NVH measures in different areas. However, for windshield actuation there are neither comparative studies nor actually established actuation concepts available to the automotive industry. Based upon a numerical simulation of an installed windshield of a medium-sized car, this paper illustrates a conceptual study of both the evaluation of optimal positioning as well as a consideration of different electromechanical activation measures. A simulation model of the installed windshield is gained from an experimental modal analysis of both the windshield in free-free condition as well as in its installed configuration. The experimental data serves the frequency domain model update process of a finite element model of the installed windshield. A…
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A McPherson Lightweight Suspension Arm

Barnem Tecnologie Plastiche Srl-Marcello Chessari
Metal-Stampi di Maccarinelli e Cucchi-Silvia Maccarinelli
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0772
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The paper deals with the design and manufacturing of a McPherson suspension arm made from short glass fiber reinforced polyamide (PA66). The design of the arm and the design of the molds have been made jointly. According to Industry 4.0 paradigms, a full digitalization of both the product and process has been performed.Since the mechanical behavior of the suspension arm strongly depends on constraints which are difficult to be modelled, a simpler structure with well-defined mechanical constraints has been developed. By means of such simple structure, the model for the behavior of the material has been validated. Since the suspension arm is a hybrid structure, the associated simple structure is hybrid as well, featuring a metal sheet with over-molded polymer. The issues referring to material flow, material to material contact, weld lines, fatigue strength, high and low temperature behavior, creep, dynamic strength have been investigated on the simple structure. The detailed understanding gained with the simple structure has been transferred on the actual suspension arm.The McPherson arm has been produced and withstood the technical specifications.
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A Crack Detection Method for Self-Piercing Riveting Button Images through Machine Learning

Chongqing University-Ling Jiang, Xuyang Wang, Zhenfei Zhan
Ford Motor Company-Li Huang, Shiyao Huang, Garret Huff, Amanda Freis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0221
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Self-piercing rivet (SPR) joints are a key joining technology for lightweight materials, and they have been widely used in automobile manufacturing. Manual visual crack inspection of SPR joints could be time-consuming and relies on high-level training for engineers to distinguish features subjectively. This paper presents a novel machine learning-based crack detection method for SPR joint button images. Firstly, sub-images are cropped from the button images and preprocessed into three categories (i.e., cracks, edges and smooth regions) as training samples. Then, the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is chosen as the classification algorithm for sub-images. In the training of ANN, three pattern descriptors are proposed as feature extractors of sub-images, and compared with validation samples. Lastly, a search algorithm is developed to extend the application of the learned model from sub-images into the original button images. The preliminary results on non-cracked and cracked button images show that the proposed crack detection method is an effective approach to identify a potential defect.
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Crevice Corrosion Accelerated Test for Cylinder Head/Gasket/Monoblock Assemblies from Lightweight Engines Exposed to Overheating Cycles

Instituto Politecnico Nacional Esime Zac-Gerardo Rodríguez-Bravo, Roberto Vega-Moron
Instituto Politécnico Nacional ESIQIE-Jesús Godínez-Salcedo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1067
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Severe crevice corrosion occurring at the joint of cylinder head/gasket/mono-block from lightweight engines causes accelerated dissolution of lightweight material, in particular, in cylinder head producing the linking of the cooling vessels with the combustion chambers or oil vessels. It is conductive to combustion of coolant or oil, and contamination of oil with coolant or vice versa, which is considered as catastrophic engine failure. Since crevice corrosion is dependent of many of the actual assembly characteristics, coolant and engine operation conditions, full-scale tests are the most frequent alternative for this type of evaluations. Nonetheless, they are very long and expensive, and sometimes, unreliable tests. Alternatively, the standard procedure ASTM-G78 is widely used to evaluate crevice corrosion propensity of different metallic materials under certain specified conditions trough immersion tests in a corrosive media in shorter test times. However, the method does not cover the characteristics and conditions existing at the cylinder head/gasket/mono-block joint. Hence, this paper presents an accelerated test consisting on three-electrode cyclic potentiodynamic anodic polarization and polarization resistance standard trials using special assembly samples to…
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Crash Response of a Repaired Vehicle - Influence of Welding UHSS Members

University of Agder-Gulshan Noorsumar, Kjell Robbersmyr, Svitlana Rogovchenko, Dmitry Vysochinskiy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0197
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Automakers generally recommend not to weld structural parts after a vehicle crash, and these should be replaced as a whole part in case of a crash event. Sectioning of these members is also not recommended and use of the repair manual is mandatory in case of fracture of such parts. However, repair shops may not adhere to these instructions and use incorrect repair procedures on these members which would modify their strength properties. This study analyses the impact of welding structural members in a vehicle like the A-pillar which use Ultra-High Strength Steels (UHSS) for reducing the weight of the vehicle and improving the crashworthiness of the structure. The research conducted in this paper highlights the differences in the crash performance of a repaired vehicle as opposed to baseline injury values for the vehicle. The performance of the modified vehicle when tested for different loadcases shows reduced crash performance as compared to the baseline performance and it can be concluded that welding or sectioning the UHSS parts would influence the crashworthiness of a vehicle. This…
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Investigation of Mechanical Behavior of Chopped Carbon Fiber Reinforced Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) Composites

Ford Motor Company-Carlos Engler-Pinto, Li Huang, Xuming Su
Ford Motor Research & Eng. (Nanjing) Co.-Shiyao Huang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1307
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As an alternative lightweight material, chopped carbon fiber reinforced Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) composites, formed by compression molding, provide a new material for automotive applications. In the present study, the monotonic and fatigue behavior of chopped carbon fiber reinforced SMC is investigated. Tensile tests were conducted on coupons with three different gauge length, and size effect was observed on the fracture strength. Since the fiber bundle is randomly distributed in the SMC plaques, a digital image correlation (DIC) system was used to obtain the local modulus distribution along the gauge section for each coupon. It was found that there is a relationship between the local modulus distribution and the final fracture location under tensile loading. The fatigue behavior under tension-tension (R=0.1) and tension-compression (R=-1) has also been evaluated. Damage evolution on the free edge of the samples under cyclic loading has been recorded using optical microscopy by interrupting fatigue tests at different number of cycles. The results suggest that the interfacial failure between fiber and matrix is the dominant damage mechanism for SMC under fatigue…

Optimal Design of Carbon Fiber B-Pillar Structure Based on Equal Stiffness Replacement

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

China-Qihua Ma
Donghua University, China-Xuehui Gan
  • Journal Article
  • 09-08-01-0003
Published 2020-03-23 by SAE International in United States
Based on the characteristics of high strength and modulus of carbon fiber-reinforced composite (CFRP), in this article, the CFRP material was used to replace the steel material of the automobile’s B-pillar inner and outer plates, and the three-stage optimization design of the lamination structure was carried out. Firstly, this article used the principle of equal stiffness replacement to determine the thickness of the carbon fiber B-pillar inner and outer plates, and the structural design of the replaced B-pillar was also carried out. Secondly, on the basis of the vehicle collision model, the B-pillar subsystem model was extracted, and the material replacement and collision simulation were carried out. Thirdly, the free-size optimization, size optimization, and lamination sequence optimization of the CFRP B-pillar were performed to get the best ply structure; the objective of optimization was to minimize the carbon fiber B-pillar inner and outer plates mass, and the constraint conditions of optimization were the intrusion amount and intrusion speed of the B-pillar loading points. Finally, the optimization results of carbon fiber B-pillar were verified by simulation.…
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Material Selection and Structural Optimization for Lightweight Truck Trailer Design

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

RMIT University, Australia-Joel Galos
University of Cambridge, UK-Michael Sutcliffe
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-04-0022
Published 2020-02-18 by SAE International in United States
This article investigates options for lightweighting truck trailers through a combination of material selection and structural optimization. Critical chassis design load cases were established and a parametric finite element (FE) model of a typical European-style 13.5 m long truck trailer built from steel I-beams was developed. The model has been used to show that existing longitudinal steel I-beams could be reduced in weight by 28% (140 kg) through shape optimization alone. The model was expanded to analyze holistic composite trailer structures. It showed that up to 67% (1,326 kg) of weight could be saved by executing shape and material optimization in unison. The approach highlights that design through parametric analysis allows for many different structural configurations to be assessed in terms of both mechanical performance and material cost. This facilitates the construction of a theoretical design space of a lightweight chassis, clarifying the weight reduction limits that could be achieved with lightweight materials and structural optimization. The lightweight trailer chassis designs proposed here are also compared against a portfolio of shorter-term strategies for trailer lightweighting.…
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Metal-Plated, High-Temperature Plastics

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35673
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Semplastics Orlando, FL (407) 339-0879

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Design of Light Weight Footstep Using Continuous Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Praveen Kumar, Vivek KV Shenoy, Ashish Kumar Sahu, Srivatsa Sriperumbudur, Anton Kumanan, K V Balaji
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Utility or Off-road vehicles are characterized with their higher ground clearances. Higher ground clearance of vehicle requires the vehicle to have footsteps for easy entry and exit of passengers from the vehicle. A typical foot step construction consists of structural steel brackets with an Aluminum or plastic top panel. Conventional steel construction is heavier to meet weight bearing capacity and durability requirements. Our objective of this work is to explore lightweight materials which can meet these performance requirements with a lighter construction. We chose to study the continuous glass fiber reinforced plastic as an alternative to the metal construction.
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