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The Normal-Load and Sliding-Speed Dependence of the Coefficient of Friction, and Wear Particle Generation Contributing to Friction: High-Copper and Copper-Free Formulations

Compact International (1994) Co., Ltd.-Meechai Sriwiboon, Nipon Tiempan, Kritsana Kaewlob
SKR Consulting Inc.-Seong K. Rhee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2131
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Automotive brakes operate under varying conditions of speed and deceleration. In other words, the friction material is subjected to a wide range of normal loads and sliding speeds. One widely accepted test procedure to evaluate, compare and screen friction materials is the SAE J2522 Brake Effectiveness test, which requires full-size production brakes to be tested on an inertia brake dynamometer. For the current investigation, disc pads of two types of 10 different formulations (5 high-copper and 5 copper-free formulations) were prepared for testing on a front disc brake suitable for a pickup truck of GVW 3,200 kg. Each pad had 2 vertical slots, and one chamfer on the leading edge and also on the trailing edge of the pad. One segment of the test procedure looks at the coefficient of friction (Mu) under different brake line pressures and different sliding speeds to determine its stability or variability. In all cases, the Mu is found to be dependent on the normal load and sliding speed, contrary to the commonly called “Amontons-Coulomb’s Laws of Friction”. According to…

Downhill Safety Assistant Driving System for Battery Electric Vehicles on Mountain Roads

Zhongpeng TIAN
Wuhan University of Technology-Feng Jia'ao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2129
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
When driving in mountainous areas, vehicles often encounter downhill conditions. To ensure safe driving, it is necessary to control the speed of vehicles. For internal combustion engine vehicles, auxiliary brake such as engine brake can be used to alleviate the thermal load caused by the continuous braking of the friction brake. For battery electric vehicles (BEVs), regenerative braking can be used as auxiliary braking to improve brake safety. And through regenerative braking, energy can be partly converted into electrical energy and stored in accumulators (such as power batteries and supercapacitors), thus extending the mileage. However, the driver's line of sight in the mountains is limited, resulting in a certain degree of blindness in driving, so it is impossible to fully guarantee the safety and energy saving of downhill driving. Therefore, taking a battery electric light truck as an example, the system proposed in this paper first analyzes the driver's driving intention, proposes the system startup and exit strategy, and then combines the geographic information system (GIS) mountain road information, downslope speed limit and vehicle parameters,…
Open Access

Modeling and Optimal Design of All-Wheel-Drive Hybrid Light Trucks

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Ford Motor Company, USA-Xiaowu Zhang
Robert Bosch LLC, USA-Nikhil Ravi
  • Journal Article
  • 08-08-01-0003
Published 2019-06-06 by SAE International in United States
Fuel economy and performance are both important in the design of hybrid pickup trucks. All-wheel drive is essential to ensure superior performance compared to two-wheel-drive designs. In this article, as a comprehensive extension work to the article published in ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference [1] on all-wheel-drive (AWD) hybrid truck, we investigate the modeling, design, and control problem of AWD hybrid vehicles and develop a methodology to identify optimal designs. This methodology 1) formulates an automated modeling process, 2) searches exhaustively through all possible AWD designs, and 3) employs a near-optimal energy management strategy, to obtain a family of designs with superior performance and fuel economy. A design case study for a hybrid Ford F-150 is conducted, to showcase this design process.

Aluminum: Toward 50% body content

Automotive Engineering: May 2019

Lindsay Brooke
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP05_04
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

Aluminum BIW and closure parts are the key to achieving both regulatory and OEM goals for improved vehicle efficiency going forward.

To vehicle-development teams, peaceful coexistence is the 2020's way of describing the relationship between steel and aluminum. Sure, the two giant materials industries will continue their battle to conquest one another's market share. But for vehicle planners and program-development teams, the ferrous and light metals are an increasingly effective and popular combination. As experts Dr. Alan Taub and Michael Robinet have noted elsewhere in this issue, the mixed-materials trend is becoming an enduring one, as evidenced across the landscape of recent new-vehicle introductions.

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Automotive Engineering: May 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP05_10
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

America needs more midsized pickups. The case for the new Ford Ranger is made by increasingly strong sales of GM's models and the perennial fan base of the Toyota Tacoma and Nissan Frontier. And now Jeep's back in the game. A growing number of U.S. pickup fans want something more parkable and fuel-efficient than the fullsizers.

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Jeep revives its pickup mojo with 2020 Gladiator

Automotive Engineering: May 2019

Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP05_15
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

Get ready for the fractionalization of the U.S.'s raucous pickup-truck market.

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Automotive Engineering: May 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP05_17
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

The engineering program for the 2020 Jeep Gladiator was managed in the company's dual-responsibility style that seats approximately equal authority in the Chief Engineer and a “Model Responsible” executive/engineer who brings an additional perspective-and responsibilities-to the effort.

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Performance, Fuel Economy, and Economic Assessment of a Combustion Concept Employing In-Cylinder Gasoline/Natural Gas Blending for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications

SAE International Journal of Engines

Argonne National Laboratory, United States-Thomas Wallner, Michael Pamminger, Riccardo Scarcelli, Christopher Powell, Severin Kamguia Simeu
FCA US LLC, United States-Asim Iqbal, Ron Reese
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-03-0019
Published 2019-04-25 by SAE International in United States
In current production natural gas/gasoline bi-fuel vehicles, fuels are supplied via port fuel injection (PFI). Injecting a gaseous fuel in the intake port significantly reduces the volumetric efficiency and consequently torque as compared to gasoline. In addition to eliminating the volumetric efficiency challenge, direct injection (DI) of natural gas (NG) can enhance the in-cylinder flow, mixing, and combustion process resulting in improved efficiency and performance. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach to model high-pressure gaseous injection was developed and validated against X-ray data from Argonne’s Advanced Photon Source. NG side and central DI of various designs and injection strategies were assessed experimentally along with CFD correlation. Significant effects on combustion metrics were quantified and explained via improved understanding of the in-cylinder flow effects due to NG injection. On-demand in-cylinder blending using E10 PFI and NG DI provides an additional lever to adjust in-cylinder turbulence as well as knock resistance across the engine speed and load range. NG DI improves part-load dilution tolerance due to higher in-cylinder turbulence and the high knock resistance of NG compared…
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Ride Index Structure and Development Methodology

Vehicle Dynamics Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2834_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-24 by SAE International in United States
This recommended practice defines methods for the measurement of periodic, random and transient whole-body vibration. It indicates the principal factors that combine to determine the degree to which a vibration exposure will cause discomfort. Informative appendices indicate the current state of knowledge and provide guidance on the possible effects of motion and vibration on discomfort. The frequency range considered is 0.5 Hz to 80 Hz. This recommended practice also defines the principles of preferred methods of mounting transducers for determining human exposure. This recommended practice is applicable to light passenger vehicles (e.g., passenger cars and light trucks). This recommended practice is applicable to motions transmitted to the human body as a whole through the buttocks, back and feet of a seated occupant, as well as through the hands of a driver. This recommended practice offers a method for developing a ride performance index but does not specifically describe how to apply this index to assessment or comparison of specific vehicles.
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Evaluation of Emissions from Light Duty Trucks with and without the Use of a Gasoline Particulate Filter

Environment and Climate Change Canada-Fadi Araji, Jonathan Stokes
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The goal of this study was to investigate the emission impacts of replacing the OEM three-way catalyst on light duty trucks using various, commercially available, gasoline particulate filter (GPF) configurations. Three light duty trucks were tested: a Port Fuel Injection (PFI) PFI_1 and two Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) vehicles GDI_1 and GDI_2. The testing of these vehicles was conducted on a chassis dynamometer in a controlled test cell environment at two temperatures (25 °C and -7 °C) using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) and the US06 test procedure. All three vehicles were tested in stock OEM configuration followed by testing PFI_1 and GDI_1 with a non-catalyzed GPF and GDI_2 with a catalyzed GPF. GDI_2 was also tested on-road using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) with and without the use of the catalyzed GPF. Gaseous emissions, Particulate Matter (PM), Black Carbon (BC) and Particle Number (PN) emissions were measured. Results for the non-catalyzed GPF configuration on PFI_1 and GDI_1 showed a decrease in PM at both standard and cold temperatures, with the biggest decrease being…
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