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Light Duty Truck Rear Axle Thermal Modeling

FCA-Mohammad Nahid
FCA US LLC-Joydip Saha, Sadek Rahman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1388
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
More stringent Federal emission regulations and fuel economy requirements have driven the automotive industry toward more sophisticated vehicle thermal management systems to best utilize the waste heat and improve driveline efficiency. The final drive unit in light and heavy duty trucks usually consists of geared transmission and differential housed in a lubricated axle. The automotive rear axles is one of the major sources of power loss in the driveline due to gear friction, churning and bearing loss and have a significant effect on overall vehicle fuel economy. These losses vary significantly with the viscosity of the lubricant. Also the temperatures of the lubricant are critical to the overall axle performance in terms of power losses, fatigue life and wear. In this paper, a methodology for modeling thermal behavior of automotive rear axle with heat exchanger is presented to predict the axle lubricant temperature rise and study the effect of coolant temperature on the axle warm-up and efficiency for a typical EPA fuel economy driving cycle. Thermal axle consists of automotive rear axle with a heat…
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Utilization of vehicle connectivity for improved energy consumption of a speed harmonized cohort of vehicles.

Michigan Technological University-Christopher Morgan, Darrell Robinette, Pruthwiraj Santhosh, John Bloom-Edmonds
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0587
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Improving vehicle response through advanced knowledge of traffic behavior can lead to large improvements in energy consumption for the single isolated vehicle. This energy savings across multiple vehicles can even be larger if they travel together as a cohort in harmonization. Additionally, if the vehicles have enough information about their immediate path of travel, and other vehicles’ in that path (and their respective critical forward looking information), they can safely drive close enough to each other to share aerodynamic load. These energy savings can be upwards of multiple percentage points, and are dependent on several criteria. This analysis looks at criteria that contributes to energy savings for a cohort of vehicles in synchronous motion, as well as describes a study that allows for better understanding of the potential benefits of different types of cohorted vehicles in different platoon arrangements. The basis of this study is a precursor to developing a connected vehicle application that safely allows for fully controlled platooning on open highway for multi-destination vehicles. In this study, two types of light duty passenger…
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The GTU – A New Realistic Generic Pickup Truck and SUV Model

Ford Motor Company-Sudesh Woodiga, Kevin Howard, Paul Norman, Neil Lewington, Robert Carstairs, Burkhard Hupertz, Karel Chalupa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0664
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Traditionally, ground vehicle aerodynamics has been researched with highly simplified models such as the Ahmed body and the SAE model. These models established and advanced the fundamental understanding of bluff body aerodynamics and have generated a large body of published data, however, their application to the development of passenger vehicles is limited by the highly idealized nature of their geometries. To date, limited data has been openly published on aerodynamic investigations of production vehicles, most likely due to the proprietary nature of production vehicle geometry. In 2012, Heft et al. introduced the realistic generic car model ‘DrivAer’ that better represents the flow physics associated with a typical production vehicle. The introduction of the DrivAer model has led to a broad set of published data for both experimental and computational investigations and has proven itself invaluable as a correlation and calibration tool of wind tunnels, the validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and increasing the understanding of the fundamental flow physics around passenger vehicles. Automotive sales trends in the United States, published by the Bureau…
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A Robust Cargo Box Structure Development using DFSS Methodology

FCA Engineering India Pvt., Ltd.-Ananta Pankaj
FCA US LLC-Weidong Zhang, Scott Mcguire, Mingchao Guo, Martin Wekerle, Krzysztof Michalowski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0601
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Cargo box is a key structure in a pickup truck used to hold cargo load. Therefore, a cargo box must be durable and robust under different ballast conditions when subjected to road load inputs. This paper discusses a DFSS approach to resolve a durability concern observed on box bed in its early development phase. Traditional methods and best practices resulted in multiple iterations without an obvious solution. Hence, Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) tools were proposed to find an robust and optimum solution. Key control factors/design parameters were identified, and L18 Orthogonal Array was chosen to optimize design using CAE tools. An optimum design selected was the one with minimum stress level and least stress variation. This design was confirmed to have significant improvement and robustness compared to the initial design. All other load cases are also checked and verified without concern for the selected design.
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Low-Energy Seat Compression: Characterizing Stiffness in Different Vehicles

Guidance Engineering-Bethany L. Suderman, Denise R. Cruise, Nicholas H. Yang, Edmund Lau, Lenka Stepan, Irving Scher
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0527
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In rear-end collisions, occupants move rearward relative to the vehicle and into their seats. In low energy impacts, the stiffness of the non-frame seat components may influence the kinematic response of an occupant. Previous research has reported seat stiffness from experiments for a limited number of seats. Because passenger vehicle seats have evolved, this current work reports the range of seat stiffnesses for modern passenger vehicles. A portable measuring device to characterize vehicle seat stiffness was built to accommodate a wide range of vehicle types. The device measured simultaneously the force applied to the seat and the average deflection. Seats of a sedan, sports utility vehicle, minivan, pickup truck, and a utility van were tested using the device. For each seat, three measurements were taken for four different seat regions: lower seatback, upper seatback, fore seat bottom and aft seat bottom. The seat stiffness for each region was determined using a linear fit of the force-deflection curve generated during testing. The range of seat stiffness across all seat types was 6,588 to 22,215 N/m. The…
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Rear Axle Heat Exchanger Utilization of Engine Coolant for Reduced CO2 Emissions and Fuel Consumption

FCA US LLC-Timothy Schumaier, Matthew Bartlett, Alex Laugen, Jasbir Singh, Jay Sopko, Paul Troy
Sweet Briar College-Timothy Scott
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1411
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the design, development, and operation of a rear axle dual-shell heat exchanger on a RAM 1500 Light Duty truck. This system has been proven to increase fuel economy and reduce exhaust emissions, particularly CO2 on the EPA Cold City schedule. Through heat transfer math models, the energy conversion strategy will be explored. A PUGH analysis associated with concept selection is included. To refine the hardware and develop a control strategy prior to testing, a portable flow cart was developed to assess system performance and to correlate the multi-node heat transfer model. Bench testing focused on the durability and functional aspects of integrating the dual-shell axle cover with the axle and coolant delivery system through a comprehensive design and validation plan. Vehicle testing included various fuel economy and emissions related driving schedules to quantify the benefits.
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The Study on Fatigue Bench Test and Durability Evaluation of a Light Truck Cab Assembly

Tongji University-Yunkai Gao, Ze Yuan, Yuexing Duan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0760
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The cab assembly is an essential part of a light truck, and its fatigue durability plays an important role in the design and development stage. Fatigue bench test has been widely applied to product development of carmakers for its low cost and short development cycle. However, in reality, interference exists generally in torsional conditions for light truck cab assembly when tested on the 4-post vehicle road simulation system. To solve this problem and minimize the lateral force applied on the hydro-cylinders, the direction and magnitude combinations of displacement release about front and rear suspensions are discussed based on multi-body dynamics and fixture design theory in this paper. Through comparative study, the optimum design and layout scheme of fixture are determined to conduct the next test procedure. Design weaknesses of the light truck cab assembly are firstly predicted by utilizing finite element method (FEM) and fatigue analysis theory. Then, the strain gages, which are used for monitoring and debugging the load, are pasted on the weaknesses analyzed by simulation. According to the observation of stress using…
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Passenger and Light Truck Tire Traction Device Profile Determination and Classification

Highway Tire Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1232_202003
  • Current
Published 2020-03-11 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to set up a guide as to body, frame, and wheelhouse clearances required to accommodate tire traction devices (e.g., tire chains), and to provide a means of classifying these devices according to their maximum profile. In addition, it enables the vehicle manufacturer to specify the proper traction devices for each vehicle. This report is intended to apply to passenger cars and light trucks up to 4535 kg (10 001 lb) GVW. This document is not to be construed as approving traction device operation at conditions exceeding manufacturer's specifications, although short periods of such operations may be required for test purposes.
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Testing Machines for Measuring the Uniformity of Passenger Car and Light Truck Tires

Highway Tire Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J332_202003
  • Current
Published 2020-03-11 by SAE International in United States
The comfort and fatigue of vehicle passengers is a major engineering consideration. Among the many factors involved are vibratory and auditory disturbances. Tires participate, among other elements of the vehicle, in exciting vibrations and noises. Furthermore, tires also may generate forces leading to lateral drift of the vehicle. This SAE Recommended Practice describes the design requirements for equipment to evaluate some of the characteristic excitations of passenger car and light truck tires which may cause disturbance in vehicles. The kinds of excitations treated result from nonuniformities in the structure of the tire and have their effect when a vehicle bearing the tire travels on a smooth road. This document also describes some broad aspects of the use of the equipment and lists precautionary measures that have arisen out of current experience. The intention underlying these recommendations is to establish a standardized measurement for use by the engineering community. The evidence from years of experience supports the statistical relevance of data obtained using the type of equipment and procedures described. However, mechanical instability of materials in…
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Nikola's FCEV pickup surprise

Automotive Engineering: March 2020

  • Magazine Article
  • 20AUTP03_14
Published 2020-03-01 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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