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Design and Sustainability Assessment of Lightweight Concept for an Automotive Car Module

Benteler-Joern Toelle
Toyota Motor Europe-Martin Kerschbaum
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0033
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Recently sustainability has become a priority for industry production. This issue is even more valid for the automotive sector, where Original Equipment Manufacturers have to address the environmental protection additionally to traditional design issues. Against this background, many research and industry advancements are concentrated in the development of lightweight car components through the application of new materials and manufacturing technologies. The paper deals with an innovative lightweight design solution for the bumper system module of a B-segment car. The study has been developed within the Affordable LIght-weight Automobiles AlliaNCE (ALLIANCE) project, funded by the Horizon 2020 framework programme of the European Commission. A bumper demonstrator, that is currently in series production and mainly consists of conventional aluminum materials, is re-engineered making use of 7000 series aluminum alloys. The design alternatives are described and assessed regarding the achieved weight saving. The study is complemented by a sustainability assessment of the different modules performed through the Life Cycle Assessment methodology. The analysis takes into account production, use and End-of-Life stages and the results are expressed in terms…
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Plug-in Electric Vehicles fueled with Green Fuels in LTC mode

Jesus Benajes
Universitat Politecnica de Valencia-Antonio Garcia, Javier Monsalve-Serrano, Santiago Martinez
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0026
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) can be considered as the most promising technology to achieve the European CO2 targets in 2025 together with a moderate infrastructure modification. However, the real benefits, in terms of CO2 emissions, depend on a great extent on the energy source (fuel and electricity mix), user usage, and vehicle design. Moreover, the electrification of the powertrain does not reduce other emissions as NOx and particles (mainly soot). In the last years, low temperature combustion (LTC) modes as the reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) have shown to achieve ultra-low NOx and soot emission simultaneously due to the use of two fuels with different reactivity and high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess, through numerical simulations fed with experimental results, the effects of different energy sources on the PHEV performance and emissions. The dual-fuel ICE was fueled with diesel as high reactivity fuel and two different low reactivity fuel: gasoline and ethanol. The powertrains are optimized to meet the European homologation legislation (WLTP) for PHEVs. The…
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Balancing Lifecycle Sustainment Cost with Value of Information during Design Phase

CCDC Ground Vehicle Systems Center-Sam Kassoumeh, Monica Majcher, James Ealy, David Gorsich, Paramsothy Jayakumar
Oakland University-Vijitashwa Pandey
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0176
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The complete lifecycle of complex systems, such as ground vehicles, consists of multiple phases including design, manufacturing, operation and sustainment (O&S) and finally disposal. For many systems, the majority of the lifecycle costs are incurred during the operation and sustainment phase, specifically in the form of uncertain maintenance costs. Testing and analysis during the design phase, including reliability and supportability analysis, can have a major influence on costs during the O&S phase. However, the cost of the analysis itself must be reconciled with the expected benefits of the reduction in uncertainty. In this paper, we quantify the value of performing the tests and analyses in the design phase by treating it as imperfect information obtained to better estimate uncertain maintenance costs. A multi-attribute decision framework for military ground vehicles acquisition is employed to illustrate the methodology and the value of performing the analysis early in the system’s lifecycle. Attributes considered are maintenance cost and operational availability, while the utility is calculated for a risk averse decision maker. Numerical methods are employed to calculate the value…
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Eco-profiling of Bio-epoxies via Life Cycle Assessment

SAE International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, Energy, Environment, & Policy

Clemson University, USA-Adhimoolam Bakthavachalam Kousaalya, Rakesh Krishnamoorthy Iyer, Srikanth Pilla
  • Journal Article
  • 13-01-01-0003
Published 2020-03-25 by SAE International in United States
Epoxies, synthesized from bisphenol-A (BPA) and epichlorohydrin (ECH), are predominantly used as coatings, adhesives, and matrix material in fiber-reinforced composites for body-in-white (BiW) applications in the automotive sector. However, given the production of conventional epoxies from nonrenewable petroleum resource and toxicity of BPA, several initiatives have been undertaken by researchers to synthesize alternative epoxies from various bio-sources that are free of BPA and exhibit similar mechanical performance. As a result, such bio-sourced epoxies are almost immediately termed as “ecofriendly,” despite the lack of comprehensive evaluation of their ecological performance that takes into account enhanced natural resource usage and associated impacts accompanying such epoxies. Hence, this work aims at addressing this gap by evaluating the environmental impacts of such bio-sourced epoxies via cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) to determine the genuine credentials of their ecofriendliness. Epoxies synthesized from three different bio-sources - namely, bark extractives, lignin, and triglyceride - were chosen so to evaluate their ecological performance. ReCiPe midpoint and endpoint methods were used to evaluate these epoxies in accordance with ISO 14040 and ISO 14044…
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Effect of alternative fuels on marine engine performance

Aalto University-Michal Wojcieszyk, Yuri Kroyan, Martti Larmi, Ossi Kaario, Kai Zenger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2230
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Marine transportation sector is highly dependent on fossil-based energy carriers. Decarbonization of shipping can be accomplished by implementing biobunkers into an existing maritime fuel supply chain. However, there are many compatibility issues when blending new biocomponents with their fossil-based counterparts. Thus, it is of high importance to predict the effect of fuel properties on marine engine performance, especially for new fuel blends. In the given work, possible future solutions concentrated on liquid fuels are taken into account. Under consideration are such fuels as biodiesel (FAME), hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), straight vegetable oil (SVO), pyrolysis oil, biocrude, and methanol. Knowledge about the behavior of new fuel in an existing engine is notably important for decision makers and fuel producers. Hence, the main goal of the present work is to create a model, which can predict the engine performance from the end-user perspective. For the purpose of modeling, only the latest research on marine fuels is taken into account. In the current approach, results from a representative measurement set-up are compared in order to create a uniform…
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Life Cycle Assessment of a Passenger Vehicle to Analyze the Environmental Impacts Using Cradle to Grave Approach

Mahindra Research Valley-Rahul Lalwani, Saravanan N, Arunmozhi Veeraputhiran, IlavarasIi D
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2581
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Climate change is primary driver in the current discussions on CO2 reduction in the automotive industry. Current Type approval emissions tests (BS III, BS IV) covers only tailpipe emissions, however the emissions produced in upstream and downstream processes (e.g. raw material sourcing, manufacturing, transportation, vehicle usage, recycle phases) are not considered in the evaluation. The objective of this project is to assess the environmental impact of the product considering all stages of the life cycle, understand the real opportunities to reduce environmental impact across the product life cycle. As a part of environmental sustainability journey in business value chain, lifecycle assessment (LCA) technique helps to understand the environmental impact categories. To measure overall impact, a cradle to grave approach helps to assess entire life cycle impact throughout various stages. LCA is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, disposal or recycling. A study was conducted on a passenger vehicle for life cycle assessment as…
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Environmental Analysis Based on Life Cycle Assessment: An Empirical Investigation on the Conventional and Hybrid Powertrain

University of Naples, Parthenope-Antonio Forcina
University of Rome, Niccolò Cusano-Luca Silvestri, Gabriella Arcese
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
The Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCA) methodology is today considered as a crucial paradigm with multiple levels of analysis, including the economic, social and environmental aspects. In this scenario, the purpose of the present research is to carry out an accurate and extensive LCA based analysis to compare the environmental impact, between conventional gasoline and hybrid vehicle powertrains. Two different powertrain scenarios were considered maintaining the same vehicle chassis. The performed analysis concerned resources and energy consumption as well as pollutant emission of each process, evaluating the impact of powertrain production, the vehicle use phase, and powertrain end of life scenarios. A large set of indicators - including human toxicity, eutrophication, and acidification - was considered. The study indicates that the potential of electrified vehicles basically depends on efficient production and recycling of the battery. We found that the conventional powertrain determines a higher Global Warming Potential (GWP) than hybrid powertrain (by almost 30%). Conversely, the water-related impact is higher in hybrid powertrain, and this is associated to the extraction and processing of the metal…
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Overview of AS6500, Manufacturing Management Program

  • Professional Development
  • PD531906C
Published 2019-08-27

The lack of focus on manufacturing management has led to significant cost overruns, schedule delays, and quality problems. In response, the SAE G-23 Manufacturing Management Committee developed and published AS6500,  Manufacturing Management Program. The standard requires proven manufacturing management practices with the goal of delivering affordable and capable systems. It’s applicable to all phases of a system acquisition life cycle and may be specified in a contract on any program with manufacturing content.

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Life Cycle Analysis to Estimate the CO2-Equivalent Emissions from MAC Operation

Interior Climate Control Vehicle OEM Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2766_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-06 by SAE International in United States
This recommended best practice outlines a method for estimating CO2-equivalent emissions using life cycle analysis.
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Synchros, General Specification for

AE-7A Generators and Controls Motors and Magnetic Devices
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS20708C
  • Current
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
This specification relates to Synchros, 60 and 400 Hz. It is not complete in itself, but shall be used in conjunction with MIL-DTL-81963, in which the latter shall be recognized as forming an inherent part of this specification. This standard requires a Qualified Products List (see 6.4).
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