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Effect of High RON Fuels on Engine Thermal Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

ExxonMobil Fuels and Lubricants Co.-Abdelhadi Sahnoune
ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Co.-Bryan Chapman, Dedric Joseph, Nagore Sabio, Jeffrey Farenback-Brateman, Christopher Goheen
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Historically, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for vehicles have focused on tailpipe emissions. However, sound environmental policy requires a more holistic well-to-wheels (WTW) assessment that includes both production of the fuel and its use in the vehicle. The present research explores the net change in WTW GHG emissions associated with moving from regular octane (RO) to high octane (HO) gasoline. It considers both potential increases in refinery emissions from producing HO fuel and potential reductions in vehicle emissions through the use of fuel-efficient engines optimized for such fuel. Three refinery configurations of varying complexity and reforming capacity were studied. A set of simulations covering different levels of HO gasoline production were run for each refinery configuration. Two engine designs were considered: one which could take little advantage of higher octane fuel to increase efficiency, and one which could be adjusted further to take advantage of the higher octane. WTW GHG emissions were analyzed within a life cycle analysis framework, where the upstream emissions of raw material and utility inputs to the refinery were added to…
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Analytical Estimation of Clutch Life for Manual Transmission

Tata Motors, Ltd.-Anurag Mishra, Damodar Chollangi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0335
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The clutch is the connecting link between engine and the power train. It connects and disconnects the engine to the gearbox as per the wish of the driver. Clutch has a friction disc which acts like a fuse wire which wears in the process of the connection. This paper tries to calculate the clutch life analytically (In terms of Kms. run by vehicle), of automotive vehicles having manual transmission. As the clutch engages and disengages the engine to the gearbox, during this time due to slippage, energy is dissipated which results in the wear of the clutch disc. It calculates life based on the volumetric wear of the clutch disc and wear allowance available. The work done by other people in this domain include the empirical estimation of clutch life based on the past data, effect of the surface topography on the friction characteristics of the wet clutches, modeling of clutch housing and facing temperature for the estimation of the clutch life of a manual transmission etc. The present work simplifies the estimation of clutch…
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Energy Management Strategy and Size Optimization of a LFP/LTO Hybrid Battery System for Electric Vehicle

Nanjing University of Science and Techno-Yang Ding
Southeast University-Guangmin Li, Weichao Zhuang, Guodong Yin, Yanjun Ren
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes a semi-active hybrid battery system (HBS), composed by lithium iron phosphate battery (LFP) and lithium titanate battery (LTO) for electric vehicle (EV) to reduce the life cycle cost of energy storage system. Firstly, the topology of this HBS is introduced. The high energy-density battery, LFP is adopted as the primary energy source, while the high power-density one, LTO is connected in parallel with a bidirectional DC-DC converter and used as secondary energy source to extend the lifetime of HBS by reducing the current stress of LFP. The dynamic model of this HBS is built, in which, the LFP and LTO are both modeled as second-order RC model. In addition, dynamic semi-empirical degradation model of the LFP battery is chosen to estimate the lifetime of HBS. Secondly, a fuzzy logic controller with 3 inputs and 1 output is proposed to decide the power split between the primary and secondary power sources. LFP and LTO both could provide power to drive the vehicle, while the electricity generated by regenerative braking is only stored in…
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Environmental Assessment of the End-of-Life Phase of Alternative and Conventional Propulsion Systems in the Context of Life Cycle Assessment

Audi AG-Stefan Dreyer, Ulrich Baretzky, Wolfgang Kotauschek, Florian Bach
TU Muenchen-Benedikt Stumper
Published 2019-02-18 by SAE International in United States
The number of vehicles being sold is steadily increasing, as well as the amount of processed resources. Moreover, alternative powertrain concepts open up a new field of materials such as rare-earth metals, lithium, and cobalt. This results in a growing importance and complexity of the vehicle end-of-life phase and thus demands for a more detailed environmental evaluation and an integration into life cycle assessment. Due to high recycling rates, established recycling routes, and a low environmental impact regarding the materials used for conventional propulsion systems, by now the recycling is mostly neglected within the life cycle assessment of vehicles. The introduced materials for alternative concepts challenge this method with new and complex processes, the lack of available recycling routes, selective recovery of only few materials, as well as the threat of landfill, an increased share of incineration, resource shortfalls, and resource exploitation. This study investigates the state of the art of recycling processes for drive components used within conventional and alternative concepts. Furthermore, a new methodical framework to evaluate the environmental impact of the end-of-life…
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Test Procedure for Internal Heat Exchangers of Mobile Air-Conditioning Systems with R-134a or R-1234yf Refrigerant

Interior Climate Control Vehicle OEM Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3094_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-15 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this SAE Standard is to define a common set of thermodynamic test conditions to evaluate internal heat exchangers for use with R-134a and R-1234yf refrigerants in mobile air-conditioning systems. This standard can be used to test actual vehicle IHX designs or standardized IHX samples, which can be used for comparison based on a common length and shape.
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Technical Information Report on Automotive Battery Recycling

Battery Standards Recycling Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2974_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-11 by SAE International in United States
This document will focus on the language used to describe batteries at the end of battery or vehicle life as batteries are transitioned to the recycler, dismantler, or other third party. This document also provides a compilation of current recycling technologies and flow sheets, and their application to different battery chemistries at the end of battery life. At the time of document authorship, the technical information cited is most applicable to Li-ion battery type rechargeable energy storage systems (RESS), but the language used is not to be limited by chemistry of the battery systems and is generally applicable to other RESS.
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Process for Assessment and Mitigation of Early Wearout of Life-Limited Microcircuits

APMC Avionics Process Management
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP6338A
  • Current
Published 2019-02-08 by SAE International in United States
This document is intended for use by designers, reliability engineers, and others associated with the design, production, and support of electronic sub-assemblies, assemblies, and equipment used in AADHP applications to conduct lifetime assessments of microcircuits with the potential for early wearout; and to implement mitigations when required; and by the users of the AADHP equipment to assess those designs and mitigations. This document focuses on the LLM wearout assessment process. It acknowledges that the AADHP system design process also includes related risk mitigation and management; however, this document includes only high-level reference and discussion of those topics, in order to show their relationship to the LLM assessment process.
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New Approaches to Lube Oil Consumption Measurement Based on the Tracer Method

Graz University of Technology-Michael Schneider, Andreas Wimmer
JR-AquaConSol GmbH-Albrecht Leis
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
In the research and development of internal combustion engines, there are several drivers for developing an accurate online lube oil consumption (LOC) measurement system. Lube oil consumption is considered to be a root cause of hydrocarbon and particle emissions and lubricating oil autoignition. It also negatively influences the life cycle cost for engine operators. Highly accurate measurement of lube oil consumption must be possible before it can be reduced - or rather optimized - to levels stakeholders will require in the future. State-of-the-art methods such as gravimetric and volumetric measurements are not fully satisfactory for several reasons. Generally, offline LOC measurement is no longer suitable for fast and accurate measuring cycles, oil condition monitoring and wear monitoring. At present, tracer methods are considered to be the most promising approach. However, current tracer methods have their downsides as well. This paper will first discuss the advances, optimizations and remaining challenges of state-of-the-art tracer methods. Next, it will examine a novel approach that uses a newly developed tracer and measurement setup based on the stable isotope deuterium.…
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Landing Gear Shock Strut Bearing Selection

A-5B Gears, Struts and Couplings Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5883A
  • Current
Published 2018-10-16 by SAE International in United States
This document defines the criteria used for the selection of landing gear shock strut upper and lower bearings (see Figure 1).
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Bearing Life Evaluation for Automotive Wheel Bearings Using Design of Experiments

Iljin Global-Seungpyo Lee
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
Automotive wheel bearings have primary functions of translating the rotating motion of the wheels into linear vehicle motion while bearing the vehicle weight. Bearing life is affected by many parameters such as bearing geometry, vehicle and bearing technical specifications, driving conditions, lubrication conditions, material properties, and so on. In this paper, both the basic bearing rating life and modified bearing rating life were evaluated using design of experiments. Bearing lives were calculated by the international standard, and the factors affecting bearing life were investigated. Sequential experimental designs were applied. First, screening experiments were performed to analyze the factors affecting bearing life. Next, confirmation experiments were carried out to determine accurate effects of the selected factors from the screening experiments. As a result, contact angle and curvature of inner ring were significant at a 95% of significance level.
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