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Analytical Estimation of Clutch Life for Manual Transmission

Tata Motors, Ltd.-Anurag Mishra, Damodar Chollangi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0335
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The clutch is the connecting link between engine and the power train. It connects and disconnects the engine to the gearbox as per the wish of the driver. Clutch has a friction disc which acts like a fuse wire which wears in the process of the connection. This paper tries to calculate the clutch life analytically (In terms of Kms. run by vehicle), of automotive vehicles having manual transmission. As the clutch engages and disengages the engine to the gearbox, during this time due to slippage, energy is dissipated which results in the wear of the clutch disc. It calculates life based on the volumetric wear of the clutch disc and wear allowance available. The work done by other people in this domain include the empirical estimation of clutch life based on the past data, effect of the surface topography on the friction characteristics of the wet clutches, modeling of clutch housing and facing temperature for the estimation of the clutch life of a manual transmission etc. The present work simplifies the estimation of clutch…
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Energy Management Strategy and Size Optimization of a LFP/LTO Hybrid Battery System for Electric Vehicle

Nanjing University of Science and Techno-Yang Ding
Southeast University-Guangmin Li, Weichao Zhuang, Guodong Yin, Yanjun Ren
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1003
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Abstract: This paper proposes a semi-active hybrid battery system (HBS), composed by lithium iron phosphate battery (LFP) and lithium titanate battery (LTO) for electric vehicle (EV) to reduce the life cycle cost of energy storage system. Firstly, the topology of this HBS is introduced. The high energy-density battery, LFP is adopted as the primary energy source, while the high power-density one, LTO is connected in parallel with a bidirectional DC-DC converter and used as secondary energy source to extend the lifetime of HBS by reducing the current stress of LFP. The dynamic model of this HBS is built, in which, the LFP and LTO are both modeled as second-order RC model. In addition, dynamic semi-empirical degradation models of both LFP and LTO based on the Arrhenius equation is chosen to estimate the lifetime of HBS. Secondly, a fuzzy logic controller with 3 inputs and 1 output is proposed to decide the power split between the primary and secondary power sources. LFP and LTO both could provide power to drive the vehicle, while the electricity generated…
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Process for Assessment and Mitigation of Early Wearout of Life-Limited Microcircuits

APMC Avionics Process Management
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP6338A
  • Current
Published 2019-02-08 by SAE International in United States

This document is intended for use by designers, reliability engineers, and others associated with the design, production, and support of electronic sub-assemblies, assemblies, and equipment used in AADHP applications to conduct lifetime assessments of microcircuits with the potential for early wearout; and to implement mitigations when required; and by the users of the AADHP equipment to assess those designs and mitigations.

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New Approaches to Lube Oil Consumption Measurement Based on the Tracer Method

Graz University of Technology-Michael Schneider, Andreas Wimmer
JR-AquaConSol GmbH-Albrecht Leis
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
In the research and development of internal combustion engines, there are several drivers for developing an accurate online lube oil consumption (LOC) measurement system. Lube oil consumption is considered to be a root cause of hydrocarbon and particle emissions and lubricating oil autoignition. It also negatively influences the life cycle cost for engine operators. Highly accurate measurement of lube oil consumption must be possible before it can be reduced - or rather optimized - to levels stakeholders will require in the future. State-of-the-art methods such as gravimetric and volumetric measurements are not fully satisfactory for several reasons. Generally, offline LOC measurement is no longer suitable for fast and accurate measuring cycles, oil condition monitoring and wear monitoring. At present, tracer methods are considered to be the most promising approach. However, current tracer methods have their downsides as well. This paper will first discuss the advances, optimizations and remaining challenges of state-of-the-art tracer methods. Next, it will examine a novel approach that uses a newly developed tracer and measurement setup based on the stable isotope deuterium.…
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Landing Gear Shock Strut Bearing Selection

A-5B Gears, Struts and Couplings Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5883A
  • Current
Published 2018-10-16 by SAE International in United States
This document defines the criteria used for the selection of landing gear shock strut upper and lower bearings (see Figure 1).
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Bearing Life Evaluation for Automotive Wheel Bearings Using Design of Experiments

Iljin Global-Seungpyo Lee
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
Automotive wheel bearings have primary functions of translating the rotating motion of the wheels into linear vehicle motion while bearing the vehicle weight. Bearing life is affected by many parameters such as bearing geometry, vehicle and bearing technical specifications, driving conditions, lubrication conditions, material properties, and so on. In this paper, both the basic bearing rating life and modified bearing rating life were evaluated using design of experiments. Bearing lives were calculated by the international standard, and the factors affecting bearing life were investigated. Sequential experimental designs were applied. First, screening experiments were performed to analyze the factors affecting bearing life. Next, confirmation experiments were carried out to determine accurate effects of the selected factors from the screening experiments. As a result, contact angle and curvature of inner ring were significant at a 95% of significance level.
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Life cycle assessment of aluminum in recycling end of life vehicles

Federal Center of Technological Education of Minas Gerais (C-Thiago Marandola Lemos, Daniel Enrique Castro
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-36-0067
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
The survival of humanity in the upcoming decades will depend on the sustainability of the consumed products. There is a global effort to develop solutions to reduce environmental and energy impacts with the production of these products. This paper presents a careful analysis of automotive recycling and the role of aluminum in the life cycle of these vehicles. It is known that the number of vehicles is getting close to 1 billion units while the number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) has also been increasing dramatically throughout the entire planet. The average car has between 30 to 150 kg of aluminum, there is an increasing trend in this amount in exchange of a reduced final weight of the vehicle. Aluminum can be recycled repeatedly without losing its physical-chemical properties. There are two ways of obtaining the metal; one is by the direct extraction of natural resources through the mining of bauxite and the second through its recycling. The two processes are analyzed through existing Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in the literature. In an unprecedented way, the…
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Landing Gear System Development Plan

A-5 Aerospace Landing Gear Systems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP1598B
  • Current
Published 2018-09-02 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is intended to document the process of landing gear system development. This document includes landing gear system development plans for commercial, military, fixed wing and rotary wing air vehicles.
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Aircraft Tire Wear Profile Development and Execution for Laboratory Testing

A-5C Aircraft Tires Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5797A
  • Current
Published 2018-08-06 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes the current process for performing comparative wear testing on aircraft tires in a laboratory environment. This technique is applicable to both radial and bias tires, and is pertinent for all aircraft tire sizes. This AIR describes a technique based upon “wear” energy. In this technique, side wear energy and drag wear energy are computed as the tire is run through a prescribed test program. The specifics that drive the test setup conditions are discussed in Sections 4 through 7. In general, the technique follows this process: A test profile is developed from measured mechanical property data of the tires under study. Each tire is repeatedly run to the test profile until it is worn to the maximum wear limit (MWL). Several tires, typically 5 to 10, of each tire design are tested. Wear energy is computed for each test cycle and then summed to determine total absorbed wear energy. An index is calculated for each tire design. This is accomplished by dividing the total linear inches of wear…
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Life Cycle Analysis Comparison of Electric and Internal Combustion Engine Based Mobility

Independent Scientist-Alberto Boretti
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States
Policy makers, especially in the European Union, are pushing towards an early transition to electric mobility, with the internal combustion engine supposed to be phased out by 2030. With a world population projected to exceed 10 billion peoples by 2050, the electric car mobility still lacks the significant development needed to become a real alternative to the internal combustion engine based mobility. Resources availability, and environmental, energetic and economic downfalls, are currently largely underrated or simply unassessed. It is unclear how many will be able to afford to purchase and recharge an electric vehicle in this new world.
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