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LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF A PASSENGER VEHICLE TO ANALYSE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS USING CRADLE TO GRAVE APPROACH

Mahindra Research Valley-Rahul Lalwani, Saravanan N, Arunmozhi veeraputhiran, ILAVARASI D
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2581
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
OBJECTIVE: Climate change is primary driver in the current discussions on CO2 reduction in the automotive industry. Current Type approval emissions tests (BS III, BS IV) covers only tailpipe emissions, however the emissions produced in upstream and downstream processes (e.g. Raw material sourcing, manufacturing, transportation, vehicle usage, recycle phases) are not considered in the evaluation. The objective of this project is to assess the environmental impact of the product considering all stages of the life cycle, understand the real opportunities to reduce environmental impact across the product life cycle. METHODOLOGY: As a part of environmental sustainability journey in business value chain, Life-cycle assessment (LCA) technique helps to understand the environmental impact categories. To measure overall impact, a cradle to grave approach helps to assess entire life cycle impact throughout various stages. LCA is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair & maintenance, disposal or recycling. A study was conducted on a passenger vehicle for life cycle…
 

Environmental Analysis Based on Life Cycle Assessment: An Empirical Investigation on the Conventional and Hybrid Powertrain

University Of Rome, Tor Vergata-Gino Bella
University of Naples, Parthenope-Antonio Forcina
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0245
To be published on 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
The Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment based on Life Cycle Thinking is today considered as a crucial paradigm with multiple levels of analysis, including the economic, social and environmental aspects. The purpose of the present research is to carry out an accurate and extensive analysis to compare the environmental impact between two different powertrains: conventional gasoline and hybrid vehicle. Results were achieved through the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology according to the ISO 14040/44 (ISO 2006a:14040, ISO 2006:14044). We considered two different powertrain scenarios maintaining the same vehicle chassis. The LCA results included resources and energy consumption and pollutant emission of each process. The inventory collects the mass and energy input and output data for a product system and translate them in order to quantify their (real and potential) environmental effects. The considerate analysis evaluates the impact of the powertrain production, the vehicle use phase, and powertrain end of life scenarios. The LCA approach also demanded a special attention for the inventory of the powertrain construction and use phase, requiring an accurate literature search. A large…
 
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Life Cycle Analysis to Estimate the CO2-Equivalent Emissions from MAC Operation

Interior Climate Control Vehicle OEM Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2766_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-06 by SAE International in United States

This recommended best practice outlines a method for estimating CO2-equivalent emissions using life cycle analysis.

 

Effect of High RON Fuels on Engine Thermal Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

ExxonMobil Fuels and Lubricants Co.-Abdelhadi Sahnoune
ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Co.-Bryan Chapman, Dedric Joseph, Nagore Sabio, Jeffrey Farenback-Brateman, Christopher Goheen
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Historically, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for vehicles have focused on tailpipe emissions. However, sound environmental policy requires a more holistic well-to-wheels (WTW) assessment that includes both production of the fuel and its use in the vehicle. The present research explores the net change in WTW GHG emissions associated with moving from regular octane (RO) to high octane (HO) gasoline. It considers both potential increases in refinery emissions from producing HO fuel and potential reductions in vehicle emissions through the use of fuel-efficient engines optimized for such fuel. Three refinery configurations of varying complexity and reforming capacity were studied. A set of simulations covering different levels of HO gasoline production were run for each refinery configuration. Two engine designs were considered: one which could take little advantage of higher octane fuel to increase efficiency, and one which could be adjusted further to take advantage of the higher octane. WTW GHG emissions were analyzed within a life cycle analysis framework, where the upstream emissions of raw material and utility inputs to the refinery were added to…
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Analytical Estimation of Clutch Life for Manual Transmission

Tata Motors, Ltd.-Anurag Mishra, Damodar Chollangi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The clutch is the connecting link between engine and the power train. It connects and disconnects the engine to the gearbox as per the wish of the driver. Clutch has a friction disc which acts like a fuse wire which wears in the process of the connection. This paper tries to calculate the clutch life analytically (In terms of Kms. run by vehicle), of automotive vehicles having manual transmission. As the clutch engages and disengages the engine to the gearbox, during this time due to slippage, energy is dissipated which results in the wear of the clutch disc. It calculates life based on the volumetric wear of the clutch disc and wear allowance available. The work done by other people in this domain include the empirical estimation of clutch life based on the past data, effect of the surface topography on the friction characteristics of the wet clutches, modeling of clutch housing and facing temperature for the estimation of the clutch life of a manual transmission etc. The present work simplifies the estimation of clutch…
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Energy Management Strategy and Size Optimization of a LFP/LTO Hybrid Battery System for Electric Vehicle

Nanjing University of Science and Techno-Yang Ding
Southeast University-Guangmin Li, Weichao Zhuang, Guodong Yin, Yanjun Ren
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes a semi-active hybrid battery system (HBS), composed by lithium iron phosphate battery (LFP) and lithium titanate battery (LTO) for electric vehicle (EV) to reduce the life cycle cost of energy storage system. Firstly, the topology of this HBS is introduced. The high energy-density battery, LFP is adopted as the primary energy source, while the high power-density one, LTO is connected in parallel with a bidirectional DC-DC converter and used as secondary energy source to extend the lifetime of HBS by reducing the current stress of LFP. The dynamic model of this HBS is built, in which, the LFP and LTO are both modeled as second-order RC model. In addition, dynamic semi-empirical degradation model of the LFP battery is chosen to estimate the lifetime of HBS. Secondly, a fuzzy logic controller with 3 inputs and 1 output is proposed to decide the power split between the primary and secondary power sources. LFP and LTO both could provide power to drive the vehicle, while the electricity generated by regenerative braking is only stored in…
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Environmental Assessment of the End-of-Life Phase of Alternative and Conventional Propulsion Systems in the Context of Life Cycle Assessment

Audi AG-Stefan Dreyer, Ulrich Baretzky, Wolfgang Kotauschek, Florian Bach
TU Muenchen-Benedikt Stumper
Published 2019-02-18 by SAE International in United States
The number of vehicles being sold is steadily increasing, as well as the amount of processed resources. Moreover, alternative powertrain concepts open up a new field of materials such as rare-earth metals, lithium, and cobalt. This results in a growing importance and complexity of the vehicle end-of-life phase and thus demands for a more detailed environmental evaluation and an integration into life cycle assessment. Due to high recycling rates, established recycling routes, and a low environmental impact regarding the materials used for conventional propulsion systems, by now the recycling is mostly neglected within the life cycle assessment of vehicles. The introduced materials for alternative concepts challenge this method with new and complex processes, the lack of available recycling routes, selective recovery of only few materials, as well as the threat of landfill, an increased share of incineration, resource shortfalls, and resource exploitation. This study investigates the state of the art of recycling processes for drive components used within conventional and alternative concepts. Furthermore, a new methodical framework to evaluate the environmental impact of the end-of-life…
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Test Procedure for Internal Heat Exchangers of Mobile Air-Conditioning Systems with R-134a or R-1234yf Refrigerant

Interior Climate Control Vehicle OEM Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3094_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-15 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this SAE Standard is to define a common set of thermodynamic test conditions to evaluate internal heat exchangers for use with R-134a and R-1234yf refrigerants in mobile air-conditioning systems. This standard can be used to test actual vehicle IHX designs or standardized IHX samples, which can be used for comparison based on a common length and shape.
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Technical Information Report on Automotive Battery Recycling

Battery Standards Recycling Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2974_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-11 by SAE International in United States
This document will focus on the language used to describe batteries at the end of battery or vehicle life as batteries are transitioned to the recycler, dismantler, or other third party. This document also provides a compilation of current recycling technologies and flow sheets, and their application to different battery chemistries at the end of battery life. At the time of document authorship, the technical information cited is most applicable to Li-ion battery type rechargeable energy storage systems (RESS), but the language used is not to be limited by chemistry of the battery systems and is generally applicable to other RESS.
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Process for Assessment and Mitigation of Early Wearout of Life-Limited Microcircuits

APMC Avionics Process Management
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP6338A
  • Current
Published 2019-02-08 by SAE International in United States
This document is intended for use by designers, reliability engineers, and others associated with the design, production, and support of electronic sub-assemblies, assemblies, and equipment used in AADHP applications to conduct lifetime assessments of microcircuits with the potential for early wearout; and to implement mitigations when required; and by the users of the AADHP equipment to assess those designs and mitigations. This document focuses on the LLM wearout assessment process. It acknowledges that the AADHP system design process also includes related risk mitigation and management; however, this document includes only high-level reference and discussion of those topics, in order to show their relationship to the LLM assessment process.
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