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LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF A PASSENGER VEHICLE TO ANALYSE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS USING CRADLE TO GRAVE APPROACH

Mahindra Research Valley-Rahul Lalwani, Saravanan N, Arunmozhi Veeraputhiran, IlavarasIi D
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2581
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
OBJECTIVE: Climate change is primary driver in the current discussions on CO2 reduction in the automotive industry. Current Type approval emissions tests (BS III, BS IV) covers only tailpipe emissions, however the emissions produced in upstream and downstream processes (e.g. Raw material sourcing, manufacturing, transportation, vehicle usage, recycle phases) are not considered in the evaluation. The objective of this project is to assess the environmental impact of the product considering all stages of the life cycle, understand the real opportunities to reduce environmental impact across the product life cycle. METHODOLOGY: As a part of environmental sustainability journey in business value chain, Life-cycle assessment (LCA) technique helps to understand the environmental impact categories. To measure overall impact, a cradle to grave approach helps to assess entire life cycle impact throughout various stages. LCA is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair & maintenance, disposal or recycling. A study was conducted on a passenger vehicle for life cycle…
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Environmental Analysis Based on Life Cycle Assessment: An Empirical Investigation on the Conventional and Hybrid Powertrain

University of Naples, Parthenope-Antonio Forcina
University of Rome, Niccolò Cusano-Luca Silvestri, Gabriella Arcese
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
The Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCA) methodology is today considered as a crucial paradigm with multiple levels of analysis, including the economic, social and environmental aspects. In this scenario, the purpose of the present research is to carry out an accurate and extensive LCA based analysis to compare the environmental impact, between conventional gasoline and hybrid vehicle powertrains. Two different powertrain scenarios were considered maintaining the same vehicle chassis. The performed analysis concerned resources and energy consumption as well as pollutant emission of each process, evaluating the impact of powertrain production, the vehicle use phase, and powertrain end of life scenarios. A large set of indicators - including human toxicity, eutrophication, and acidification - was considered. The study indicates that the potential of electrified vehicles basically depends on efficient production and recycling of the battery. We found that the conventional powertrain determines a higher Global Warming Potential (GWP) than hybrid powertrain (by almost 30%). Conversely, the water-related impact is higher in hybrid powertrain, and this is associated to the extraction and processing of the metal…
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Overview of AS6500, Manufacturing Management Program

  • Professional Development
  • PD531906C
Published 2019-08-27

The lack of focus on manufacturing management has led to significant cost overruns, schedule delays, and quality problems. In response, the SAE G-23 Manufacturing Management Committee developed and published AS6500,  Manufacturing Management Program. The standard requires proven manufacturing management practices with the goal of delivering affordable and capable systems. It’s applicable to all phases of a system acquisition life cycle and may be specified in a contract on any program with manufacturing content.

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Life Cycle Analysis to Estimate the CO2-Equivalent Emissions from MAC Operation

Interior Climate Control Vehicle OEM Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2766_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-06 by SAE International in United States

This recommended best practice outlines a method for estimating CO2-equivalent emissions using life cycle analysis.

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Synchros, General Specification for

AE-7A Generators and Controls Motors and Magnetic Devices
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS20708C
  • Current
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
This specification relates to Synchros, 60 and 400 Hz. It is not complete in itself, but shall be used in conjunction with MIL-DTL-81963, in which the latter shall be recognized as forming an inherent part of this specification. This standard requires a Qualified Products List (see 6.4).
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Interface Standard, Airborne EO/IR Systems, Maintenance and Test

AS-1C Avionic Subsystems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS6165A
  • Current
Published 2019-05-14 by SAE International in United States
This standard defines the use of data interfaces between a host platform and an electro-optic/infrared (EO/IR) system for maintenance and test (M&T) purposes. In particular, this standard defines the use of the data interfaces in order to facilitate the: a confirmation of system performance and function; b external initiation of built-in-test (BIT) functions; c performance of other diagnostic tests of system health; d downloading M&T data; e uploading software changes. This standard does not cover mechanical or electrical interfaces, nor does it define the basic platform-to-sensor communication protocols and formats. Furthermore, this standard does not address software changes that are made by the manufacturer and not accessible at the sensor interfaces. Data protocols and formats are covered by AS6135. Electrical interfaces are covered by AS6129. This standard covers the use of the interfaces defined by AS6129 and AS6135 for the purposes described herein.
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Effect of High RON Fuels on Engine Thermal Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

ExxonMobil Fuels and Lubricants Co.-Abdelhadi Sahnoune
ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Co.-Bryan Chapman, Dedric Joseph, Nagore Sabio, Jeffrey Farenback-Brateman, Christopher Goheen
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Historically, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for vehicles have focused on tailpipe emissions. However, sound environmental policy requires a more holistic well-to-wheels (WTW) assessment that includes both production of the fuel and its use in the vehicle. The present research explores the net change in WTW GHG emissions associated with moving from regular octane (RO) to high octane (HO) gasoline. It considers both potential increases in refinery emissions from producing HO fuel and potential reductions in vehicle emissions through the use of fuel-efficient engines optimized for such fuel. Three refinery configurations of varying complexity and reforming capacity were studied. A set of simulations covering different levels of HO gasoline production were run for each refinery configuration. Two engine designs were considered: one which could take little advantage of higher octane fuel to increase efficiency, and one which could be adjusted further to take advantage of the higher octane. WTW GHG emissions were analyzed within a life cycle analysis framework, where the upstream emissions of raw material and utility inputs to the refinery were added to…
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Analytical Estimation of Clutch Life for Manual Transmission

Tata Motors, Ltd.-Anurag Mishra, Damodar Chollangi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The clutch is the connecting link between engine and the power train. It connects and disconnects the engine to the gearbox as per the wish of the driver. Clutch has a friction disc which acts like a fuse wire which wears in the process of the connection. This paper tries to calculate the clutch life analytically (In terms of Kms. run by vehicle), of automotive vehicles having manual transmission. As the clutch engages and disengages the engine to the gearbox, during this time due to slippage, energy is dissipated which results in the wear of the clutch disc. It calculates life based on the volumetric wear of the clutch disc and wear allowance available. The work done by other people in this domain include the empirical estimation of clutch life based on the past data, effect of the surface topography on the friction characteristics of the wet clutches, modeling of clutch housing and facing temperature for the estimation of the clutch life of a manual transmission etc. The present work simplifies the estimation of clutch…
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Energy Management Strategy and Size Optimization of a LFP/LTO Hybrid Battery System for Electric Vehicle

Nanjing University of Science and Techno-Yang Ding
Southeast University-Guangmin Li, Weichao Zhuang, Guodong Yin, Yanjun Ren
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes a semi-active hybrid battery system (HBS), composed by lithium iron phosphate battery (LFP) and lithium titanate battery (LTO) for electric vehicle (EV) to reduce the life cycle cost of energy storage system. Firstly, the topology of this HBS is introduced. The high energy-density battery, LFP is adopted as the primary energy source, while the high power-density one, LTO is connected in parallel with a bidirectional DC-DC converter and used as secondary energy source to extend the lifetime of HBS by reducing the current stress of LFP. The dynamic model of this HBS is built, in which, the LFP and LTO are both modeled as second-order RC model. In addition, dynamic semi-empirical degradation model of the LFP battery is chosen to estimate the lifetime of HBS. Secondly, a fuzzy logic controller with 3 inputs and 1 output is proposed to decide the power split between the primary and secondary power sources. LFP and LTO both could provide power to drive the vehicle, while the electricity generated by regenerative braking is only stored in…
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Environmental Assessment of the End-of-Life Phase of Alternative and Conventional Propulsion Systems in the Context of Life Cycle Assessment

Audi AG-Stefan Dreyer, Ulrich Baretzky, Wolfgang Kotauschek, Florian Bach
TU Muenchen-Benedikt Stumper
Published 2019-02-18 by SAE International in United States
The number of vehicles being sold is steadily increasing, as well as the amount of processed resources. Moreover, alternative powertrain concepts open up a new field of materials such as rare-earth metals, lithium, and cobalt. This results in a growing importance and complexity of the vehicle end-of-life phase and thus demands for a more detailed environmental evaluation and an integration into life cycle assessment. Due to high recycling rates, established recycling routes, and a low environmental impact regarding the materials used for conventional propulsion systems, by now the recycling is mostly neglected within the life cycle assessment of vehicles. The introduced materials for alternative concepts challenge this method with new and complex processes, the lack of available recycling routes, selective recovery of only few materials, as well as the threat of landfill, an increased share of incineration, resource shortfalls, and resource exploitation. This study investigates the state of the art of recycling processes for drive components used within conventional and alternative concepts. Furthermore, a new methodical framework to evaluate the environmental impact of the end-of-life…
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