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An Investigation on the Regeneration of Lean NOx Trap Using Dimethyl ether

University of Windsor-Li Liang, Hua Zhu, Navjot Singh Sandhu, Divyanshu Purohit, Xiao Yu, Ming Zheng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1354
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The ever-stringent emission regulations are a major challenge for the diesel fueled automotive industry. The application of alternative fuels and advanced after-treatment technologies is considered as a promising way to reduce exhaust emission from compression ignition (CI) engines. Using dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative fuel has been extensively studied by many researchers and automotive manufactures since DME has demonstrated enormous potential in terms of emission reduction, such as low NOx and CO emissions, and soot and sulfur free combustion. However, the effects of employing DME in a lean NOx trap (LNT) based after-treatment system have not been fully investigated yet. In this work, an investigation of long breathing LNT with DME as a reductant is conducted on a heated after-treatment flow bench under simulated engine exhaust like conditions to gain an insight into using DME as a reductant for the LNT. Furthermore, the LNT regeneration performance with DME is compared with ethanol, n-butanol and diesel. The LNT regeneration performance is analysed in terms of NOx conversion and by-product formation (e.g. NH3 & N2O) for…
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Calibration and parametric investigations on Lean NOx Trap and Particulate Filter models for a light-duty diesel engine

IIT Madras-A Ramesh, Anand Krishnasamy
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-S. Suresh Bagavathy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0657
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To comply with the stringent future emission mandates of light duty diesel engines, it is essential to deploy a suitable combination of emission control devices like diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF) and DeNOx converter (LNT or SCR). Arriving at an optimum size and layout of these emission control devices for a particular engine through experiments is both time and cost intensive. Thus, it becomes important to develop suitable well-tuned simulation models that can be helpful to optimize individual emission control devices as well as arrive at an optimal layout for achieving higher conversion efficiency at minimal cost. Towards this objective, the present work intends to develop a one dimensional Exhaust After Treatment Devices (EATD) model using a commercial code. The model parameters are fine-tuned based on experimental data. The EATD model is then validated with experiments data that are not used for tuning the model. Subsequently, the model was used for studying the effects of geometrical parameters of the after-treatment devices like diameter and length on the conversion efficiency and the pressure…
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First-Principles Research on Adsorption of NOx on Pt cluster and BaO cluster supported by γ-Al2O3 (110) surface

Tianjin University-Shilong Li, Yanke Zhang, Jin zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0357
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lean NOx trap (LNT) is a great potential NOx abatement method for lean-burn gasoline engines out of the consideration of exhaust aftertreatment cost and installation space. NOx firstly is adsorbed on storage sites during the lean-burn period, then reduced to N2 under catalysis of the catalyst sites in the rich-burn phase. There must be a spillover of NOx species between both two types of sites. For a better understanding of this spillover process of NOx species between Pt (as the catalytic center) and BaO sites (as storage components in commercial catalyst), this work focused on the vital first step of spillover, the adsorption of NOx on clean substrate surface (γ-Al2O3(110) surface) and Ba\Pt cluster supported by the surface. Based on first principles software VASP (Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package), the most stable adsorption structures of NO with Pt3 clusters and (BaO)3 clusters on carrier γ-Al2O3(110) surface were confirmed and the adsorption energy of these structures were compared. Meanwhile electronic structure analysis of these adsorption systems was investigated by analysis of DOS (density of state), Bader charge,…
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Development of Diesel Particulate NOx Reduction DPNR System for Simultaneous Reduction of PM and NOx in Diesel Engines

ARAI Academy-E. Parthiban, Aatmesh Jain, Kamalkishore Chhaganlal Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2554
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The Diesel Particulate NOx Reduction (DPNR) system is used for simultaneous reduction of PM and NOx in diesel engine. DPF is used to trap particulate matter in diesel engines. NOx absorber technology removes NOx in a lean (i.e. oxygen rich) exhaust environment for both diesel and gasoline lean-burn GDI engines. The NOx storage and reduction catalyst is uniformly coated on the wall surface and in the fine pores of a highly porous filter substrate. Combination of these two components in the DPNR results in a compact size of the system. The base diesel engine model validated with pressure crank angle diagram and performance parameters such as Indicated mean effective pressure. This base engine’s exhaust emission is given as an input to the DPNR system. The surface reaction is connected to the DPF through chemcon template. The surface reaction is NOx storage and reduction chemical kinetics like Lean NOx Trap. The modelling of DPNR and Base engine is done using GT-SUITE. This paper describes about the 1D simulation of DPNR system with base diesel engine model…
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Diesel Vehicle with Ultra-Low NOx Emissions on the Road

AECC-Joachim Demuynck, Cecile Favre, Dirk Bosteels
IAV-Frank Bunar, Joachim Spitta, Andreas Kuhrt
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The gap between diesel vehicle emissions in laboratory tests compared to those in use has been addressed by the introduction of the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) requirements. Modern diesel technology now demonstrates low emissions on the road over a wide range of driving conditions. This paper further demonstrates that consistent low nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particle number (PN) emissions can be achieved over a wide range of driving conditions beyond Euro 6d RDE requirements, with emission control technologies combined in an integrated approach.An LNT (Lean NOx Trap) is combined with a dual-dosing SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system. Low-load NOx control is achieved by the LNT in combination with a close-coupled SCR coated on the Diesel Particulate Filter (SDPF). High load conditions, on the other hand, are covered by the underfloor SCR system with a second AdBlue® injector. A P0 48V mild-hybrid system is also available to support the NOx control and to ensure good driving performance and fuel efficiency. An advanced control strategy is implemented to ensure optimal interaction between all emission control functionalities. The…
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An Investigation on the Regeneration of Lean NOx Trap Using Ethanol and n-Butanol

University of Windsor-Divyanshu Purohit, Shouvik Dev, Qingyuan Tan, Navjot Singh Sandhu, Linyan Wang, Graham Reader, Ming Zheng
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in lean burn and diesel fueled Compression Ignition (CI) engines is one of the major challenges faced by automotive manufacturers. Lean NOx Trap (LNT) and urea-based Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) exhaust after-treatment systems are well established technologies to reduce NOx emissions. However, each of these technologies has associated advantages and disadvantages for use over a wide range of engine operating conditions. In order to meet future ultra-low NOx emission norms, the use of both alternative fuels and advanced after-treatment technology may be required. The use of an alcohol fuel such as n-butanol or ethanol in a CI engine can reduce the engine-out NOx and soot emissions. In CI engines using LNTs for NOx reduction, the fuel such as diesel is utilized as a reductant for LNT regeneration. In the present work, a detailed evaluation of the performance of long breathing LNT (requiring fewer regenerations than conventional LNT) is carried out using ethanol and n-butanol as the reductants and are compared with diesel as the reductant. For this purpose, a long…
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Experimental Analysis of LNT/DPF after Treatment System on a Passenger Car for Indian Road Condition

Hyundai Motor India Engineering PVT LTD-Rahul Kumar Tiwari, Balamuralitharan Balagangatharan
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The Lean NOx Trap (LNT) / Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system has been developed as one of key technologies to comply with BS VI regulations. For DPF system it is necessary to prevent excessive soot accumulation and high temperature which can lead to eventual DPF failure. For LNT system it is necessary to maintain the NOx conversion efficiency to meet the required BS VI norms. Considering the Indian road condition a methodology was developed to evaluate the soot, de-NOx and de-SOx regeneration for development of optimized LNT/DPF system.The study was carried on >1500cc, LNT/DPF equipped Euro VI diesel passenger car to evaluate the effect of regeneration characteristics in real Indian driving condition. The study was carried on different conditions such as traffic [urban mode and rural mode] and ambient condition like temperature and weather on the regeneration behavior of LNT/DPF. A concurrent study was conducted on the regeneration frequency, timing, temperature, success rate on the above mentioned methods which affects the life of the post-treatment system. The paper shows the correlation between the active &…
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Parametric Investigations on the Performance of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in a Light Duty Diesel Engine - An Experimental and Modelling Study

Indian Institute of Technology-A Ramesh
Indian Institute of Technology - Madras-Anand Krishnasamy
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
In order to comply with the stringent future emission mandates of automotive diesel engines it is essential to deploy a suitable combination of after treatment devices like diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF) and DeNox converter (Lean NOx Trap (LNT) or Selective Catalytic reduction (SCR) system). Since arriving at a suitable strategy through experiments will involve deploying a lot of resources, development of well-tuned simulation models that can reduce time and cost is important. In the first phase of this study experiments were conducted on a single cylinder light duty diesel engine fitted with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) at thirteen steady state mode points identified in the NEDC (New European Driving cycle) cycle. Inlet and exit pressures and temperatures, exhaust emission concentrations and catalyst bed temperature were measured. A one dimensional simulation model was developed in the commercial software AVL BOOST. Eight of the experimental data sets from the 13 modes were taken for fine tuning the chemical kinetic rate parameters and friction factor of the model. The prediction of the model…
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Catalyst-Based BS VI Stage 2 Emission Control Solutions for Light Duty Diesel

Johnson Matthey-Satoshi Sumiya, Abhishek Kumar, James Wylie, David Bergeal
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Various types of after-treatment system for BS VI Stage 1 are being assessed for the Light Duty Diesel (LDD) segment. For BS VI Stage 2, Real Driving Emission (RDE) assessment will be newly introduced, which will require more robustness in emission control system capability. Although the detailed requirements for India BS VI stage 2 are still being discussed, a reasonable assumption is that similar systems to those being developed for Euro 6d, will work for India BS VI.This paper describes typical system designs for Euro 6d and also reveals newly developed SCRF® (Selective Catalytic Reduction Filter) based systems, which demonstrate excellent RDE emissions. In addition, newly developed Lean NOx Trap (NSC) coatings, which focus on low temperature NOx control used with SCRF® (NSC + SCRF®) also show excellent emission control capability as demonstrated in this case on the ARTEMIS Cycle. These systems have potential as promising LDD solutions for India BS VI stage 2.
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Supervisory Controller for a Light Duty Diesel Engine with an LNT-SCR After-Treatment System

Chalmers University of Technology-Tomas McKelvey
Volvo Car Corp.-Dhinesh Velmurugan, Daniel Lundberg
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Look ahead information can be used to improve the powertrain’s fuel consumption while efficiently controlling exhaust emissions. A passenger car propelled by a Euro 6d capable diesel engine is studied.In the conventional approach, the diesel powertrain subsystem control is rule based. It uses no information of future load requests but is operated with the objective of low engine out exhaust emission species until the Exhaust After-Treatment System (EATS) light off has occurred, even if fuel economy is compromised greatly. Upon EATS light off, the engine is operated more fuel efficiently since the EATS system is able to treat emissions effectively.This paper presents a supervisory control structure with the intended purpose to operate the complete powertrain using a minimum of fuel while improving the robustness of exhaust emissions. A supervisory controller assisted by look ahead information, and using a supervisory control interface that works in concert with low level local controllers, can make subsystems operate near optimal. The look ahead parametrized supervisory control calculates the set-points for the subsystems: Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), Lean NOx Trap…
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