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Modeling and Validation of Lithium-Ion Polymer SLI Battery

Wayne State University-Yiqun Liu, Y. Gene Liao, Ming-Chia Lai
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Lead-acid batteries have dominated the automotive conventional electric system, particularly in the functions of starting (S), lighting (L) and ignition (I) for decades. However, the low energy-to-weight ratio and the low energy-to-volume ratio makes the lead-acid SLI battery relatively heavy, large, and shallow Depth of Discharge (DOD). This could be improved by replacing the lead-acid battery by the lithium-ion polymer battery. The lithium-ion polymer battery can provide the same power with lightweight, compact volume, and deep DOD for engine idle elimination using start-stop function that is a basic feature in electric-drive vehicles. This paper presents the modeling and validation of a lithium-ion battery for SLI application. A lithium-metal-oxide based cell with 3.6 nominal voltage and 20Ah capacity is used in the study. A simulation model of lithium-ion polymer battery pack (14.4V, 80Ah) with battery management system is built in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The experimental tests are performed in battery module-level, a four series-connected cells (14.4V, 20Ah), under various charging and discharging currents in a temperature chamber. The experimental data is used to calibrate the model…
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Technical Information Report on Automotive Battery Recycling

Battery Standards Recycling Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2974_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-11 by SAE International in United States
This document will focus on the language used to describe batteries at the end of battery or vehicle life as batteries are transitioned to the recycler, dismantler, or other third party. This document also provides a compilation of current recycling technologies and flow sheets, and their application to different battery chemistries at the end of battery life. At the time of document authorship, the technical information cited is most applicable to Li-ion battery type rechargeable energy storage systems (RESS), but the language used is not to be limited by chemistry of the battery systems and is generally applicable to other RESS.
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Heavy Duty Truck and Bus Electrical Circuit Performance Requirement for 12/24-Volt Electric Starter Motors

Truck and Bus Electrical Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3053_201901
  • Current
Published 2019-01-31 by SAE International in United States
The scope of this SAE Recommended Practice is to describe a design standard to define the maximum recommended voltage drop for starting motor main circuits, as well as control system circuits, for 12- through 24-V starter systems.
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Industry Review of xEV Battery Size Standards

Battery Cell Size Standardization Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3124_201806
  • Current
Published 2018-06-12 by SAE International in United States
This Technical Information Report (TIR) will review the global industry battery size standards for xEV vehicles to provide guidance on available cell sizes for engineers developing battery powered vehicles. The TIR will include a review of the sizes and standards that are currently being developed or used for cylindrical cells, pouch (or polymer) cells, and for prismatic can cells. The lithium-ion cell will be the focus of this survey, but module and pack level size standards, where available, will also be included.
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Comprehensive Life Test for 12 V Automotive Storage Batteries

Starter Battery Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2801_201805
  • Current
Published 2018-05-07 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard applies to 12 V, flooded and absorptive glass mat lead acid automotive storage batteries of 200 minutes or less reserve capacity and cold crank capacity greater than 200 amperes. This life test is considered to be comprehensive in terms of battery manufacturing technology; applicable to lead-acid batteries containing wrought or cast positive grid manufacturing technology and providing a reasonable correlation for hot climate applications. This document is intended as a guide toward standard practice, but may be subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances.
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Development of Battery Management System for Hybrid Electric Two Wheeler

A R A I-Kiran Wani, Sanjay A Patil
Automotive Research Association of India-Manish Ingale
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The use of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) will become imperative to meet the emission challenges. HEV have two power sources-fossil fuels driven I.C. Engine and the battery based drive. Battery technologies have seen a tremendous development, and therefore HEV’s have been benefited. Even as the battery capacities have improved, maintaining and monitoring their health has been a challenge. This research paper uses open-source platform to build a BMS. The flexibility in the implementation of the system has helped in the rapid prototyping of the system. The BMS system was evaluated on a scaled-down electric toy car for its performance and sustainability. The BMS was evaluated for reverse polarity, protection against overcharge, short-circuit, deep discharge and overload on lead acid battery. It also includes temperature monitoring of the batteries. This proposed system is evaluated on the in-house HEV two-wheeler. The initial results are promising. A dedicated android smartphone application is developed for BMS which continuously monitors battery voltage, current, battery temperature, battery state of charge (SOC) and battery health. The system measures current, voltage and temperature…
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Modularized Simulation Tool to Evaluate Battery Solutions for 12 V Advanced Start Stop Vehicles

Johnson Controls-Zhenli Zhang
Johnson Controls International-Thomas Watson
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The 12 V advanced start stop systems can offer 5-8% fuel economy improvement over a conventional vehicle. Although the fuel economy is not as high as those of mild to full hybrids, its low implementation cost makes it an attractive electrification solutions for vehicles. As a result, the 12 V advanced start stop technology has been evolving fast in recent years.On one hand, battery suppliers are offering a variety of energy storage solutions such as stand-alone lead acid, stand-alone LFP/Graphite, dual batteries of lead acid parallel with NMC/LTO, LMO/LTO, NMC/Graphite, and capacitors, etc. For dual battery solutions, the architecture also varies from passive parallel connection to active switching. On the other hand, OEM are considering to leverage a lot more use out of traditional 12 V SLI (start, light, and ignition) for functions such as power steering, air conditioning, heater, etc. Depending on battery architecture and vehicle functioning design, the energy management strategy can easily become complicated.Since many variables are involved in the design of 12 V advanced start stop systems, an integrated simulation tool with a couple of…
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Life Test for Heavy-Duty Storage Batteries (Lead Acid Type only)

Starter Battery Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2185_201801
  • Current
Published 2018-01-24 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard applies to lead-acid 12 V heavy-duty storage batteries as described in SAE J537 and SAE J930 for uses in starting, lighting and ignition (SLI) applications on motor vehicles and/or off-road machines. These applications have some of the following characteristics: a High levels of power are required to start the vehicle’s internal combustion engine. The need to supply this power limits the maximum depth of discharge to a fraction of the total capacity of the battery. The battery must be maintained at a charge level sufficient to perform this primary function by vehicle’s voltage-regulated charging system. b The vehicle’s engine powers a voltage regulated charging system that limits the charging voltage when spinning at sufficient speed and when total loads do not exceed its output limits. c The battery is subject to deeper discharging than a typical automotive application as a result of the following conditions: High daily hours of use High numbers of starts per day Electrical loads often exceeding charging system output (at idle) Batteries will be classified into two types…
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2018 Porsche Cayenne rides high on air suspension, lighter unibody

Automotive Engineering: January 2018

Dan Carney
  • Magazine Article
  • 18AUTP01_15
Published 2018-01-01 by SAE International in United States

Porsche's pioneering Cayenne crossover SUV enters its third generation in 2018 following six-year runs of both the first- and second-generation models. In its latest iteration, new technology permits the Cayenne to get ever closer to reconciling the conflicting priorities of the brand's sports-car heritage and its SUV off-road expectations.

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Who wants Afreecar?

Automotive Engineering: January 2018

Lindsay Brooke
  • Magazine Article
  • 18AUTP01_03
Published 2018-01-01 by SAE International in United States

One billion people globally survive on less than $2/day but desperately need personal mobility and electric power. One of the auto industry's most creative minds offers what could be a unique and sustainable solution.

Game-changing ideas come to engineers in countless places and circumstances. For Dr. Chris Borroni-Bird, it was in a tiny village in Mali. The year was 2009, and Dr. Borroni- Bird, then director of GM's EN-V program for the 2010 Shanghai World Expo, was on a typical vacation: working on clean-power and clean-cooking initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa.

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