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A Development of Battery Aging Prediction Model Based on Actual Vechile Driving Pattern

Hyundai & Kia Corp.-YOUNGCHUL LIM
ThermoAnalytics Inc-Zachary Edel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1059
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The battery of the real vehicle accelerates the battery aging due to the dark current of the black box, the high ambient temperature, the shortage of the battery charge rate and the customer complaints such as intermittent occurrence of ISG intermittently entering the vehicle and bad start. In addition, the existing battery durability verification requires a long period of more than 4 months through the deep discharge and it has not secured the advance verification technology through battery durability verification and battery aging simulation that reflect the various actual vehicle driving conditions of the customer. In order to improve this, it is aimed to develop a battery aging prediction model that reflects various operating conditions of actual vehicle driving pattern based customer. The NREL battery lifetime model has been adapted for AGM lead-acid batteries using experimental test data. Battery stress statistics are created with a battery thermal/electric simulation and then applied to the aging model to predict resistance growth and capacity fade over the expected life of the battery. The thermal/electric simulations are performed incrementally,…
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Development of A Computational Algorithm for Estimation of Lead Acid Battery Life

FCA US LLC-Alaa El-Sharkawy, Ye Chan Park
Optumatics LLC-karim mohamed, Amr Sami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1391
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The performance and durability of the lead acid battery is highly dependent on the internal battery temperature. The changes in internal battery temperatures are caused by several factors including internal heat generation and external heat transfer from the vehicle under-hood. Internal heat generation depends on the battery charging strategy and electric loading. External heat transfer effects are caused by customer duty cycle, and heat transfer, vehicle under-hood components and under-hood ambient air. During soak conditions, the ambient temperature can have significant effect on battery temperature after a long drive for example. Therefore, the temperature rise in a lead-acid battery must be controlled to improve its performance and durability. In this paper a thermal model for Lead-Acid battery is developed which integrates both internal and external factors along with customer duty cycle to predict battery temperature at various driving conditions. The model is fully integrated into vehicle environment. Therefore, all interactions with under-hood components and air flow are considered. Based on estimated battery temperature, a battery thermal degradation model is applied to predict battery life for…
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Recommended Practice for Performance Rating of Electric Vehicle Battery Modules

Battery Standards Testing Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1798_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-13 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice provides for common test and verification methods to determine Electric Vehicle battery module performance. The document creates the necessary performance standards to determine (a) what the basic performance of EV battery modules is; and (b) whether battery modules meet minimum performance specification established by vehicle manufacturers or other purchasers. Specific values for these minimum performance specifications are not a part of this document.
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Effect of Inventory Storage on Automotive Flooded Lead-Acid Batteries

American Automobile Association Inc.-Matthew Garrett Lum
University of Central Florida-Matthew W. Logan, Arturo D. Annese, Fernando J. Uribe-Romo
Published 2019-09-20 by SAE International in United States
The battery is a central part of the vehicle’s electrical system and has to undergo cycling in a wide variety of conditions while providing an acceptable service life. Within a typical distribution chain, automotive lead-acid batteries can sit in storage for months before delivery to the consumer. During storage, batteries are subjected to a wide variety of temperature profiles depending on facility-specific characteristics. Additionally, batteries typically do not receive any type of maintenance charge before delivery. Effects of storage time, temperature, and maintenance charging are explored. Flooded lead-acid batteries were examined immediately after storage and after installation in vehicles subjected to normal drive patterns. While phase composition is a major consideration, additional differences in positive active material (PAM) were observed with respect to storage parameters. Batteries stored in a hot environment and kept at constant float voltage for a significant duration exhibited favorable PAM characteristics relative to other storage environments. In all cases, batteries kept on float charge throughout storage exhibited favorable PAM characteristics relative to batteries stored under equivalent conditions on open-circuit charge.
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Q&A

Automotive Engineering: September 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP09_15
Published 2019-09-01 by SAE International in United States

Few battery experts in the mobility industry can match the engineer/entrepreneur spirit of Subash Dhar. In a career spanning nearly 40 years, Dhar is co-inventor of over 45 patents and patent applications in the field of advanced batteries and fuel cell technologies. He led the team that developed and commercialized the nickel-metal hydride technology used in the Toyota Prius and has served in leadership positions at XALT Energy, Ener-1, EnerDel, and Ovonic.

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Hybrid and EV First and Second Responder Recommended Practice

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2990_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-29 by SAE International in United States
xEVs involved in incidents present unique hazards associated with the high voltage system (including the battery system). These hazards can be grouped into three categories: chemical, electrical, and thermal. The potential consequences can vary depending on the size, configuration, and specific battery chemistry. Other incidents may arise from secondary events such as garage fires and floods. These types of incidents are also considered in the recommended practice (RP). This RP aims to describe the potential consequences associated with hazards from xEVs and suggest common procedures to help protect emergency responders, tow and/or recovery, storage, repair, and salvage personnel after an incident has occurred with an electrified vehicle. Industry design standards and tools were studied and where appropriate, suggested for responsible organizations to implement. Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries used for vehicle propulsion power are the assumed battery system of this RP. This chemistry is the prevailing technology associated with high voltage vehicle electrification today and the foreseeable future. The hazards associated with Li-ion battery chemistries are addressed in this RP. Other chemistries and alternative propulsion systems…
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Modeling and Validation of Lithium-Ion Polymer SLI Battery

Wayne State University-Yiqun Liu, Y. Gene Liao, Ming-Chia Lai
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Lead-acid batteries have dominated the automotive conventional electric system, particularly in the functions of starting (S), lighting (L) and ignition (I) for decades. However, the low energy-to-weight ratio and the low energy-to-volume ratio makes the lead-acid SLI battery relatively heavy, large, and shallow Depth of Discharge (DOD). This could be improved by replacing the lead-acid battery by the lithium-ion polymer battery. The lithium-ion polymer battery can provide the same power with lightweight, compact volume, and deep DOD for engine idle elimination using start-stop function that is a basic feature in electric-drive vehicles. This paper presents the modeling and validation of a lithium-ion battery for SLI application. A lithium-metal-oxide based cell with 3.6 nominal voltage and 20Ah capacity is used in the study. A simulation model of lithium-ion polymer battery pack (14.4V, 80Ah) with battery management system is built in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The experimental tests are performed in battery module-level, a four series-connected cells (14.4V, 20Ah), under various charging and discharging currents in a temperature chamber. The experimental data is used to calibrate the model…
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Technical Information Report on Automotive Battery Recycling

Battery Standards Recycling Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2974_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-11 by SAE International in United States
This document will focus on the language used to describe batteries at the end of battery or vehicle life as batteries are transitioned to the recycler, dismantler, or other third party. This document also provides a compilation of current recycling technologies and flow sheets, and their application to different battery chemistries at the end of battery life. At the time of document authorship, the technical information cited is most applicable to Li-ion battery type rechargeable energy storage systems (RESS), but the language used is not to be limited by chemistry of the battery systems and is generally applicable to other RESS.
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Heavy Duty Truck and Bus Electrical Circuit Performance Requirement for 12/24-Volt Electric Starter Motors

Truck and Bus Electrical Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3053_201901
  • Current
Published 2019-01-31 by SAE International in United States
The scope of this SAE Recommended Practice is to describe a design standard to define the maximum recommended voltage drop for starting motor main circuits, as well as control system circuits, for 12- through 24-V starter systems.
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Industry Review of xEV Battery Size Standards

Battery Cell Size Standardization Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3124_201806
  • Current
Published 2018-06-12 by SAE International in United States
This Technical Information Report (TIR) will review the global industry battery size standards for xEV vehicles to provide guidance on available cell sizes for engineers developing battery powered vehicles. The TIR will include a review of the sizes and standards that are currently being developed or used for cylindrical cells, pouch (or polymer) cells, and for prismatic can cells. The lithium-ion cell will be the focus of this survey, but module and pack level size standards, where available, will also be included.
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