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Effect of Inventory Storage on Automotive Flooded Lead-Acid Batteries

American Automobile Association Inc.-Matthew Garrett Lum
University of Central Florida-Matthew W. Logan, Arturo D. Annese, Fernando J. Uribe-Romo
Published 2019-09-20 by SAE International in United States
The battery is a central part of the vehicle’s electrical system and has to undergo cycling in a wide variety of conditions while providing an acceptable service life. Within a typical distribution chain, automotive lead-acid batteries can sit in storage for months before delivery to the consumer. During storage, batteries are subjected to a wide variety of temperature profiles depending on facility-specific characteristics. Additionally, batteries typically do not receive any type of maintenance charge before delivery. Effects of storage time, temperature, and maintenance charging are explored. Flooded lead-acid batteries were examined immediately after storage and after installation in vehicles subjected to normal drive patterns. While phase composition is a major consideration, additional differences in positive active material (PAM) were observed with respect to storage parameters. Batteries stored in a hot environment and kept at constant float voltage for a significant duration exhibited favorable PAM characteristics relative to other storage environments. In all cases, batteries kept on float charge throughout storage exhibited favorable PAM characteristics relative to batteries stored under equivalent conditions on open-circuit charge.
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Q&A

Automotive Engineering: September 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP09_15
Published 2019-09-01 by SAE International in United States

Few battery experts in the mobility industry can match the engineer/entrepreneur spirit of Subash Dhar. In a career spanning nearly 40 years, Dhar is co-inventor of over 45 patents and patent applications in the field of advanced batteries and fuel cell technologies. He led the team that developed and commercialized the nickel-metal hydride technology used in the Toyota Prius and has served in leadership positions at XALT Energy, Ener-1, EnerDel, and Ovonic.

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Hybrid and EV First and Second Responder Recommended Practice

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2990_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-29 by SAE International in United States
xEVs involved in incidents present unique hazards associated with the high voltage system (including the battery system). These hazards can be grouped into three categories: chemical, electrical, and thermal. The potential consequences can vary depending on the size, configuration, and specific battery chemistry. Other incidents may arise from secondary events such as garage fires and floods. These types of incidents are also considered in the recommended practice (RP). This RP aims to describe the potential consequences associated with hazards from xEVs and suggest common procedures to help protect emergency responders, tow and/or recovery, storage, repair, and salvage personnel after an incident has occurred with an electrified vehicle. Industry design standards and tools were studied and where appropriate, suggested for responsible organizations to implement. Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries used for vehicle propulsion power are the assumed battery system of this RP. This chemistry is the prevailing technology associated with high voltage vehicle electrification today and the foreseeable future. The hazards associated with Li-ion battery chemistries are addressed in this RP. Other chemistries and alternative propulsion systems…
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Modeling and Validation of Lithium-Ion Polymer SLI Battery

Wayne State University-Yiqun Liu, Y. Gene Liao, Ming-Chia Lai
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Lead-acid batteries have dominated the automotive conventional electric system, particularly in the functions of starting (S), lighting (L) and ignition (I) for decades. However, the low energy-to-weight ratio and the low energy-to-volume ratio makes the lead-acid SLI battery relatively heavy, large, and shallow Depth of Discharge (DOD). This could be improved by replacing the lead-acid battery by the lithium-ion polymer battery. The lithium-ion polymer battery can provide the same power with lightweight, compact volume, and deep DOD for engine idle elimination using start-stop function that is a basic feature in electric-drive vehicles. This paper presents the modeling and validation of a lithium-ion battery for SLI application. A lithium-metal-oxide based cell with 3.6 nominal voltage and 20Ah capacity is used in the study. A simulation model of lithium-ion polymer battery pack (14.4V, 80Ah) with battery management system is built in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The experimental tests are performed in battery module-level, a four series-connected cells (14.4V, 20Ah), under various charging and discharging currents in a temperature chamber. The experimental data is used to calibrate the model…
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Technical Information Report on Automotive Battery Recycling

Battery Standards Recycling Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2974_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-11 by SAE International in United States
This document will focus on the language used to describe batteries at the end of battery or vehicle life as batteries are transitioned to the recycler, dismantler, or other third party. This document also provides a compilation of current recycling technologies and flow sheets, and their application to different battery chemistries at the end of battery life. At the time of document authorship, the technical information cited is most applicable to Li-ion battery type rechargeable energy storage systems (RESS), but the language used is not to be limited by chemistry of the battery systems and is generally applicable to other RESS.
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Heavy Duty Truck and Bus Electrical Circuit Performance Requirement for 12/24-Volt Electric Starter Motors

Truck and Bus Electrical Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3053_201901
  • Current
Published 2019-01-31 by SAE International in United States
The scope of this SAE Recommended Practice is to describe a design standard to define the maximum recommended voltage drop for starting motor main circuits, as well as control system circuits, for 12- through 24-V starter systems.
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Industry Review of xEV Battery Size Standards

Battery Cell Size Standardization Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3124_201806
  • Current
Published 2018-06-12 by SAE International in United States
This Technical Information Report (TIR) will review the global industry battery size standards for xEV vehicles to provide guidance on available cell sizes for engineers developing battery powered vehicles. The TIR will include a review of the sizes and standards that are currently being developed or used for cylindrical cells, pouch (or polymer) cells, and for prismatic can cells. The lithium-ion cell will be the focus of this survey, but module and pack level size standards, where available, will also be included.
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Comprehensive Life Test for 12 V Automotive Storage Batteries

Starter Battery Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2801_201805
  • Current
Published 2018-05-07 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard applies to 12 V, flooded and absorptive glass mat lead acid automotive storage batteries of 200 minutes or less reserve capacity and cold crank capacity greater than 200 amperes. This life test is considered to be comprehensive in terms of battery manufacturing technology; applicable to lead-acid batteries containing wrought or cast positive grid manufacturing technology and providing a reasonable correlation for hot climate applications. This document is intended as a guide toward standard practice, but may be subject to change to keep pace with experience and technical advances.
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Development of Battery Management System for Hybrid Electric Two Wheeler

A R A I-Kiran Wani, Sanjay A Patil
Automotive Research Association of India-Manish Ingale
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The use of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) will become imperative to meet the emission challenges. HEV have two power sources-fossil fuels driven I.C. Engine and the battery based drive. Battery technologies have seen a tremendous development, and therefore HEV’s have been benefited. Even as the battery capacities have improved, maintaining and monitoring their health has been a challenge. This research paper uses open-source platform to build a BMS. The flexibility in the implementation of the system has helped in the rapid prototyping of the system. The BMS system was evaluated on a scaled-down electric toy car for its performance and sustainability. The BMS was evaluated for reverse polarity, protection against overcharge, short-circuit, deep discharge and overload on lead acid battery. It also includes temperature monitoring of the batteries. This proposed system is evaluated on the in-house HEV two-wheeler. The initial results are promising. A dedicated android smartphone application is developed for BMS which continuously monitors battery voltage, current, battery temperature, battery state of charge (SOC) and battery health. The system measures current, voltage and temperature…
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Modularized Simulation Tool to Evaluate Battery Solutions for 12 V Advanced Start Stop Vehicles

Johnson Controls-Zhenli Zhang
Johnson Controls International-Thomas Watson
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The 12 V advanced start stop systems can offer 5-8% fuel economy improvement over a conventional vehicle. Although the fuel economy is not as high as those of mild to full hybrids, its low implementation cost makes it an attractive electrification solutions for vehicles. As a result, the 12 V advanced start stop technology has been evolving fast in recent years.On one hand, battery suppliers are offering a variety of energy storage solutions such as stand-alone lead acid, stand-alone LFP/Graphite, dual batteries of lead acid parallel with NMC/LTO, LMO/LTO, NMC/Graphite, and capacitors, etc. For dual battery solutions, the architecture also varies from passive parallel connection to active switching. On the other hand, OEM are considering to leverage a lot more use out of traditional 12 V SLI (start, light, and ignition) for functions such as power steering, air conditioning, heater, etc. Depending on battery architecture and vehicle functioning design, the energy management strategy can easily become complicated.Since many variables are involved in the design of 12 V advanced start stop systems, an integrated simulation tool with a couple of…
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