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Study on Effect of Laser Peening on Inconel 718 Produced by DMLS Technique

Vellore Institute of Technology-Nattudurai Navin Kumar, Aditya Chandrakant Yadav, Kumar Raja, Subramanian Prabhakaran, Chooriyaparambil Damodaran Naiju, Sivaperuman Kalainathan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0146
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In Additive manufacturing, Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) is a rapid manufacturing technique used for manufacturing of functional component. Finely powered metal is melted by using high-energy fiber laser, by Island principle strategy that produces mechanically and thermally stable metallic component with reduced stresses, thermal gradients and at high precision. Inconel is an austenitic chromium nickel-based superalloy often used in the applications which require high strength and temperature resistant. It can retain its properties at high temperature. An attempt is made to examine the effect of laser shot peening (LSP) on DMLS Inconel 718 sample. Microstructure shows elliptical shaped structure and formation of new grain boundaries. The surface roughness of the material has been increased due to the effect of laser shock pulse and ablative nature. Macro hardness increased to 13% on the surface. Depth wise microhardness was investigated, found to be 17% increase on the sub-layer of the material due to the effect of a hardened matrix formed by precipitation hardening and grain size refinement attributed by laser shock peening. SEM analysis shows larger…
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Metallurgical and Wear Behaviour of Stellite 6 Reinforced Stainless Steel 316 Joints by Nd-YAG Laser Welding Process

BSACIST-Varun Kumar Arulvizhi, Selvakumar Alandur Somasundaram, Balasrinivasan Murugan, Ravikumar Natarajan
Renault & Nissan-Abdur Rahman Kalam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0147
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Laser welding process is a most effective and predominant method for joining of steel alloys when compared with other welding processes in practice due to their precise control of laser source across the bonding zone where it is crucial to control in other joining processes. In common the austenitic steels differ from ferritic based on two factors, thermal conductivity and expansion. Here, the selected Nd-YAG laser setup for joining of similar base material stainless steel 316 which is reinforced with and without stellite 6 powders. The experimental investigations (metallurgical survey and wear characteristics) were performed on all the samples. The powders were reinforced in the material directly by performing a drill across the bond line instead of a normal coating process which is in practice, later the powders were stuffed through the holes. Totally four samples were processed by varying the process parameters such as laser power (W), laser frequency (Hz) and keeping the time (s), feeding rate (mm/s) as constant. During the joining process the powders will get solidified with the molten steel alloy.…
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Advances in Laser Welding of Stainless Steel Alloys

BSACIST-Varun Kumar Arulvizhi, Selvakumar Alandur Somasundaram, Mohammed Haareeskhan Niyaz, Pradeep Krishna Ranganathan, Afnan Zaid Moolai, Mohamed Ashfaq Ahmed Abdulla Burhanudeen, Mohan Raj Ramu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0056
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
As a fusion welding process, Laser welding has proven to be the most promising method for joining of different materials whether it can be either a similar or dissimilar material category. However, few complications still remain unanswered in joining of materials by laser process after successful implementation of laser’s by industries and also the commercial users in previous year’s such as workpiece preparation, fixture issues, atmospheric conditions, nozzle focus on the material, etc., This article will give an elaborate survey on joining of stainless steel alloys, though there are many factors to be considered here concentration is on the metallurgical behaviour and tensile properties of weldments joined by laser welding technique, because the main criteria for a weldment is to have a coarse grain boundary distribution which may be distorted due to high heat generation during a joining process and to possess good tensile strength in order to withstand the impacts given on the weldment when it is being practically deployed in usage. The material behavior of weldment is primarily based on the process parameters…
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Improving Competitiveness of Additive Manufacturing Aerospace Serial Parts

LISI Aerospace-Maxime Gas, Alexis Rene-Corail, Sebastien Eyrignoux, Guillaume Iker, Stephane Sudre
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The Powder Bed Fusion technology is exploding in aerospace industry, with various parts adapted to this process. But one of the main limiting factor to use it in the aircraft industry is quantity of parts that can be manufactured per machine within a year.As a major leader in the aerospace fastener industry, LISI AEROSPACE has a long experience in reducing wasted time. Two activities are developed in this article: Decreasing production time thanks to a support structure reduction and simulationMinimizing unproductive time between two consecutive batches, thanks to manufacturing change improvement (LEAN)We took the example of a serial aircraft part, produced on the CONCEPT LASER M1 machine. With these two activities, we save 253 minutes per production. Originally, we had 4 batches per week; after these activities, we can produce 5 batches per week.
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Optical Evaluation of Directly Injected Methane Using a Newly Developed Highly Repetitive Laser Diagnostics System

Bayreuth Engine Research Center-Mirko Geiger, Lukas Schroeder, Christian Zoellner, Dieter Brueggemann
Goldlücke GmbH-Juergen Goldluecke lng
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Gaining detailed knowledge about the injection and mixture formation inside engines and combustion chambers during different operation modes is of major importance for improving conventional systems as well as developing new, innovative concepts. To reduce pollutants while maintaining high performance and efficiency an advanced understanding of these mechanisms is necessary. Additional challenges arise when it comes to analyzing transient engine operation and cyclic fluctuations as well as rating their contribution to the formation of emissions. This study contains the evaluations of the injection and mixture formation inside a rapid compression machine (RCM) with directly injected methane. A newly developed highly repetitive optical measurement system based on laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is used for the quantitative visualizations of the air-fuel equivalence ratio (λ). Various operation conditions, such as different compression ratios, variations of the start of injection, variations of charge pressure as well as different injection pressures allow to evaluate influences on the mixture formation. Interpretations of the recorded images deliver a better understanding of direct injection and mixture processes under engine-like conditions as charge motion and…
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Microrobots Activated by Laser Pulses for Treating Tumors

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35153
Published 2019-09-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Microrobots that can deliver drugs to specific spots inside the body while being monitored and controlled from outside the body have been developed that also can treat tumors in the digestive tract.

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Robot “Eye” Provides 360° Field of View

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35159
Published 2019-09-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The production of precision products depends on robot control systems knowing the location of the adhesive bonding head or welding head to the nearest millimeter at all times. This means the robot needs some sort of eye. Specialized sensors can perform this function, most of which operate on the principle of laser triangulation. A laser diode projects a line of red light onto the workpiece, from which the light is reflected at a specific angle before being detected by a camera. From the position of the light striking the camera chip, the position and distance of the sensor with respect to the workpiece within the coordinate system can be calculated.

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Machine Vision Applications in Laser Measurement Systems

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35167
Published 2019-09-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Machine vision is a broad term with many applications and definitions, but at its most basic definition it is using an imager or camera along with software to inspect and analyze a real world object. In addition to the camera and software, machine vision systems usually include lighting, optics, and pass/fail mechanisms.

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3D Meta-Optics for High-Energy Lasers

Aerospace & Defense Technology: September 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP09_09
Published 2019-09-01 by SAE International in United States

Engineering electromagnetic fields in 3D dielectric structures to change the way components are designed and fabricated for high-energy laser (HEL) applications.

The scope of this research radically changed the way novel components are designed and fabricated for high-energy applications. This 3D Meta-Optics platform was, and is, essentially engineering the electromagnetic fields in 3D dielectric structures. The results have provided a class of transformational optical components that can be integrated at all levels throughout a high-energy laser system.

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Ultrafast Optics: Vector Cavity Lasers — Physics and Technology

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35105
Published 2019-09-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Fiber lasers have found widespread applications in industrial material processing, scientific research and military systems due to their advantages of easy maintenance, excellent stability, compact size and low cost. One characteristic of fiber lasers, compared to other types of lasers, is that strong light is confined to propagating a long distance in a fiber core that has a very small cross-sectional area. This has the consequence that the nonlinear light interaction with the matter has a very long length. This results in the strength of all nonlinear optical processes being strongly amplified. This means that a conventionally weak, nonlinear optical effect can become significant. Therefore, apart from the practical applications, fiber lasers also constitute an ideal platform for the exploration of various complex nonlinear dynamics.