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You've Lost That Queasy Feeling…

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: December 2019

Stuart Birch, Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP11_06
Published 2019-11-01 by SAE International in United States

Transcontinental research aims to understand the complexities of motion sickness to help improve the automated-vehicle experience.

As concerns mount regarding how occupants of automated vehicles (AVs) will react to being detached from the actual driving experience, researchers are trying to better understand how and why humans are affected by motion sickness. Aided by sophisticated tools and measuring apparatus, multinational research efforts are quantifying the causes of motion sickness - while grappling with the intensely individual nature of the problem.

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System Level Design of a Self-Stabilizing Two-Wheeler Suspension Concept

Chalmers University-Dhurai Prabhahar
Sastra Deemed University-Hariharan Sankarasubramanian
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Two-wheeler represent one of the most used mode of transport in countries like India. The data from NCRB shows that most injuries to two-wheeler motorists are after being thrown off the vehicle. A self-stabilized combined with enclosure prevents serious injury in case of a skidding of the two-wheeler. The primary objective of the work is to create a suspension system for the enclosed self-balancing two-wheeler such that it can withstand the load of the vehicle itself and the extra payload. Ride comfort was primary objective of the work.The suspension system was modeled from the first principles, solved using MATLABTM SIMULINKTM and kinematics simulation was performed to learn the behavior of the system in MSC ADAMSTM. Dynamic simulations were also carried out to check if the forces were under permissible levels for overall design. The parameters considered for the work were hard-points, suspension stiffness and damping. With manual parameter iterations, suspension parameters were tuned for optimal suspension travel, load transmission and power transmission to ground.The work presents a concept for suspension system verified for kinematics and…
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Lightweight Exosuit Combines Robotics and Functional Apparel

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35263
Published 2019-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Between walking and running, human gaits can cover a wide range of speeds; for example, at low speeds, the metabolic rate of walking is lower than that of running in a slow jog. The opposite also is true: at high speeds, the metabolic cost of running is lower than that of speed-walking.

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Role of Dynamic Stiffness in Effective Isolation

Deere & Company-Yuzhen Yang
John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Balavardhan Reddy Dasabai
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
In any machinery, avoiding noise and vibration completely is a difficult task due to the structural dynamic behaviors of components. To safeguard the operator, it is important to best isolate the operator station from NVH environment. Cabin isolation is an important aspect to minimize structure borne noise and tactile vibrations to be transferred into the cabin. Isolators are selected based on the isolation system inertial properties at mounting locations in the operating frequency range interested. The most important assumption to select isolators are that the active side and passive side of the isolators are nearly rigid so impedance mismatch is created for effective isolation.This paper describes the importance of dynamic stiffness of the structures on both the active and passive side for better NVH performance. NVH performance of passive side is evaluated analytically and computationally in terms of tactile vibrations and structure borne noise for various ratios of the dynamic stiffness over isolator stiffness. The isolator selection criterion is also discussed based on rigid body modes, operating frequency range, transmissibility ratio, and kinematic energy distributions.
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Fault Feature Extraction of Elliptically Shaped Bearing Raceway

South China University of Technology-Yingying Guo, Xuezhi Zhao
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The elliptically shaped bearing (ESB) with a rigid, elliptical inner race and a flexible, thin-walled outer race is the most easily damaged core component of harmonic drive. The ESB rotates under cycle load of alternating stress due to its special elliptic structure. Hence, the fault features of ESB such as fatigue spalling and pitting are apt to be concealed by the excitation of impulses caused by alternating between major axis and minor axis. In order to diagnose the fault on raceway surfaces of ESB, a new method of CMWT-FH based on Continuous Morlet Wavelet Transform (CMWT) and FFT-based Hilbert (FH) spectrum analysis is proposed to extract the fault feature. First, the formulas of feature frequency is deduced based on the geometry and kinematics characteristics of ESB; then the CMWT method is employed to decompose the fault signal of ESB; finally, the FH spectrum analysis is performed to extract the feature frequency of faulty ESB from the decomposition signal with the maximum kurtosis in the first several layers. Compared with the traditional FH method, the feature…
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Kinematic Analysis and Simulation of the Double Roller Tripod Joint

South China University of Technology-Yinyuan Qiu, Wen-Bin Shangguan
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The kinematic model of the double roller tripod joint is established in order to analyze its kinematic characteristics and provide theoretical basis for its application and improvement. By means of spatial coordinate transformation, the translational and rotational motion equations of the rollers relative to the tracks and trunnions, the motion equation of the center of the tripod and the equations of the input/output angular displacement error and bending angle are derived. The motion simulation of the double roller tripod universal joint was carried out in ADAMS so as to verify the established kinematic model. The results show that the rollers of the double roller tripod joint only have periodic translational motions relative to the tracks while the rollers have both periodic translational and rotational motions relative to the trunnions. The tripod’s center does the circular motion on the tripod plane with the angular velocity 3 times of the input angular velocity. The input/output angular displacement error and bending angle have volatility, and their fluctuating frequency are 3 times of the input rotational frequency. Hence, the…
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Risk of Concussion in Low- to Moderate-Speed Frontal and Rear-End Motor Vehicle Collisions Evaluated Using Head Acceleration-Based Metrics

Exponent, Inc.-Stephanie A. Pasquesi, Alexander Bruno, Amy Courtney, Stacy M. Imler, Janine Smedley, Michael T. Prange
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Over the past decade, there has been an increase in awareness and concern about the occurrence and long-term effects of concussions. Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related emergency department (ED) visits associated with motor vehicle collisions, including patients with a diagnosis of concussion or mild TBI (mTBI), have increased while deaths and hospital admissions related to TBI have decreased. The diagnostic criteria for concussion have evolved and broadened, and based on current assessments and diagnostic imaging techniques, there are often no objective findings, yet a diagnosis of concussion may still be rendered. Clinical assessment of concussion may be based only on patient-reported symptoms and history, making it difficult to objectively relate the reported increase in TBI-related ED visits due to motor vehicle collisions to specific collision parameters. This study aims to perform a scientific evaluation of concussion risk during motor vehicle collisions, strengthened by objective, quantitative data, specifically focusing on head acceleration-based metrics. Data from full-scale passenger vehicle crash tests are reported for frontal and rear-end collisions with delta-Vs ranging from 6.0 to 19.0 kph (3.7 to…
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Kinematics and Compliance Analysis of a 3.5 Tonne Load Capacity Independent Front Suspension for LCV

Hexagon Studio-Salih Kuris, Efe Gungor, Ataman Deniz, Gulsah Uysal, Baris Aykent
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper deals with the development of a 3.5 tonne carrying double wishbone front suspension for a low floor LCV. It is a novelty in this class of vehicles. It has a track width of 1810 mm and it has a recirculating ball steering system. The steering mechanism has been arranged so that the steering angle could reach to 48° that is a very effective angle in that vehicle range. This results as a lower turning radius which indicates a better handling for the vehicle.The steering and the front suspension system here have been optimized in terms of comfort and handling by using DOE (design of experiments) based on sequential programming technique. In order to achieve better suspension and steering system geometry, this technique has been applied. The results have been compared with the benchmark vehicle.
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Prediction of Human Actions in Assembly Process by a Spatial-Temporal End-to-End Learning Model

Clemson University-Zhujun Zhang, Weitian Wang, Yi Chen, Yunyi Jia
Harbin Institute of Technology-Zhujun Zhang, Gaoliang Peng
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
It’s important to predict human actions in the industry assembly process. Foreseeing future actions before they happened is an essential part for flexible human-robot collaboration and crucial to safety issues. Vision-based human action prediction from videos provides intuitive and adequate knowledge for many complex applications. This problem can be interpreted as deducing the next action of people from a short video clip. The history information needs to be considered to learn these relations among time steps for predicting the future steps. However, it is difficult to extract the history information and use it to infer the future situation with traditional methods. In this scenario, a model is needed to handle the spatial and temporal details stored in the past human motions and construct the future action based on limited accessible human demonstrations. In this paper, we apply an autoencoder-based deep learning framework for human action construction, merging into the RNN pipeline for human action prediction. This contrasts with traditional approaches which use hand-crafted features and different domain outputs. We implement the proposed framework on a…
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Multi-Objective Optimization of Gerotor Port Design by Genetic Algorithm with Considerations on Kinematic vs. Actual Flow Ripple

Purdue University-Andrew Robison, Andrea Vacca
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The kinematic flow ripple for gerotor pumps is often used as a metric for comparison among different gearsets. However, compressibility, internal leakages, and throttling effects have an impact on the performance of the pump and cause the real flow ripple to deviate from the kinematic flow ripple. To counter this phenomenon, the ports can be designed to account for fluid effects to reduce the outlet flow ripple, internal pressure peaks, and localized cavitation due to throttling while simultaneously improving the volumetric efficiency. The design of the ports is typically heuristic, but a more advanced approach can be to use a numerical fluid model for virtual prototyping. In this work, a multi-objective optimization by genetic algorithm using an experimentally validated, lumped parameter, fluid-dynamic model is used to design the port geometry. This optimization is repeated for five pumps with different kinematic flow ripples, and the simulated performance of the pumps with optimized port geometries is compared to the kinematic flow in each case. The performance of the pumps with the optimized ports in each case was…
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