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Alleviating the Magnetic Effects on Magnetometers using Vehicle Kinematics for Yaw Estimation for Autonomous Ground Vehicles

Michigan Technological Univ-Jeffrey D. Naber
Michigan Technological Univ.-Ahammad Basha Dudekula
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1025
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous vehicle operation is dependent upon accurate position estimation and thus a major concern of implementing the autonomous navigation is obtaining robust and accurate data from sensors. This is especially true, in case of Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensor data. The IMU consists of a 3-axis gyro, 3-axis accelerometer, and 3-axis magnetometer. The IMU provides vehicle orientation in 3D space in terms of yaw, roll and pitch. Out of which, yaw is a major parameter to control the ground vehicle’s lateral position during navigation. The accelerometer is responsible for attitude (roll-pitch) estimates and magnetometer is responsible for yaw estimates. However, the magnetometer is prone to environmental magnetic disturbances which induce errors in the measurement. The present work focuses on alleviating magnetic disturbances for ground vehicles by fusing the vehicle kinematics information with IMU senor in an Extended Kalman filter (EKF) with the vehicle orientation represented using Quaternions. In addition, the error in rate measurements from gyro sensor gets accumulated as the time progress which results in drift in rate measurements and thus affecting the vehicle…
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Heavy Vehicles Kinematics of Automatic Emergency Braking Test Track Scenarios

NHTSA-Devin Elsasser
Transportation Research Center Inc-M. Kamel Salaani, Christopher Boday
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0995
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the test track scenario design and analysis used to estimate the performances of heavy vehicles equipped with forward collision warning and automatic emergency braking systems in rear-end crash scenarios. The first part of this design and analysis study was to develop parameters for brake inputs in test track scenarios simulating a driver that has insufficiently applied the brakes to avoid a rear-end collision. In the second part of this study, the deceleration limits imposed by heavy vehicles mechanics and brake systems are used to estimate automatic emergency braking performance benefits with respect to minimum stopping distance requirements set by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. The results of this study were used to complete the test track procedures and show that all heavy vehicles meeting regulatory stopping distance requirements have the braking capacity to demonstrate rear-end crash avoidance improvements in the developed tests.
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A Research on Kinematic Optimization of Auto Flush Door Handle System

Hyundai Motor Group-JUNGHO HAN, KYOUNGTAEK Kwak, JINWOO NAM, OKTAE Jung, JINSANG CHUNG
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0623
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A fascinating exterior appearance is one of the most important values for customers so the realization of the innovative styling has been a major topic for car makers for several years. Also, since the base of autonomous driving and electric vehicle is being expanded recently, it is essential to not only create high-tech image on a vehicle but also realize the engineering design in reality. From that point of view, the auto flush handle can be unique sales point to enhance the degree of the completion of the exterior styling. The purpose of this study is to establish the kinematic system of auto flush door handle to overcome the exterior handicaps such as not only the excessive exposure of the internal area on the deployed position but also to determine the proper operating speed. In order to resolve these issues, the Scott-Russell mechanism is applied to the auto flush handle system. The mechanism is applied to realize the straight motion so exterior quality can be improved to minimize inner gap and prevent link exposure. In…
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Driver Distraction Detection with a Two-stream Convolutional Neural Network

Wuhan University of Technology-Yuefeng Ma, Zhishuai Yin, Linzhen Nie
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1039
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Driver distraction detection is crucial to driving safety when autonomous vehicles are co-piloted. Recognizing drivers’ behaviors that are highly related with distraction from real-time video stream is widely acknowledged as an effective approach mainly due to its non-intrusiveness. In recently years, deep learning neural networks have been adopted to by-pass the procedure of designing features artificially, which used to be the major downside of computer-vision based approaches. However, the detection accuracy and generalization ability is still not satisfying since most deep learning models extracts only spatial information contained in images. This research develops a driver distraction model based on a two-stream, spatial and temporal, convolutional neural network (CNN). The CNN in both stream is improved with Batch Normalization-Inception (BN-Inception) modules which increase the sparsity in the inception modules in GoogLeNet, so that the network is further speeded up and also more adapted to features at various-scales. The original RGB image is fed into the spatial stream CNN to extract static information, and the feature map of optical flow field extracted from adjacent image frames is…
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Test Bench for Static Transmission Error Evaluation in Gears

Politecnico di Torino-Carlo Rosso
Politecnico di Torino / GeDy TrAss-Tommaso Maggi, Claudio Marcellini, Fabio Bruzzone
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1324
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this paper a test bench for measuring the Static Transmission Error of two mating gears is presented and a comparison with the results obtained with the code GeDy TrAss and a commercial Finite Element software are shown. Static Transmission Error is considered as the main source of overloads and Noise, Vibration and Harshness issues in mechanical transmissions. It is defined as the difference between the theoretical angular position of a gear under load in quasi-static conditions and the real one. This parameter strictly depends on the applied torque and the tooth macro and micro-geometry. The test bench illustrated in this work is designed to evaluate the actual Static Transmission Error of two gears under load in quasi-static conditions. In particular this testbed can be divided in two macro elements: the first one is the mechanism composed by weights and pulleys that generates a driving and a breaking torque up to 500 Nm. The second element is composed by two structures called “support”: one fixed to the floor and the other movable in order to…
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Capabilities and Limitations Related to Vehicle Dynamics and Operator Kinematics of Electric Scooter Micro-Mobility Modes

Exponent Inc.-Christina MR Garman, Steven G. Como, Ian C. Campbell, Jeffrey Wishart, Kevin O'Brien, Scott McLean
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0935
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Micro-mobility is a fast-growing trend in the transportation industry with stand-up electric scooters (e-scooters) becoming increasingly popular in the United States. To date, there are over 350 ride-share e-scooter programs in the United States. As this popularity increases, so does the need to understand the performance capabilities of these vehicles and the associated operator kinematics. Scooter tip-over stability is characterized by the scooter geometry and controls and is maintained through operator inputs such as body position, interaction with the handlebars, and foot placement. In this study, testing was conducted using operators of varying sizes to document the capabilities and limitations of these e-scooters being introduced into the traffic ecosystem. A test course was designed to simulate an urban environment including sidewalk and on-road sections requiring common maneuvers (e.g., turning, stopping points, etc.) for repeatable, controlled data collection. A commercially available e-scooter was instrumented to measure acceleration and velocity, steering angle, roll angle, and GPS position. Operators ranging from the 15th percentile to the 85th percentile were instrumented with wearable sensors to gain insight into the…
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A Human Body Model Study on Restraints for Side-Facing Occupants in Frontal Crashes of an Automated Vehicle

Joyson Safety Systems-Maika Katagiri, Sungwoo Lee
Joyson Safety Systems, NA-Jay Zhijian Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0980
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study is to investigate kinematics and responses of side-facing seated occupants in frontal crashes of an automated minivan using Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) simplified occupant models (50th%ile male and 5th%ile female), and to develop new restraint concepts to protect the occupants. The latest GHBMC M50-OS and F05-OS models (version 2.1) were further validated with the Postmortem Human Subject (PMHS) side sled tests [Cavanaugh 1990] and the PMHS far-side sled tests [Formen 2013], with detailed correlations of the kinematics and the injury measures. Robustness and biofidelity of the GHBMC human models, especially for the pelvis and knee body regions, were further improved. Using the improved M50-OS and F05-OS models, we evaluated the body kinematics and injury measures of the side-facing seated occupants in frontal crashes at severities ranging from 15 mph to 35 mph. Three restraint conditions were studied: 1) no restraint; 2) lap belt only; 3) lap belt and conceptual inflatable device. An additional parametric study on the restraint design parameters of the #3 restraint concept was performed to “optimize” the restraint…
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Facility for Complete Characterization of Suspension Kinematic and Compliance Properties of Wheeled Military Vehicles

SEA Ltd-Gary Heydinger, Anmol Sidhu, Scott Zagorski
SEA, Ltd.-Dale Andreatta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0175
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As part of their ongoing efforts to model and predict vehicle dynamic behavior, the US Army’s Ground Vehicle Systems Center procured a facility in two phases. The facility is called the Suspension Parameter Identification and Evaluation Rig (SPIdER) and has a capacity covering all of the military’s wheeled vehicles, with vehicle weights to 100,000 lbs (45,400 kg), up to 150 inches wide, with any number of axles. The initial phase had the ability to measure bounce and roll kinematic and compliance properties. The SPIdER is the companion machine to the Vehicle Inertia Parameter Measuring Device (VIPER) which measures the inertia properties of vehicles of similar size. In 2015, the final phase of the SPIdER was completed. This phase includes ground plane wheel pad motion so that lateral, longitudinal, and aligning moment compliance and kinematic properties can be measured. These capabilities greatly enhance the SPIdER’s features, giving it the ability for making complete suspension and steering system kinematic and compliance measurements. Horizontal forces and aligning moments can be applied up to the limits of tire slip.…
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Fast Conception (FastCon) – A tool for concept design and optimization of twist beam axles

University of Siegen - FLB-Jens Olschewski, Xiangfan Fang, Kanlun Tan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0920
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The common development phase of a TBA usually starts with several concepts, based on benchmarking or empirical values. Based on these concepts the first CAD Models are designed and then converted into FE- and MKS models, so that the stiffness and kinematic characteristics can be evaluated. From these first results, it can be estimated which concept is suitable to fulfill all the requirements. The selected concept will be further optimized via numerous CAD and CAE iterations until it meets all concept targets. Due to this process, the quality and the development time of the final development strongly depends on the chosen concept. The presented algorithm FastCon-TBA (FastConcept Twistbeamaxle) is a development tool, which simplifies the process described above and makes it more efficient. Based on the concept variables FastCon analytically evaluates all relevant kinematic and elastokinematic characteristics. To calculate the properties each part of the TBA is idealized as a beam. Each beam element can have a specific orientation and crossection, which allows to approximate the deformation behavior of the TBA. Considering the boundary conditions…
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Real-time and accurate estimation of road slope for intelligent speed planning system of commercial vehicle

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Mi Zhou, Meng Sun, Zhongpeng Tian, Fangyu Zhou, ZhiQiang Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0115
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In the intelligent speed planning system, real-time estimation of road slope is the key to calculate slope resistance and realize the vehicles’ active safety control. However,if the road slope is measured by the sensor while the commercial vehicle is driving, the vibration of the vehicle body will affect its measurement accuracy. Therefore, the relevant algorithm is used to estimate the real-time slope of the road when the commercial vehicle is driving. At present, many domestic and foreign scholars have analyzed and tested the estimation of road slope by the least square method or kalman filter algorithm. Although the two methods both can achieve the estimation, the real-time performance and accuracy still need to be improved. In this paper, for traditional fuel commercial vehicle, the kalman filter algorithm based on the kinematics and the extended kalman filter algorithm based on the longitudinal dynamics are respectively used to estimate the road slope. In the process of estimation based on kinematics, considering the influence of road slope rate to estimate, the recursive least squares method with forgetting factor…