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Alleviating the Magnetic Effects on Magnetometers using Vehicle Kinematics for Yaw Estimation for Autonomous Ground Vehicles

Michigan Technological University-Ahammad Basha Dudekula, Jeffrey D. Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1025
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous vehicle operation is dependent upon accurate position estimation and thus a major concern of implementing the autonomous navigation is obtaining robust and accurate data from sensors. This is especially true, in case of Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensor data. The IMU consists of a 3-axis gyro, 3-axis accelerometer, and 3-axis magnetometer. The IMU provides vehicle orientation in 3D space in terms of yaw, roll and pitch. Out of which, yaw is a major parameter to control the ground vehicle’s lateral position during navigation. The accelerometer is responsible for attitude (roll-pitch) estimates and magnetometer is responsible for yaw estimates. However, the magnetometer is prone to environmental magnetic disturbances which induce errors in the measurement. The present work focuses on alleviating magnetic disturbances for ground vehicles by fusing the vehicle kinematics information with IMU senor in an Extended Kalman filter (EKF) with the vehicle orientation represented using Quaternions. In addition, the error in rate measurements from gyro sensor gets accumulated as the time progress which results in drift in rate measurements and thus affecting the vehicle…
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Heavy Vehicles Kinematics of Automatic Emergency Braking Test Track Scenarios

NHTSA-Devin Elsasser
Transportation Research Center Inc.-M. Kamel Salaani, Christopher Boday
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0995
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the test track scenario design and analysis used to estimate the performances of heavy vehicles equipped with forward collision warning and automatic emergency braking systems in rear-end crash scenarios. The first part of this design and analysis study was to develop parameters for brake inputs in test track scenarios simulating a driver that has insufficiently applied the brakes to avoid a rear-end collision. In the second part of this study, the deceleration limits imposed by heavy vehicles mechanics and brake systems are used to estimate automatic emergency braking performance benefits with respect to minimum stopping distance requirements set by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. The results of this study were used to complete the test track procedures and show that all heavy vehicles meeting regulatory stopping distance requirements have the braking capacity to demonstrate rear-end crash avoidance improvements in the developed tests.
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A Research on Kinematic Optimization of Auto Flush Door Handle System

Hyundai Motor Group-Jungho Han, Kyoungtaek Kwak, Jinwoo Nam, Oktae Jung, Jinsang Chung
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0623
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Today, many car manufacturers and their suppliers are very interested in power-operated door handles, known as auto flush door handles. These handles have a distinguishing feature in terms of the way they operate. They are hidden in door skins and deployed automatically when users need to open the door. It is obvious that it is a major exterior styling point that makes customers interested in the vehicles that apply it. To make this auto flush door handle, however, there lie difficulties. First, because there is no sufficient space inside a door, applying these handles can be a constraint in exterior design unless the structures of them are kinematic optimized. The insufficient space can also cause problems in appearance of the handles when they are deployed. The purpose of this study is to establish the kinematic system of auto flush door handle to overcome the exterior handicaps such as the excessive exposure of the internal area on the deployed position. In order to resolve these issues, the Scott-Russell mechanism is applied to the auto flush handle…
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Driver Distraction Detection with a Two-stream Convolutional Neural Network

Wuhan University of Technology-Yuefeng Ma, Zhishuai Yin, Linzhen Nie
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1039
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Driver distraction detection is crucial to driving safety when autonomous vehicles are co-piloted. Recognizing drivers’ behaviors that are highly related with distraction from real-time video stream is widely acknowledged as an effective approach mainly due to its non-intrusiveness. In recently years, deep learning neural networks have been adopted to by-pass the procedure of designing features artificially, which used to be the major downside of computer-vision based approaches. However, the detection accuracy and generalization ability is still not satisfying since most deep learning models extracts only spatial information contained in images. This research develops a driver distraction model based on a two-stream, spatial and temporal, convolutional neural network (CNN). The CNN in both stream is improved with Batch Normalization-Inception (BN-Inception) modules which increase the sparsity in the inception modules in GoogLeNet, so that the network is further speeded up and also more adapted to features at various-scales. The original RGB image is fed into the spatial stream CNN to extract static information, and the feature map of optical flow field extracted from adjacent image frames is…
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A Human Body Model Study on Restraints for Side-Facing Occupants in Frontal Crashes of an Automated Vehicle

Joyson Safety Systems-Maika Katagiri, Sungwoo Lee
Joyson Safety Systems, NA-Jay Zhijian Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0980
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study is to investigate kinematics and responses of side-facing seated occupants in frontal crashes of an automated minivan using Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) simplified occupant models (50th%ile male and 5th%ile female), and to develop new restraint concepts to protect the occupants. The latest GHBMC M50-OS and F05-OS models (version 2.1) were further validated with the Postmortem Human Subject (PMHS) side sled tests [Cavanaugh 1990] and the PMHS far-side sled tests [Formen 2013], with detailed correlations of the kinematics and the injury measures. Robustness and biofidelity of the GHBMC human models, especially for the pelvis and knee body regions, were further improved. Using the improved M50-OS and F05-OS models, we evaluated the body kinematics and injury measures of the side-facing seated occupants in frontal crashes at severities ranging from 15 mph to 35 mph. Three restraint conditions were studied: 1) no restraint; 2) lap belt only; 3) lap belt and conceptual inflatable device. An additional parametric study on the restraint design parameters of the #3 restraint concept was performed to “optimize” the restraint…
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Facility for Complete Characterization of Suspension Kinematic and Compliance Properties of Wheeled Military Vehicles

SEA, Ltd.-Dale Andreatta, Gary Heydinger, Anmol Sidhu, Scott Zagorski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0175
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As part of their ongoing efforts to model and predict vehicle dynamics behavior, the US Army’s Ground Vehicle Systems Center procured a facility in two phases. The facility is called the Suspension Parameter Identification and Evaluation Rig (SPIdER) and has a capacity covering all of the military’s wheeled vehicles, with vehicle weights up to 100,000 lbs (45,400 kg), up to 150 inches wide, with any number of axles. The initial phase had the ability to measure bounce and roll kinematic and compliance properties. The SPIdER is the companion machine to the Vehicle Inertia Parameter Measuring Device (VIPER) which measures the inertia properties of vehicles of similar size. In 2015, the final phase of the SPIdER was completed. This phase includes ground plane wheel pad motion so that lateral, longitudinal, and aligning moment compliance and kinematic properties can be measured. These capabilities greatly enhance the SPIdER’s features, giving it the ability for making complete suspension and steering system kinematic and compliance measurements. Horizontal forces and aligning moments can be applied up to the limits of tire…
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Evaluation of Corpuscular Particle Method (CPM) in LS-DYNA for Airbag Modeling

FCA US LLC-Neeharika Anantharaju, Kalu Uduma, Yibing Shi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0978
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a systematic study to assess maturity of Corpuscular Particle Method (CPM) to accurately predict airbag deployment kinematics and its overall responses. The study was performed in three phases: (1) a correlation assessment of CPM predicted inflator characteristics to closed tank tests; (2) a correlation assessment of CPM predicted airbag deployment kinematics, airbag pressure, reaction force from a static deployment of a Driver Airbag (DAB) and (3) a correlation prediction of the impactor force by CPM versus impactor force from physical drop tower tests. These studies were repeated using the Uniform Pressure Method (UPM), to compare the numerical methods for their accuracy in predicting the physical test, computational cost, and applicability.Results from the study suggest that CPM satisfies the fundamental energy laws, and accurately captures the realistic airbag deployment kinematics, especially during the early deployment stage, unlike UPM. CPM accurately predicts airbag pressure, reaction force, and the impactor force for a fully deployed airbag. CPM reasonably estimates these parameters in the highly dynamic stages of the unfolding airbag, unlike UPM. Additionally, the computational…
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Fast Conception (FastCon) – A tool for concept design and optimization of twist beam axles

University of Siegen - FLB-Jens Olschewski, Xiangfan Fang, Kanlun Tan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0920
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The common development phase of a TBA usually starts with several concepts, based on benchmarking or empirical values. Based on these concepts the first CAD Models are designed and then converted into FE- and MKS models, so that the stiffness and kinematic characteristics can be evaluated. From these first results, it can be estimated which concept is suitable to fulfill all the requirements. The selected concept will be further optimized via numerous CAD and CAE iterations until it meets all concept targets. Due to this process, the quality and the development time of the final development strongly depends on the chosen concept. The presented algorithm FastCon-TBA (FastConcept Twistbeamaxle) is a development tool, which simplifies the process described above and makes it more efficient. Based on the concept variables FastCon analytically evaluates all relevant kinematic and elastokinematic characteristics. To calculate the properties each part of the TBA is idealized as a beam. Each beam element can have a specific orientation and crossection, which allows to approximate the deformation behavior of the TBA. Considering the boundary conditions…
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Motorcycle Rider Inputs During Typical Maneuvers

Exponent Inc.-Todd A. Frank, Graeme Fowler, Christina Garman, Sarah Sharpe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1000
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this research is to document representative examples of control inputs and body positioning experienced riders use to control a motorcycle through maneuvers representative of those encountered during real-world operation. There is limited publicly available data that tracks the magnitude or direction of steering head rotation, steering torque input, etc. used by a rider to initiate and exit a turn as well as maintaining directional control during maneuvers ranging from slow parking lot turns to high speed lane changes. Using Exponent’s Test and Engineering Center (TEC) track and skid pad, a course was defined that included several maneuvers at various speeds and radii. A previous paper [1] investigated the influence of rider kinematics (weight shift) on motorcycle control. This paper focuses on rider control inputs to affect a motorcycle’s path and lean angle in a set of maneuvers including a constant radius turn, low speed U-turn, left turn from stop sign, steer reversal, slalom, and avoidance.
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Comparison of Head Kinematics of Bicyclist in Car-to-Bicycle Impact

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Chinmoy Pal, Shigeru Hirayama
RNTBCI-Pratap Naidu Vallabhaneni, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0932
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study focused on European NCAP activities of introducing a new head protection evaluation procedure, as proposed by BASt (Federal Highway Research Institute - GERMANY). Various kinds of E-bikes are available in the market, ranging from E-bikes that have a small motor to assist the rider’s pedal-power i.e., pedelecs to somewhat more powerful E-bikes which is similar to a moped-style scooter. This paper focused on identifying the factors influencing bicyclist head kinematics during bicycle vs. passenger vehicle (PV) collisions at the intersection. Two AM50 bicyclist FE models are developed using i) GHBMC Human Body Model (HBM) and ii) WorldSID (WS) side impact dummy. Head kinematics of bicyclists of pedal-assist E-bike and normal bike were compared using CAE simulation. It is found that the vehicle’s impact velocity, type of bicycle, the mass of E-bike and bicycle traveling speed will influence the head kinematics.