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Corrosion and Corrosive Wear of Steel for Automotive Exhaust Application

Crescent Institute of Science and Technology-Tiruvannamalai Rajendra Prasad Tamilarasan
SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Raj Rajendran
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In the current scenario, durable exhaust system design, development and manufacturing are mandatory for the vehicle to be competitive and challenging in the automotive market. Material selection for the exhaust system plays a major role due to the increased warranty requirements and regulatory compliances. The materials used in the automotive exhaust application are cast iron, stainless steel, mild steel. The materials of the exhaust systems should be heat resistant, wear and corrosion resistant. Stainless steel is the most commonly used material in the automotive exhaust system. Due to increasing cost of nickel and some other alloying elements, there is a need to replace the stainless steel with EN 8 steel. Recent trends are towards light weight concepts, cost reduction and better performance. In order to reduce the cost and to achieve better wear and corrosion resistance, the surface of the EN 8 steel is modified with coatings. This work focuses on the evaluation of corrosion and corrosive wear resistance of hard chrome plating (HCP), hot dip aluminized coatings (HDA), spray aluminized coatings (SA), electroless nickel…
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Multi Response Optimization on Machining Titanium Alloy Using Taguchi-DEAR Analysis in Abrasive Water Jet Cutting

SRM Institute Of Science And Technology-Muthuramalingam Thangaraj, Akhtar Atif
Tishk International University-Ganesh Babu Loganathan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Abrasive water jet cutting has been proven to be an effective technology for processing various engineering materials. This paper investigated the effects of process parameters on depth of cut in abrasive water jet cutting of titanium alloy. Four different process parameters were undertaken for this study; water pressure, nozzle traverse speed, abrasive mass flow rate and standoff distance. The influence of these process parameters on depth of cut, surface roughness and MRR has been investigated and analyzed. An empirical model for the prediction of depth of cut in abrasive water jet cutting of cast iron has been developed using regression analysis. The approach is based on Taguchi-DEAR method to optimize the AWJM process parameter for effective machining. It has been found that the stand-off-distance has highest impact on performance measures among all process parameters.
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Ceramic Bound Materials: A Suitable Solution for Light Brakes

2Dto3D S.r.l.s.-Marco Dastrù
Chilches Materials S.A.-José Carlos Serrano-Posada
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
A ceramic bound matrix has been investigated to be used as a friction material. The materials were produced by means of ceramic technology using frits containing silicates, and ceramic friction modifiers such as tin oxide, zircon, iron oxide, magnesium oxide. Four formulations were tested by means of a tribometer (pin-on-disc tester) using a gray cast iron counterpart. Test section included speeds between 1 and 12 ms-1, and loads between 25 and 400 N. The coefficient of friction of the tested specimens were between 0.7 and 0.4, and exhibited sensitivity to speed at low loads (25 N), while they are quite stables at high loads (400N). The characterization of the tribolayers was carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy. The four developed materials were named A, B, C, and D. They exhibited different wear rates and coefficients of friction. All the materials exhibited sensitivity to speed, while showed a lower sensitivity to load. The coefficient of friction level seems to be suitable for brake applications, oscillating between 0.6 and 0.4, depending on the test section.…
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Brake Rotor Corrosion and Friction Cleaning Effect on Vehicle Judder Performance

Applus IDIADA-Narcís Molina Montasell, Bernat Ferrer
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Brake disc corrosion has emerged as an important field of study within the automotive industry due to the wide range of lining materials that are currently used worldwide, and their inherent rust-cleaning properties. The presence of oxide layers irregularly deposited on the cast iron disc surfaces usually leads to a forced, braking-induced vibration that can reach the driver’s position as a pronounced annoyance. Hence, the friction material composition directly impacts on the judder performance during the early corrosion-removal stage.This study incorporates both dynamometer and vehicle tests into the definition of a predictive methodology that allows corrosion-induced vibrations to be investigated at both system and vehicle levels. The oxide film is artificially generated by means of a salt spray chamber under steady-state climate conditions in order to guarantee a repetitive and robust procedure. The vibration response of the system is objectively evaluated in the form of caliper accelerations and pressure (BPV) / torque (BTV) oscillations throughout a reduced rust-removal test sequence composed of 30 snubs; basic spectral and order analyses are conducted with the gathered data.…
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A Study of the Disc Scoring Generation Principle and Reduction(III)

Hyundai Motor Company-ByeongUk Jeong, Hyoung Tae Ryu
Myunghwa Ind Co., Ltd.-Chang Jin Kim
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
In the latest works [12], we presented the guideline for reducing Metal pick up(MPU, the main component of disc scoring) by controlling the location of the roughness of disc, the brake pad friction coefficients and the disc slot's size. In this study, the previously studied iron transfer theory to 'Cu free' brake pad and the disc surface roughness controlling methods which are based on the mass production manufacturing process are applied. It is possible to suggest the ways to improve the scoring-free disc without reducing friction coefficient between the disc and pad, and any demerit such as increased wear and airplane noise like conventional slot discs [11].
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Ferrous Metals Bundle: Steel and Cast Iron

  • Professional Development
  • PD281943
Published 2019-04-24

Ferrous metals contain iron and are prized for their tensile strength and durability.  Most are magnetic and contain a high carbon content which generally makes them, with the exception of wrought iron and stainless steel, vulnerable to rust. The following seven on-demand courses are included in the Ferrous Materials Bundle: Steel and Cast Iron.  Each course is approximately one-hour in duration. See Topics/Outline for additional details.

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Fatigue Behavior of Large Cast Components under Variable Amplitude Loading with Overloads

Fraunhofer Institute LBF-Christoph Bleicher, Rainer Wagener, Heinz Kaufmann
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To reduce the weight and to increase the power as well as to enable the utilization of nodular cast iron components, e.g. for wind turbines and heavy industry parts, locally higher stresses need to be withstood by the material. This becomes crucial, when additional overloads influence the structure of thick-walled components causing high local elastic-plastic deformations. In this case, the cyclic, elastic-plastic material behavior and its development under cyclic loading are important points to be considered during component design. To assess the material’s local elastic-plastic material behavior, strain-controlled fatigue tests were performed under alternating loading, Rε = -1, with unnotched specimens removed from cast blocks as well as from a hub and a planet carrier of wind turbines, made of EN-GJS-400-18U-LT, EN-GJS-700-2, ADI-800 and ADI-900. To determine the influence of constant and variable amplitude loading on the elastic-plastic material behavior, fatigue tests were performed based on constant amplitude as well as on variable amplitude loading. For the fatigue tests under variable amplitude loading, two real load-time histories, which were derived from a measured load-time series…
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Electrifying Long-Haul Freight—Part II: Assessment of the Battery Capacity

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

University of Kansas, USA-Christopher Depcik, Anmesh Gaire, Jamee Gray, Zachary Hall, Anjana Maharjan, Darren Pinto, Arno Prinsloo
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-02-0007
Published 2019-01-25 by SAE International in United States
Recently, electric heavy-duty tractor-trailers (EHDTTs) have assumed significance as they present an immediate solution to decarbonize the transportation sector. Hence, to illustrate the economic viability of electrifying the freight industry, a detailed numerical model to estimate the battery capacity for an EHDTT is proposed for a route between Washington, DC, to Knoxville, TN. This model incorporates the effects of the terrain, climate, vehicular forces, auxiliary loads, and payload in order to select the appropriate motor and optimize the battery capacity. Additionally, current and near-future battery chemistries are simulated in the model. Along with equations describing vehicular forces based on Newton’s second law of motion, the model utilizes the Hausmann and Depcik correlation to estimate the losses caused by the capacity offset of the batteries. Here, a Newton-Raphson iterative scheme determines the minimum battery capacity for the required state of charge. Consequently, the model demonstrates different combinations of battery capacities and payloads while checking minimum conditions of brake torque, motor torque, and current draw. Most importantly, battery life and aging effects are included to account for…
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Iron-Nickel Alloy Strip 49Fe - 5.3Cr - 42Ni - 2.5Ti - 0.55Al Solution Heat Treated

AMS F Corrosion Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS5221F
  • Current
Published 2019-01-10 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers an iron-nickel alloy in the form of strip 0.020 to 0.250 inch (0.51 to 6.35 mm) inclusive, in thickness (see 8.8).
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New Material Composition Withstands Extreme Impact and Temperature

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33605
Published 2019-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A super-strong alloy of copper and tantalum was created that can withstand extreme impact and temperature, providing high strength and good electrical conductivity. The alloy is a model system with structure that can be passed on to other alternative material systems. Materials based on iron or aluminum, for example, could be used for protection and lethality applications. The alloy also has the potential to be used on spacecraft for deep-space exploration. The same methodology can be applied to other materials, such as nickel or iron, to develop more resilient transportation and sustainable infrastructures.