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Ferrous Metals Bundle: Steel and Cast Iron

  • Professional Development
  • PD281943
Published 2019-04-24

Ferrous metals contain iron and are prized for their tensile strength and durability.  Most are magnetic and contain a high carbon content which generally makes them, with the exception of wrought iron and stainless steel, vulnerable to rust. The following seven on-demand courses are included in the Ferrous Materials Bundle: Steel and Cast Iron.  Each course is approximately one-hour in duration. See Topics/Outline for additional details.


Fatigue Behavior of Large Cast Components under Variable Amplitude Loading with Overloads

Fraunhofer Institute LBF-Christoph Bleicher, Rainer Wagener, Heinz Kaufmann
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To reduce the weight and to increase the power as well as to enable the utilization of nodular cast iron components, e.g. for wind turbines and heavy industry parts, locally higher stresses need to be withstood by the material. This becomes crucial, when additional overloads influence the structure of thick-walled components causing high local elastic-plastic deformations. In this case, the cyclic, elastic-plastic material behavior and its development under cyclic loading are important points to be considered during component design. To assess the material’s local elastic-plastic material behavior, strain-controlled fatigue tests were performed under alternating loading, Rε = -1, with unnotched specimens removed from cast blocks as well as from a hub and a planet carrier of wind turbines, made of EN-GJS-400-18U-LT, EN-GJS-700-2, ADI-800 and ADI-900. To determine the influence of constant and variable amplitude loading on the elastic-plastic material behavior, fatigue tests were performed based on constant amplitude as well as on variable amplitude loading. For the fatigue tests under variable amplitude loading, two real load-time histories, which were derived from a measured load-time series…
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Electrifying Long-Haul Freight-Part II: Assessment of the Battery Capacity

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

University of Kansas, USA-Christopher Depcik, Anmesh Gaire, Jamee Gray, Zachary Hall, Anjana Maharjan, Darren Pinto, Arno Prinsloo
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-02-0007
Published 2019-01-25 by SAE International in United States
Recently, electric heavy-duty tractor-trailers (EHDTTs) have assumed significance as they present an immediate solution to decarbonize the transportation sector. Hence, to illustrate the economic viability of electrifying the freight industry, a detailed numerical model to estimate the battery capacity for an EHDTT is proposed for a route between Washington, DC, to Knoxville, TN. This model incorporates the effects of the terrain, climate, vehicular forces, auxiliary loads, and payload in order to select the appropriate motor and optimize the battery capacity. Additionally, current and near-future battery chemistries are simulated in the model. Along with equations describing vehicular forces based on Newton’s second law of motion, the model utilizes the Hausmann and Depcik correlation to estimate the losses caused by the capacity offset of the batteries. Here, a Newton-Raphson iterative scheme determines the minimum battery capacity for the required state of charge. Consequently, the model demonstrates different combinations of battery capacities and payloads while checking minimum conditions of brake torque, motor torque, and current draw. Most importantly, battery life and aging effects are included to account for…
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Iron-Nickel Alloy Strip 49Fe - 5.3Cr - 42Ni - 2.5Ti - 0.55Al Solution Heat Treated

AMS F Corrosion Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS5221F
  • Current
Published 2019-01-10 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers an iron-nickel alloy in the form of strip 0.020 to 0.250 inch (0.51 to 6.35 mm) inclusive, in thickness (see 8.8).
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New Material Composition Withstands Extreme Impact and Temperature

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33605
Published 2019-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A super-strong alloy of copper and tantalum was created that can withstand extreme impact and temperature, providing high strength and good electrical conductivity. The alloy is a model system with structure that can be passed on to other alternative material systems. Materials based on iron or aluminum, for example, could be used for protection and lethality applications. The alloy also has the potential to be used on spacecraft for deep-space exploration. The same methodology can be applied to other materials, such as nickel or iron, to develop more resilient transportation and sustainable infrastructures.


Sheet and Strip Surface Finish Nomenclature

AMS F Corrosion Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS4194A
  • Current
Published 2018-10-10 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the nomenclature for surface finishes commonly used for sheet and strip in aerospace material specifications. It is applicable to steel and to iron, nickel, cobalt, and titanium base alloys.
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A Study of the Disc Scoring Generation Principle and Reduction (II)

Hyundai Motor Co.-ByeongUk Jeong, Hyoung Tae Ryu
Myunghwa Ind Co. Ltd.-Chang Jin Kim
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
In the latest paper [10], we presented our work based on experiments studying MPU (Metal Pick Up) of the pad and scoring(scratching) of the disc. The main component of MPU was iron “Fe”. If the roughness of the disc was small, the content of iron “Fe” was increased and the segregation of that was decreased especially in initial condition. In this study, we extended our study based on the results by adding some additional factors such as the location of the roughness of the disc, the coefficients brake pad friction, and disc slots. We made various discs of different roughness boundaries and slots, and pads of pad friction coefficients; and conducted two types of tests for whether a slot is present or not with the other same conditions to confirm the impact of the scoring. We find and believe that our experimental data should serve a useful guideline for reducing MPU of the pad and scoring of the disc.
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Physical and Virtual Simulation of Lightweight Brake Drum Design for Heavy Duty Commercial Vehicles Using Alternate Material Technologies

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd.-Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Himanshu Deshmukh, Shivdayal Prasad, Sonu Paroche, Ashesh Anil Shah
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
Brake drum in commercial vehicles is very important aggregate contributing towards major weight in brake system module. The main function of brake drum is to dissipate kinetic energy of vehicle into thermal energy, as a results in braking operation major load comes on brake drum. Hence this is very critical component for vehicle safety and stability [1].Objective of this paper is to increase the pay load, which is utmost important parameter for commercial vehicle end customers. To achieve the light weighing target, alternate materials such as Spheroidal graphite iron (SGI) has been evaluated for development of brake drum. Many critical parameters in terms of reliability, safety and durability, thickness of hub, wheel loading, heat generation on drum, manufacturing and assembly process are taken into consideration. The sensitivity of these parameters is studied for optimum design, could be chosen complying each other’s values.Digital thermal performance evaluated in house, fine-tuned and verified by correlating with test data available for existing cast iron design and then applied for new design with alternate materials. In two different designs around…
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The Factors Governing Corrosion Stiction of Brake Friction Materials to a Gray Cast Iron Disc

Hyundai Mobis-Wangyu Lee, Dooyeon Kim, Keeyang Lee
Korea Univ.-Jaehyun Gweon, Sanghee Shin, Ho Jang
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
Corrosion stiction at the contact interface between a brake friction material and a gray iron disc under the parking brake condition was investigated by evaluating the possible parameters that affect the shear force to detach the corroded interface. Using production brake friction materials, comprising non-steel and low-steel types, corrosion tests were carried out by pressing the brake pad onto the gray iron disc using a clamp at various conditions. Results showed that the shear force to detach the corroded interface tended to increase with applied pressure and corrosion time. On the other hand, porosity, acidity, and hydrophobicity of the friction material did not show a reliable correlation to the stiction force. The poor correlation of the stiction force with the friction material properties indicated that the stiction force was not determined by a single factor but governed by multiple parameters including surface contact areas and inhomogeneity of the ingredients. Microscopic observation of the detached disc surface showed adhered fragments that were removed from the friction material surface, thus shedding light on the possible estimation of…
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Evaluation of friction coefficient of lamellar and compacted graphite irons in lubricated ring-on-cylinder system

Tupy S.A., Joinville - SC, UDESC, Joinville - SC.-Wilson Luiz Guesser
Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná - UTFPR - Campus-Carlos Henrique da Silva, Giuseppe Pintaúde
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
The current investigation compares the friction behavior between specimens extracted from engine blocks of grey cast iron (class FC 250 ABNT NBR 6589 standard) and compacted graphite iron (class GJV450 ISO 16112 standard). The effect of wall thickness was evaluated, by extracting samples from regions equivalent to two levels of thickness. The piston ring used was a nitrided martensitic stainless steel with an asymmetric profile, and the lubricant oil was the SAE 30 CF. The tribological tests were conducted at 75 N normal load for a duration of 1 hour, a frequency of 5 Hz and a stroke of 10 mm. The tests were carried out at a controlled temperature of 40° C. In a general way, the compacted graphite irons presented smaller friction coefficients when compared to that observed for the lamellar ones; and the wall thickness showed relevance only for the compacted graphite iron, being the lowest values found for the thinner wall. On the other hand, for the grey cast iron, the wall thickness did not affect significantly the friction behavior. Finally,…
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