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Self-Sensing, Lightweight and High Modulus Carbon Nanotube Composites for Improved Efficiency and Safety of Electric Vehicles

NoPo Nanotechnologies India Pvt Ltd-Aparna Allannavar
NoPo Nanotechnologies India Pvt, Ltd.-Gadhadar Changalaraya Reddy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2532
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Carbon Composites (CFRP) have been touted to be an essential component of future automobiles due to their mechanical properties and lightweight. CFRP has been adopted successfully for secondary and primary structures in Aerospace industry. In Automobiles, they are incorporated in models like the BMW i-series. CFRP suffers from 2 major problems. Delamination of Composites leads to catastrophic and rapid failure which could be dangerous in passenger vehicles. Delamination occurs whenever there is a shock on the composite. Secondly, Composites need regular expensive maintenance to ensure that the material is intact and will not compromise passenger safety. Carbon Nanotubes in composites have shown a substantial increase in delamination resistance. A 0.1wt% addition of HiPCO® Single-walled Carbon Nanotube provides both self-sensing and improved fracture resistance. Here we report results of our work with NoPo HiPCO® Nanotubes with small amounts of Iron. 6K Carbon fiber was used as the fiber reinforcement. NoPo HiPCO® Nanotubes were reinforced in the Epoxy system by sonication. HiPCO® Nanotubes were produced using standard parameters. The coupons of CENCE composite were made using VARTM…

An alternate cost effective material for rocker arm used in heavy commercial vehicles

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Kaarthic Kaundabalaraman, Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Hemantkumar Rathi
VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Sonu Paroche
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2550
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Rocker arm in internal combustion engine is very important part which transfer the cam motion and force to the valve. In heavy commercial vehicles, the engine components are design for an infinite life (considerable higher than other components). Recently industries are working for light weight and optimized cost material. Hence it is required to have an optimized cost effective design of rocker arm without affecting its performance. A rocker arm should meet the stiffness and strength requirement. The objective of this study is to find out the alternate material for rocker arm which can provide the similar strength & stiffness as conventional rocker arm material. To achieve the performance and cost target, alternate material cast iron has been evaluated for rocker arm. Cast iron is lighter than the forged steel rocker arm, also it has a good frictional characteristic. Further bush is eliminated from the rocker arm assembly due to self-lubricant property of the cast iron rocker arm. This is significant reduce in cost of material and assembly procedure. A 2-d simulation and finite element…


GM Global Technical Center, USA-Abolhassan Khosrovaneh
General Motors Technical Center India-Karthigan Ganesan, Biswajit Tripathy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2576
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Objective: In ground vehicle industry, strain life approach is commonly used for predicting fatigue life. This approach requires use of fatigue material properties such as fatigue strength coefficient (σf'), fatigue strength exponent (b), fatigue ductility coefficient (εf'), fatigue ductility exponent (c), cyclic strength coefficient (K′) and cyclic strain hardening exponent (n′). These properties are obtained from stable hysteresis loop of constant amplitude strain-controlled uniaxial fatigue tests. Usually fatigue material properties represent 50th percentile experimental data and doesn't account possible material variation in the fatigue life calculation. However, for robust design of vehicle components, variation in material properties need to be taken into account. In this paper, methodology to develop 5th percentile (B5), 10th percentile (B10) and 20th percentile (B20) fatigue material properties are discussed. Possible material variation in fatigue life prediction is included as B5, B10 and B20 fatigue material properties. Methodology: Fatigue strength coefficient (σf') and fatigue strength exponent (b) are obtained by performing a linear regression on true stress amplitude (∆σ/2) versus reversals to failure (2Nf) in log-log scale. Fatigue ductility coefficient (εf')…

Corrosion and Corrosive Wear of Steel for Automotive Exhaust Application

Crescent Institute of Science and Technology-Tiruvannamalai Rajendra Prasad Tamilarasan
SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Raj Rajendran
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0178
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In the current scenario, durable exhaust system design, development and manufacturing are mandatory for the vehicle to be competitive and challenging in the automotive market. Material selection for the exhaust system plays a major role due to the increased warranty requirements and regulatory compliances. The materials used in the automotive exhaust application are cast iron, stainless steel, mild steel. The materials of the exhaust systems should be heat resistant, wear and corrosion resistant. Stainless steel is the most commonly used material in the automotive exhaust system. Due to increasing cost of nickel and some other alloying elements, there is a need to replace the stainless steel with EN 8 steel. Recent trends are towards light weight concepts, cost reduction and better performance. In order to reduce the cost and to achieve better wear and corrosion resistance, the surface of the EN 8 steel is modified with coatings. This work focuses on the evaluation of corrosion and corrosive wear resistance of hard chrome plating (HCP), hot dip aluminized coatings (HDA), spray aluminized coatings (SA), electroless nickel…

Ceramic Bound Materials: A Suitable Solution for Light Brakes

2Dto3D S.r.l.s.-Marco Dastrù
Chilches Materials S.A.-José Carlos Serrano-Posada
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2109
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
A ceramic bound matrix has been investigated to be used as a friction material. The materials were produced by means of ceramic technology using frits containing silicates, and ceramic friction modifiers such as tin oxide, zircon, iron oxide, magnesium oxide. Four formulations were tested by means of a tribometer (pin-on-disc tester) using a gray cast iron counterpart. Test section included speeds between 1 and 12 ms-1, and loads between 25 and 400 N. The coefficient of friction of the tested specimens were between 0.7 and 0.4, and exhibited sensitivity to speed at low loads (25 N), while they are quite stables at high loads (400N). The characterization of the tribolayers was carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy. The four developed materials were named A, B, C, and D. They exhibited different wear rates and coefficients of friction. All the materials exhibited sensitivity to speed, while showed a lower sensitivity to load. The coefficient of friction level seems to be suitable for brake applications, oscillating between 0.6 and 0.4, depending on the test section.…

Brake Rotor Corrosion and Friction Cleaning Effect on Vehicle Judder Performance

Applus IDIADA-Narcís Molina Montasell, Bernat Ferrer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2115
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Brake disc corrosion has emerged as an important field of study within the automotive industry due to the wide range of lining materials that are currently used worldwide, and their inherent rust-cleaning properties. The presence of oxide layers irregularly deposited on the cast iron disc surfaces usually leads to a forced, braking-induced vibration that can reach the driver’s position as a pronounced annoyance. Hence, the friction material composition directly impacts on the judder performance during the early corrosion-removal stage.This study incorporates both dynamometer and vehicle tests into the definition of a predictive methodology that allows corrosion-induced vibrations to be investigated at both system and vehicle levels. The oxide film is artificially generated by means of a salt spray chamber under steady-state climate conditions in order to guarantee a repetitive and robust procedure. The vibration response of the system is objectively evaluated in the form of caliper accelerations and pressure (BPV) / torque (BTV) oscillations throughout a reduced rust-removal test sequence composed of 30 snubs; basic spectral and order analyses are conducted with the gathered data.…

A Study of the Disc Scoring Generation Principle and Reduction(III)

Hyundai Motor Company-ByeongUk Jeong, Hyoung Tae Ryu
Myunghwa Ind Co., Ltd.-Chang Jin Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2112
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
In the latest works [12], we presented the guideline for reducing Metal pick up(MPU, the main component of disc scoring) by controlling the location of the roughness of disc, the brake pad friction coefficients and the disc slot's size. In this study, the previously studied iron transfer theory to 'Cu free' brake pad and the disc surface roughness controlling methods which are based on the mass production manufacturing process are applied. It is possible to suggest the ways to improve the scoring-free disc without reducing friction coefficient between the disc and pad, and any demerit such as increased wear and airplane noise like conventional slot discs [11].

Ferrous Metals Bundle: Steel and Cast Iron

  • Professional Development
  • PD281943
Published 2019-04-24

Ferrous metals contain iron and are prized for their tensile strength and durability.  Most are magnetic and contain a high carbon content which generally makes them, with the exception of wrought iron and stainless steel, vulnerable to rust. The following seven on-demand courses are included in the Ferrous Materials Bundle: Steel and Cast Iron.  Each course is approximately one-hour in duration. See Topics/Outline for additional details.


Fatigue Behavior of Large Cast Components under Variable Amplitude Loading with Overloads

Fraunhofer Institute LBF-Christoph Bleicher, Rainer Wagener, Heinz Kaufmann
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To reduce the weight and to increase the power as well as to enable the utilization of nodular cast iron components, e.g. for wind turbines and heavy industry parts, locally higher stresses need to be withstood by the material. This becomes crucial, when additional overloads influence the structure of thick-walled components causing high local elastic-plastic deformations. In this case, the cyclic, elastic-plastic material behavior and its development under cyclic loading are important points to be considered during component design. To assess the material’s local elastic-plastic material behavior, strain-controlled fatigue tests were performed under alternating loading, Rε = -1, with unnotched specimens removed from cast blocks as well as from a hub and a planet carrier of wind turbines, made of EN-GJS-400-18U-LT, EN-GJS-700-2, ADI-800 and ADI-900. To determine the influence of constant and variable amplitude loading on the elastic-plastic material behavior, fatigue tests were performed based on constant amplitude as well as on variable amplitude loading. For the fatigue tests under variable amplitude loading, two real load-time histories, which were derived from a measured load-time series…
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Electrifying Long-Haul Freight—Part II: Assessment of the Battery Capacity

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

University of Kansas, USA-Christopher Depcik, Anmesh Gaire, Jamee Gray, Zachary Hall, Anjana Maharjan, Darren Pinto, Arno Prinsloo
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-02-0007
Published 2019-01-25 by SAE International in United States
Recently, electric heavy-duty tractor-trailers (EHDTTs) have assumed significance as they present an immediate solution to decarbonize the transportation sector. Hence, to illustrate the economic viability of electrifying the freight industry, a detailed numerical model to estimate the battery capacity for an EHDTT is proposed for a route between Washington, DC, to Knoxville, TN. This model incorporates the effects of the terrain, climate, vehicular forces, auxiliary loads, and payload in order to select the appropriate motor and optimize the battery capacity. Additionally, current and near-future battery chemistries are simulated in the model. Along with equations describing vehicular forces based on Newton’s second law of motion, the model utilizes the Hausmann and Depcik correlation to estimate the losses caused by the capacity offset of the batteries. Here, a Newton-Raphson iterative scheme determines the minimum battery capacity for the required state of charge. Consequently, the model demonstrates different combinations of battery capacities and payloads while checking minimum conditions of brake torque, motor torque, and current draw. Most importantly, battery life and aging effects are included to account for…
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