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Design Consideration for Lightweighting With Ductile Iron Castings

Skuld LLC-Sarah Jordan, Mark DeBruin
Worcester Polytechnic Institute-Christopher Brown, Hudson Gasvoda
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0656
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There are opportunities for lightweighting with ductile iron castings. Current research shows ductile iron castings free of massive carbides can be achieved at under 2 mm (0.080”) through alloying or process changes which means that significant weight reductions are possible. In fact for aluminum components over 0.250” thick ductile iron may provide lightweighting opportunities at a cost savings. However, the conventional guidelines for casting design are inadequate when using ductile iron at dimensions less than the typical machine stock. This paper will discuss the current research on thin walled ductile iron, when it is superior to aluminum, design considerations, and current DOE SBIR funded research efforts to address these inadequacies.
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Searching for Optimal Solutions for Motor Performance Design

Honda R&D Co.,Ltd.-Yuko Miyabe, Masahito Kakema, Toshihiro Saito
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0460
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper relates a method for seeking Pareto solutions for strength, torque-rotational speed characteristics, losses, and exciting force in the preliminary design of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) and carrying out optimal design in an integrated manner. As to the constraint on strength, it was determined that the von Mises stress on the rotor core with respect to the load of the centrifugal force at 1.2 times the maximum rotational speed should not exceed the breaking strength of common electrical steel sheet material. As to the torque-rotational speed characteristic, this was determined to be the maximum torque for each rotational speed, taking into account the maximum voltage and current input when maximum torque per ampere control and field weakening control are applied. The maximum torque at low rotational speed and the maximum power at maximum rotational speed were taken as evaluation parameters. Losses were defined as the total value of DC copper loss occurring in the coil and iron loss occurring in the stator and rotor core. As to the exciting force, the 6th…
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Microstructure-Fatigue Property Relationships for Cast Irons

National Research Council (Canada)-Xijia Wu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0187
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Cast irons are widely used for combustion engine/exhaust system applications, not only because they are less expensive but also because they offer some attractive properties such as good thermal conductivity, relatively high specific yield strength, and good oxidation resistance. Cast irons can be made with a wide variety of microstructures containing either flake-like graphite (FG), nodular graphite (NG) or vermicular graphite (VG), or mixing of the above, which control their mechanical and fatigue properties. In this paper, a microstructure-fatigue property relationship model is developed, combining the Tanaka-Mura-Wu’s fatigue crack nucleation model with Eshelby’s solution for materials containing ellipsoidal inclusions. This applies to cast irons considering its microstructural graphite characters (shape, size, elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio). This model is used to analyse ductile cast iron (DCI) with nodular graphite (NG) microstructure, grey cast iron (GCI) with flake-like graphite (FG) microstructure, and compacted graphite iron (CGI) with vermicular graphite (VG) microstructure. Excellent agreement is found between the model prediction and the experimental data or the Coffin-Manson-Basquin correlations at room temperature. Further development will be to incorporate…
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Improved Wear Resistance of Austempered Gray Cast Iron Using Shot-Peening Treatment

Oakland University-Yu Liu, Gary Barber
Zhejiang Sci-Tech University-Weiwei Cui, Bingxu Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1098
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this research, ball-on-plate reciprocating sliding wear tests were utilized on austempered and quench-tempered gray cast iron samples with and without shot-peening treatment. The wear volume loss of the gray cast iron samples with different heat treatment designs was compared under equivalent hardness. The phase transformation in the matrix was studied using metallurgical evaluation and hardness measurement. It was found that thin needle-like ferrite became coarse gradually with increasing austempering temperature and was converted into feather-like shape when using the austempering temperatures of 399°C (750°F). The residual stress on the surface and sub-surface before and after shot-peening treatment was analyzed using x-ray diffraction. Compressive residual stress was produced after shot-peening treatment and showed an increasing trend with austempering temperature. In sliding wear tests, austempered gray cast iron had lower wear volume loss than quench-tempered gray cast iron before and after shot-peening treatment. The wear tracks were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Delamination and smearing were the main wear mechanisms on the gray cast iron samples.
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The role of NOx in engine lubricant oxidation

Infineum UK, Ltd.-David R. Coultas
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1427
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Engine technology trends like downsizing, direct injection and effective lean NOx aftertreatment have created challenging environments for lubricating oils. Longer contact times of the lubricant with fuel and NOx, higher sump temperatures and higher NOx levels in blow-by gas promote nitration-oxidation driven by the action of NOx and air on hydrocarbons. Nitration-oxidation has often been overlooked as a mechanism of oil oxidation in real world engines. Indeed, the emphasis is almost exclusively on iron catalysed oxidation in bench tests purporting to protect modern engines against lubricant oxidation. This paper will demonstrate that a proprietary bench nitration-oxidation test is capable of reproducing trends in nitrate ester formation and consumption seen in real engines, which also fully explain the resulting impact on lubricant oxidation without the use of iron catalysts.
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Advances in Drilling with PCD (Polycrystalline Diamond)

Facet Precision Tool GmbH-Jeremy Bunting, John Bunting
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0035
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
PCD properties were optimized to drill stacks of CFRP/Ti using an accelerated wear test milling gray cast iron. The optimized PCD was then used to prepare PCD drills. Tests were made to determine the best drilling conditions for the optimized PCD. The results yielded a significant improvement in cycle times as compared to earlier studies using PCD drills. Notched PCD cutting edges were found to eliminate oversizing of the CFRP near the interface of the two materials.
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Iron Nanorobots Destroy Cancer Cells

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36238
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Drug-coated iron nanowires that can be guided to the site of a tumor using an external magnetic field before activating a three-step cancer-killing mechanism could provide an effective option for cancer therapy.

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COUPLING, V-RETAINER, DOUBLE LATCH, TYPE I STANDARD PROFILE

G-3, Aerospace Couplings, Fittings, Hose, Tubing Assemblies
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS1895/22D
  • Current
Published 2020-02-25 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Automotive Pipe, Filler, and Drain Plugs

Air Brake Tubing and Tube Ftg Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J531_202002
  • Current
Published 2020-02-03 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard includes complete general and dimensional specifications for those types of pipe, filler, and drain plugs (shown in Figures 1 to 6 and Tables 1 to 4) commonly used in automotive and related industrial applications.
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Ultra-Thin Layers of Rust Generate Electricity from Flowing Water

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35722
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Research shows that thin films of rust (iron oxide) can generate electricity when saltwater flows over them. These films represent an entirely new way of generating electricity and could be used to develop new forms of sustainable power production.