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The Design of Safe-Reliable-Optimal Performance for Automated Driving Systems on Multiple Lanes with Merging Features

Honda Motor Co., Ltd.-Kaijiang Yu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0122
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Safety function for automated driving systems including advanced driver assistance systems and autonomous vehicle systems is very important. Inside safety function, predictive judge sub-function should be designed with the consideration of more and more penetration of automated driving vehicles. This paper presents the design on multiple lanes with merging features based on the author's previous Patent JP2019-147944 using predictive time-head-way and time-to-collision maps. In the author's previous work (Model Predictive Control for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Platooning Using Slope Information-Published on IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems), a model predictive control framework was designed. Due to the difficulty to detail the sub-safety function deeply with merging features, few works are found to deal with sensor platforms focusing on rear side, and situations of merging lane side with the consideration of relative relation variations with other vehicles and road border markers. However, performance enhancement is needed assuring 100% safety-reliability-optimality and single-objectivity. Also, platforms of on-board sensors including side and rear view are needed to deal with false negative operations and false positive operations. The optimal operation line…
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A Pre-Warning Method for Cornering Speed of Concrete Mixer Truck

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Yifeng Jiang, Haoyu Wang, Zelong Wang, Zhenyu Wang, Ming Li
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1003
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The high gravity center of the concrete mixer truck reduces the truck’s stability while steering. The rolling stirring tank makes the stability even worse than the regular engineering vehicle due to the dynamic variation of the centroid position. Most of the researches on the rollover stability of concrete mixer trucks focus on the rollover model establishment and dynamic simulation module. The change of concrete centroid is ignored when the safety cornering speed is calculated. This paper proposes a pre-warning method for the cornering speed of concrete mixer trucks based on centroid dynamic simulation. In the method, the mixing tank stirring model and the vehicle driving dynamic model are established on the Fluent and TruckSim simulation platforms, respectively. The theoretical speed threshold obtained by simulation is used as the evaluation index of the warning speed in the curve. Firstly, the dynamic simulation of the stirring tank model is carried out by Fluent. According to Newton Leibniz numerical calculation method, Matlab is used to obtain the mathematical model of the centroid position and the main parameters of…
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Main Features of Forming the Transmission of an Active Multi-Link Road Train

Belarusian National Technical University-Sergey Haritonchik
Moscow Bauman State Technical University-Boris Belousov
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0427
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The development of the economy and the associated growth in trade both within the country and international transport, the associated construction and development of transport routes using elements of intelligent transport systems constantly require increasing the efficiency of trunk transportation. In addition, the development of new economic regions with an undeveloped road network is impossible without high-capacity motor vehicles and cross-country ability. To achieve these goals, the creation of active road trains, including multi-link ones, based on non-traditional technical solutions, is required. The idea of using multi-link trains in the system of intercity and international transportation is not new. However, at the present stage of development of automotive technology requires rethinking and use of new achievements of science and technology. At present, the process of changing the design of land vehicles, qualitatively changing their structure and composition of the main power devices based on the integration of electronic, electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic and mechanical elements and significantly increasing the role of electronics and control systems, i.e. widespread introduction of mechatronic systems and modules in the design…
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Vehicle accelerator and brake pedal on-off state judgment by using speed recognition

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Zhongpeng Tian, Bo Yang, Cong linpeng, Fangyu Zhou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1377
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The development of intelligent transportation improves road efficiency, reduces automobile energy consumption and improves driving safety. The core of intelligent transportation is the two-way information interaction between vehicles and road environment. At present, mainly the road environment information transmits to vehicles, while the information of vehicles rarely transmits to the outside. The electronic throttle and electronic braking systems of some vehicles using sensors to get the state of the accelerator and brake pedal, which can be transmitted to the outside through technologies such as the Internet of vehicles. But, Internet of vehicles technology has not been widely used, and it relies on signal sources, which is a passive way of information acquisition. In this paper, an active identification method is proposed to get vehicle pedal on-off state also driver operation behavior through existing traffic facilities. The research object is commercial vehicles driving on expressways. Vehicle speed is acquired by the camera, and specific vehicle models are identified by the camera to get the relevant vehicle parameters from vehicle model database. Combined with road environment data,…
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Cooperative Estimation of Road Grade Based on Multidata Fusion for Vehicle Platoon with Optimal Energy Consumption

Jilin University-Fangwu Ma, Yu Yang, Jiawei Wang, Yang Zhao, Yucheng Shen, Guanpu Wu
The Ohio State University-Bilin Aksun Guvenc, Levent Guvenc
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0586
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The platooning of automated vehicles possesses the significant potential of reducing energy consumption in the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). Moreover, with the rapid development of eco-driving technology, vehicle platoon can further enhance the fuel efficiency by optimizing the efficiency of the powertrain. Since road grade takes great account effectting energy consumption of vehicle, the estimation of the road grade with high accuracy is the key factor for connected vehicle platoon to optimize energy consumption using vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. Commonly the road grade is quantified by single consumer grade global positioning system (GPS) with the geodetic height data which is rough in meter-level, increasing the difficulty to precisely estimate the road grade. This paper presents a novel cooperative estimation method Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to obtain the accurate information of slopes by multidata fusion of GPS, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) using vehicle platoon communication, i.e. the following vehicle fuses the data which was measured by the on-board sensors and delivered by the proceding vehicle. Considering the accurate road grade information, the fuel consumption optimazition of the…
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Research on AEB Collision Avoidance Strategy Based on Characteristics of Driver-Vehicle-Road

Jiangsu University-Ren He, Dong Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1213
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the rise of intelligent transportation systems around the world, research on automobile active safety technology has gained widespread attention. Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) which can avoid or mitigate collision by active braking has become a hot research topic in the field of automobile. However, there are some limitations in the present AEB collision avoidance strategy, including lack of effective identification of road adhesion conditions, mismatch of active braking system parameters and imperfection of target vehicle motion information, which leads to poor collision avoidance performance on low adhesion coefficient road surface and intervention with the normal driving operation of the driver. A new collision avoidance strategy for AEB is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a new safe distance collision avoidance model is established based on the peak adhesion coefficient in real time, the performance parameters of the active braking system and the motion information of the target vehicle. Secondly, under the premise of not interfering with the driver's normal collision avoidance operation, an AEB collision avoidance strategy that can balance vehicle safety and intervention comfort…
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A Secure and Privacy-Preserving Collaborative Machine Learning System for Intelligent Transportation System

Harman International India Pvt., Ltd.-Vivek Agrawal, Asadullah Ansari, Sharath D H
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0139
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous vehicles assemble multiple intelligent mobility solutions to create an intelligent transportation system on the road. The intelligent mobility solutions across autonomous vehicles are achieved using advanced machine learning algorithms. The intelligence of the machine learning algorithms is proportional to the amount of variations in the training data fed into the algorithms. The static machine learning algorithms in the autonomous driving system fails to handle the new variations in the dynamic input data, which requires the continuous retraining of the machine learning models to adapt to the changes in input distribution. The dynamic driving environment through which the machine learning algorithms retrains differs from vehicle to vehicle. This difference in varied driving environments for different vehicles is reflected in terms of different retraining data for machine learning models which causes disproportional intelligence among difference vehicles for each driving functionalities. Here, the proposed system solves the intelligence mismatch problem by enhancing the intelligence of the machine learning models in different vehicles by transferring the learned knowledge from machine learning model of one vehicle to another across…
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Optimization of Intersection Safety based on V2X Communication

Tongji University-Biao Wu
Tongji Universtiy-Maozhu Liao, Zhixiong Ma, Rui Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1376
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Intersections serve as nodes of multiple roads where multiple vehicles meet. Compared with straight roads the traffic environment of intersection is more complex. As a result, accidents in those areas, with the frequent occurrence and severe consequences, are the focus of the study. Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) improves road safety and traffic efficiency of Intelligent Transport System (ITS) in the future. Based on V2X cooperative communications, wireless interconnected vehicles, pedestrians, and infrastructures can collect and change the traffic environmental information with other road users in real-time. Therefore, the potentially dangerous situations in an extended time and space horizon can be perceived. The users of V2X communication devices can utilize computing systems with computers and extended sensors onboard. Based on the intersection road-side infrastructure, Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication has been actively considered to be used in the intersection areas because of the high frequency and serious consequences of traffic accidents. The vehicle dynamic characters Time to Collision (TTC) and Estimating Post Encroachment Time (EPET) are applied to establish the optimized model of intersection safety. Given safety and efficiency, the…
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Service Specific Permissions and Security Guidelines for Connected Vehicle Applications

Security Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2945/5_202002
  • Current
Published 2020-02-05 by SAE International in United States
SAE is developing a number of standards, including the SAE J2945/x and SAE J3161/x series, that specify a set of applications using message sets from the SAE J2735 data dictionary. (“Application” is used here to mean “a collection of activities including interactions between different entities in the service of a collection of related goals and associated with a given IEEE Provider Service Identifier (PSID)”). Authenticity and integrity of the communications for these applications are ensured using digital signatures and IEEE 1609.2 digital certificates, which also indicate the permissions of the senders using Provider Service Identifiers (PSIDs) and Service Specific Permissions (SSPs). The PSID is a globally unique identifier associated with an application specification that unambiguously describes how to build interoperable instances of that application. If the application features multiple activities such that different activities have different security impacts, correspond to different roles, or require different capabilities, then the application specifier should define an SSP data structure such that the contents of the SSP in a given certificate indicate which activities the certificate holder is entitled…
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The Navigator

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: January 2020

  • Magazine Article
  • 20AVEP01_02
Published 2020-01-01 by SAE International in United States

After years of heavy lobbying from the cable and wireless industry, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is on the verge of reallocating most of the spectrum that had been set aside for intelligent transportation systems including vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications. While various automakers have been vocal in their support of V2X, the industry as a whole has only itself to blame for this development.

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