Your Selections

Independent suspension
Show Only


File Formats

Content Types









   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Attitude Control of the Vehicle with Six In-Wheel Drive and Adaptive Hydro Pneumatic Suspensions

Tsinghua University-Boxin Li, Gangtie Zheng, Zhaokui Wang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The ability of actively adjusting attitude provides a great advantage for those vehicles used in special environments such as off-road environment with extreme terrains and obstacles. It can improve vehicles’ stability and performance. This paper proposes an attitude control system for realizing the active attitude adjustment and vehicle motion control in the same time. The study is based on a vehicle with six wheel independent drive and six independent suspensions (6WIDIS), which is a kind of unmanned vehicle with six in-wheel drives and six independent hydro pneumatic suspensions. With the hydro- pneumatic suspensions, the vehicle’s attitude can be actively adjusted. This paper develops a centralized- distributed control strategy with attitude information obtained by multi-sensor fusion, which can coordinate the complex relationship among the six wheels and suspensions. The attitude control system consists of three parts. The first part is the attitude determination that includes attitude sensors and a method to measure any quantity sensitive to attitude and determine the real-time vehicle status. The second part is the attitude adjustment that computes the input torques to…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Development of Block Cycle Test Load for Structural Durability Validation of MacPherson Strut

General Motors Technical Center India-Nuli Veda Murthy, Sritharan Gopal, Siddeshwaran T
General Motors Vehicle Engineering Center-Kevin Kilburn
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The MacPherson strut is a simple and common across all automotive’s front suspension of passenger cars. It is an independent suspension type, including a single suspension arm (spring and damper), an anti-roll bar and a lower arm. The MacPherson strut must have sufficient stiffness to support cornering force and fore/aft loads. Fatigue test of MacPherson strut suspension can be done in multiple ways. Most common method is laboratory testing/rig test. The objective of laboratory testing is to validate the MacPherson strut physically for all possible real-time events. Replicating all real-time events in lab environment is a challenging task. For many years this limitation was addressed through experience, however it has often led to either over or inferior design. The expected life span of automotive components like MacPherson strut varies considerably but it can be measurable in years/miles. It becomes virtually challenging to prove the product under service conditions over its whole design life. Hence, it becomes necessary to depend on accelerated testing methods to predict long-term performance and brings out feebleness in the structure in…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

AxleTech develops electric independent suspension concept for vehicles up to 58,000-lb GCWR

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: August 2018

Ryan Gehm
  • Magazine Article
  • 18TOFHP08_05
Published 2018-08-01 by SAE International in United States

Intended for a range of vehicle types-full battery electric vehicles, fuel cell range-extender EVs, and internal combustion engine or turbine generator range extenders-the 5000 Series electric independent suspension axle system (eISAS) recently revealed by AxleTech serves as a complete electric powertrain. As such, the next-generation concept can eliminate the need for a traditional drivetrain, including engine, transmission, and gearboxes-the result being reduced weight and maintenance costs, according to the Troy, Mich.-based technology company.

Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Nikola CEO: Fuel-cell Class 8 truck on track for 2021

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: October 2017

Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 17TOFHP10_08
Published 2017-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Stressing that Nikola Motor's primary intent is to eliminate emissions related to Class 8 over-the-road trucking, company president and CEO Trevor Milton confirmed at a technology conference in Detroit that Nikola remains on track to deliver its first fuel cell-powered electric trucks beginning in 2021.

Annotation ability available

Aircraft Rescue Fire Fighting Vehicles (ARFF)

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-27179
Published 2017-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Oshkosh Defense, LLC Oshkosh, WI 920-235-9150

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Brake Flexible Dynamic Analysis Attached to McPherson Suspension, Optimizing the Input Parameters in IPS Cable Simulation

General Motors do Brasil-Paulo Augusto Mayer, Anderson Petronilho, André Tognolli, Fabio Santos Batista, Jamilton Vidal da Silva
Published 2016-10-25 by SAE International in United States
The high level of reliability of virtual analysis for suspension system development should not be thinking only for comfort and performance purpose, considering the `growing number of failures due to the touch between components in dynamic condition.The study establishes a simple and optimized methodology, able to predict more accurately the flexible brake hose path subject to the steering motion and associates with the independent suspension course, aiming the best route in order to achieve a low cost and robust design.In turn, the flexible brake hose non-linear model invalidates the multibody study to get the best route. However, with the aid of motion making use of NX9 [1] CAD [2] software was prepared dynamic movement that subjects front independent suspension system that establishes a Cartesian routine that maps 977 points, much higher than 9 points from previous studies, comprising a more accurate path performed by the hose.This data served as input to the IPS [3] software for the construction of flexible model to be simulated, were assigned mechanical and geometrical properties for each component.Finally, it was…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Methodology for Durability Evaluation of an Automotive Trailing Arm Damper Pin Using Road Load Spindle Acceleration

Mahindra and Mahindra, Ltd.-Sagar Polisetti, Siddesh Gowda, Nitin Kumar Khanna, Manjul Jyoti
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Suspension system is one of the most important systems in an automobile and the failure in the sub systems or parts would prove catastrophic. A semi-trailing arm (STA) suspension is an independent rear suspension system for automobiles where each wheel hub is located only by a large, roughly triangular arm that pivots at two points onto the chassis or the body. STA usually is subjected to three directional loads viz. vertical, longitudinal and lateral in service. The conventional methodology of validating the system is by applying multi-axial loads or by road load simulation consuming significant amount of time. In this paper an attempt is being made to validate the damper mounting pins by reproducing the damper loads locally instead of validating the entire system. STA was strain gauged at the critical locations and was mounted onto the vehicle. Accelerometer was mounted onto the wheel spindle and a displacement transducer (LVDT) was mounted parallel to the damper mounted to the body and the STA. The vehicle was run on the test tracks and the corresponding STA…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Development of Bicycle Carrier for Bicyclist Pre-Collision System Evaluation

Indiana University Purdue University-Qiang Yi, Stanley Chien, Jason Brink, Mohammad Almutairi, Keyu Ruan, Wensen Niu, Lingxi Li, Yaobin Chen
TEMA-Rini Sherony
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
According to the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 743 pedal cyclists were killed and 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle crashes in 2013. As a novel active safety equipment to mitigate bicyclist crashes, bicyclist Pre-Collision Systems (PCSs) are being developed by many vehicle manufacturers. Therefore, developing equipment for evaluating bicyclist PCS is essential. This paper describes the development of a bicycle carrier for carrying the surrogate bicyclist in bicyclist PCS testing. An analysis on the United States national crash databases and videos from TASI 110 car naturalistic driving database was conducted to determine a set of most common crash scenarios, the motion speed and profile of bicycles. The bicycle carrier was designed to carry or pull the surrogate bicyclist for bicycle PCS evaluation. The carrier is a platform with a 4 wheel differential driving system. Each wheel is attached to an independent suspension system to protect motors, gears and reduce the vibrations. The height of carrier was minimized to 78mm for reducing the interference to PCS sensors. To ensure it can be run over…
Annotation ability available


Automotive Engineering: January 6, 2016

Jack K. Yamaguchi
  • Magazine Feature Article
  • 16AUTD01_03
Published 2016-01-01 by SAE International in United States

Sports cars take center stage in Tokyo

Once upon a time, the Tokyo Motor Show was considered one of the biggest. However, not anymore, in terms of its acreage, numbers of exhibit brands, and visitors; it is now dwarfed by such Asian aspirers as Shanghai, Beijing, and Seoul. The show's allure had hugely diminished when most of the foreign continents lost their Big Sight venue spots for a couple of shows after the Great Lehman Bros crisis.

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Comparative Analysis on a Rectilinear Independent Suspension with Traditional Ones

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Xiang Liu, Jie Zhang, Jingshan Zhao
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0632
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Suspension plays an essential role in vehicle's handling stability and riding comfort. This paper discusses a novel suspension that has the capacity to trace a straight line in theory. Therefore it is called rectilinear suspension. So the alignment parameters are invariable during jounce and rebound if the elasticity of suspension components is ignored. According to the structure characteristics of the rectilinear suspension, it is suitable to mount on the rear axle. To evaluate its performance, the dynamics model is established through ADAMS. Moreover, a comparison of the rectilinear suspension with the twin-trapezoidal link suspension is carried out. Further, the K&C test results show that the alignment parameters of the rectilinear suspension are almost invariable compared with MacPherson suspension.
Annotation ability available