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Using Vehicle EDR Data to Calculate Motorcycle Delta-V in Motorcycle-Vehicle Lateral Front End Impacts

Momentum Engineering Corp.-Edward Fatzinger, Chris Johnk, Jon Landerville
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0885
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This research focuses on the use of Event Data Recorders (EDR) to assist in calculating speed loss or Delta-V undergone by a motorcycle in a broadside type impact into a vehicle. One common methodology in calculating motorcycle Delta-V utilizes measurement of the deformation to both the vehicle and motorcycle. In certain scenarios however, it becomes difficult to calculate the motorcycle Delta-V from analysis of deformation. For instance, if the front suspension becomes fractured or separated on the motorcycle, or the motorcycle collides with the wheel area of the vehicle, deformation measurement may be unfavorable. If the struck vehicle has EDR data, this could be a useful tool in calculating motorcycle Delta-V or corroborating motorcycle Delta-V calculations from crush or other methodologies. Certain parameters critical to calculation of motorcycle Delta-V must be considered, including the appropriate effective mass to use for the motorcycle/rider combination. In addition, comparisons were made between instrumented yaw rate and calculated yaw rate to account for the airbag control module (ACM) location. In this study, three crash tests were performed in which…
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Calibration and Validation of GISSMO Damage Model for A 780-MPa Third Generation Advanced High Strength Steel

Ford Motor Company-Tau Tyan, Krishnakanth Aekbote
United States Steel Corporation-Guofei Chen, Lu Huang, Todd M. Link
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0198
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To accurately evaluate vehicle crash performance in the early design stages, a reliable fracture model is needed in crash simulations to predict fracture initiation and propagation. In this paper, a generalized incremental stress state dependent damage model (GISSMO) in LS-DYNA® was calibrated and validated for a 780-MPa third generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS), namely 780 XG3TM steel with a superior combination of high strength and excellent ductility. The fracture locus of the 780 XG3TM steel was experimentally characterized under various stress states including uniaxial tension, shear, plane strain and equi-biaxial stretch conditions. A process to calibrate the parameters in the GISSMO model was developed and successfully applied to the 780 XG3TM steel using the fracture test data for these stress states. The calibrated GISSMO fracture card for 780 XG3TM steel was then validated in simulations of wedge-bend tests, two notched tensile tests and axial crash tests of octagonal, 12-sided and 16-sided components. The predicted fracture locations, displacement at fracture and force-displacement curves agreed well with the test results. The study also demonstrates that 780…
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Evaluation of Near- and Far-Side Occupant Loading in Low- to Moderate-Speed Side Impact Motor Vehicle Collisions

Exponent Inc-Sarah Sherman, Christina Garman, Alan Dibb
Exponent Inc.-Megan Toney-Bolger, Jessica Isaacs
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1218
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Many side-impact collisions occur at speeds much lower than tests conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). In fact, nearly half of all occupants in side-impact collisions experience a change in velocity (delta-V) below 15 kph (9.3 mph). However, studies of occupant loading in collisions of low- to moderate-severity, representative of many real-world collisions, is limited. While prior research has measured occupant responses using both human volunteers and anthropometric test devices (ATDs), these tests have been conducted at relatively low speeds (<10 kph [<6.2 mph] delta-V). This study evaluated near- and far-side occupant response and loading during two side impacts with delta-V of 6.1 kph and 14.0 kph (3.8 mph and 8.7 mph). In each crash test, a Non-Deformable Moving Barrier (NDMB) impacted the side of a late-model, mid-sized sedan in a configuration consistent with the IIHS side-impact crash-test protocol. Two instrumented Hybrid III 50th-percentile male ATDs were positioned in the vehicle, one in the driver's seat and one in the right, front passenger seat.…
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Evaluation of occupant kinematics during low- to moderate-speed side impacts

Exponent Inc.-Juff George, Mathieu Davis, Sarah Sharpe, Joseph Olberding, Stacy Imler, Robert Bove
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1222
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
While nearly 50 percent of occupants in side-impact collisions are in vehicles that experience a velocity change (delta-V) below 15.0 kph (9.3 mph), full scale crash testing research at these delta-Vs is limited. Understanding occupant kinematics in response to these types of side impacts can be important to the design of side-impact safety countermeasures, as well as evaluating potential interactions with interior vehicle structures and/or with other occupants in the vehicle. In the current study, two full-scale crash tests were performed utilizing a late-model, mid-size sedan with disabled airbags. The test vehicle was impacted by a non-deformable moving barrier on the driver side at an impact speed of 10.0 kph (6.2 mph) in the first test and then on the passenger side at an impact speed of 21.6 kph (13.4 mph) in the second test. As can occur in real-world collisions, the initial impacts to the vehicle were followed by subsequent lower severity contacts. In both tests, Hybrid III 50th-percentile male anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) were restrained in the driver and right front passenger seats.…
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Biomechanics of Passenger Vehicle Underride: An Analysis of IIHS Crash Test Data

Vollmer-Gray Engineering Laboratories-Mohammad Atarod
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0525
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Occupant dynamics during passenger vehicle underride has not been widely evaluated. The present study examined the occupant data from IIHS rear underride crash tests. A total of 35 crash tests were evaluated. The tests were classified as full-width (n=9), 50% overlap (n=11), and 30% overlap (n=15). A 2010 Chevrolet Malibu impacted the rear underride guard of a stationary trailer at 35 mph. The trailer was filled with concrete blocks and attached to a 2001 Kenworth tractor. Several occupant kinematics and dynamics data including head accelerations, head injury criteria, neck shear and axial forces, neck moments, neck indices, chest acceleration, chest displacement, chest viscous criterion, sternum deflection rate, and left/right femur forces/impulses, knee displacements, upper/lower tibia moments, upper/lower tibia indices, tibia axial forces, and foot accelerations were measured. The vehicle accelerations, vehicle delta-Vs, and occupant compartment intrusions were also evaluated during these crash tests. The results indicated that the head and neck injury parameters were correlated with driver A-pillar rearward intrusion. The 30% overlap crashes showed significantly higher intrusion and head and neck injury values than…
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Evaluation of General Motors Event Data Recorder Performance in Semi-Trailer Rear Underride Collisions

Momentum Engineering Corp.-Nicholas Famiglietti, Ryan Hoang, Edward Fatzinger, Jon Landerville
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1328
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this study was to analyze the validity of airbag control module data in semi-trailer rear underride collisions. These types of impacts involve unusual collision dynamics, including unusually long crash pulses and minimal bumper engagement. For this study, publicly available data from 16 semi-trailer underride guard crash tests performed by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) were used to form conclusions about the accuracy of General Motors airbag control module delta-V data in a semi-trailer rear impact underride scenario. These tests all utilized a 2016 Chevrolet Malibu impacting a stationary 53’ semi-trailer at a speed of 35 mph. Nine of these tests were full width overlap collisions, six were 30% offset, and one was 50% offset. The IIHS test vehicles were equipped with calibrated 10000Hz accelerometer units which were used as a reference. The accelerometer data had been integrated to speed (ΔV) and filtered, allowing direct comparison. Event data recorder (EDR) data imaged post-accident from the test vehicles was compared to the reference IIHS instrumentation. Normalized root mean square error for each…
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A Human Body Model Study on Restraints for Side-Facing Occupants in Frontal Crashes of an Automated Vehicle

Joyson Safety Systems-Maika Katagiri, Sungwoo Lee
Joyson Safety Systems, NA-Jay Zhijian Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0980
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study is to investigate kinematics and responses of side-facing seated occupants in frontal crashes of an automated minivan using Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) simplified occupant models (50th%ile male and 5th%ile female), and to develop new restraint concepts to protect the occupants. The latest GHBMC M50-OS and F05-OS models (version 2.1) were further validated with the Postmortem Human Subject (PMHS) side sled tests [Cavanaugh 1990] and the PMHS far-side sled tests [Formen 2013], with detailed correlations of the kinematics and the injury measures. Robustness and biofidelity of the GHBMC human models, especially for the pelvis and knee body regions, were further improved. Using the improved M50-OS and F05-OS models, we evaluated the body kinematics and injury measures of the side-facing seated occupants in frontal crashes at severities ranging from 15 mph to 35 mph. Three restraint conditions were studied: 1) no restraint; 2) lap belt only; 3) lap belt and conceptual inflatable device. An additional parametric study on the restraint design parameters of the #3 restraint concept was performed to “optimize” the restraint…
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The Effect of FMVSS 301R on Vehicle Structure in Rear Impact

Collision Research & Analysis Inc-Gregory Stephens
Exponent Inc.-Chantal Parenteau, Jennifer Yaek, Serge Gregory
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1226
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle structures are designed to manage impact forces and transfer crash energy. With the introduction of new rear impact requirements, the design of rear structures has evolved and the use of high strength steel has increased. This study objective was to assess the effect of new FMVSS 301 requirements on vehicle responses. NHTSA conducted 33 offset rear crash tests at 80 km/h with vehicles that pre-dated the newer FMVSS 301R requirements and 86 with vehicles that complied with the newer requirements, with a 2009-2015 model year range. The vehicles were grouped by size and the crush was tabulated. Overall, the struck-side maximum crush decreased in the newer model vehicles. Seven matches with pre and post 301R were identified based on make and model. The matched tests were reconstructed using video analysis and crush measurements of both the barrier and vehicle. Generalized vehicle stiffness was determined for each of the matched tests and indicated that vehicles generally became stiffer with new 301R requirements. The average stiffness was about two-times greater in the post-301R models than in…
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compatibility for reducing serious injury in side impact

Toyota Motor Co., Ltd.-Satoshi Akima, Noboru Tanase, Masato Kunisada
Toyota Motor North America Inc-Jason Hallman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0982
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
According to the research about SUV side impact by Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), it has be found that the side impact by pickup or SUV lead to larger injury criteria at pelvis and leg as compared to the side impact by IIHS SUV MDB. The root cause of the high injury criteria is large deformation of door. Intrusion of stiff front side members deformed the door. Although IIHS SUV MDB does not have stiff front side members, many pickups and SUVs have. Toyota Motor Corporation have considered frontal characteristic of vehicle. We adopt stiff bumper reinforcement and B-pillar can receive front side members through bumper reinforcement. It leads to small door deformation. We think that not only improvement of crashworthiness about side impact but also improvement of compatibility are effective to decrease fatality by side impact. To prove this idea, car to car side impact test (Highlander to Camry) is conducted.
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Characterization and Quantification of In-Service Windshield Fracture Mechanisms, and Evaluation of Laminate Sharp Impact Resistance as a Function of Construction

Corning Inc-Thomas Tremper, Timothy Huten, Daniel Strong, Elias Merhy, Odile Fraboulet
Corning Inc.-Thomas M. Cleary
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0607
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
An examination of field-fractured windshields was conducted for the purpose of determining their principle fracture mechanisms experienced in-use. Parts for the study were gathered both in the United States (state of NY) and in Europe (France) to explore whether the primary causes of failure were similar or different for the different regions. In total, over two hundred individual field-fractures were obtained and examined for the study. Detailed fracture analysis of the parts was performed, and several different fracture mechanisms were identified and quantified. It was found that the two most dominant failure modes were common for both geographic regions. The most frequent cause (~70%) of windshield fracture was due to sharp particle impact of the exterior ply, while Hertzian cone cracking of the outer ply was the second leading cause (~20%). These and other observed failure modes are detailed below. Given that sharp impact fracture was the dominant failure mode observed, a new high-speed, sharp impact test method was developed and deployed to evaluate numerous laminate constructions for their resistance to this type of event.…