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The In-Depth PHEV Driveline Torsional Vibration Induced Vehicle NVH Response Study by Integrated CAE/Testing Methodology

BAIC Motor Powertrain Co Ltd-Hongzhi Yu, Shouwei lu
BAIC Motor corporation.Ltd.-Qian zhao, Li zhang, Jianning jia, LIE WU, Huimin zhuang, honghui zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1507
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
In this paper,an amesim 1-d refined driveline model, including detailed engine, damper, dual clutch, transmission, differential, motor, halfshaft, wheel, body, suspension, powertrain mounting and powertrain rigid body, was built up, off a p2.5 topology phev,to predict torsional vibration induced vehicle NVH response addressing differing driving scenarios,like WOT rampup,parking engine start/stop,ev driving to tipnin(engine start) then to tipout(engine stop).firstly,the torsional vibration modes were predicted,addressing differing transmission gear steps of hev/ev driving mode,and the critical modes could be detected,as such, caveats/measures could be applied to setup the modal alignment chart/warn other engineering section from the very start of vehicle development; secondly,secondly,the holistic operational testing,which defined plenty measurement points including rpm fluctuation at differing location of engine/transmission,spark angle,crank position,injection angle,valve timing,MAP/MAF,etc, partly for later model calibration,partly for extract mandatory excitation input,like cylinder pressure trace/mount and suspension force,and partly for the reference of next optimization stage, was implemented on vehicle chassis dyno in a hemi-anechoic chamber.as it was merely centered on torsional vibration induced scenarios,the intake system/exhaust system /engine radiation noise contribution was excluded by specific measures,like BAM,etc, during…
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Using Vehicle EDR Data to Calculate Motorcycle Delta-V in Motorcycle-Vehicle Lateral Front End Impacts

Momentum Engineering Corp.-Edward Fatzinger, Jon Landerville
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0885
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This research focuses on the use of Event Data Recorders (EDR) to assist in calculating speed loss or ΔV undergone by a motorcycle in a broadside type impact into a vehicle. If the struck vehicle has EDR data, this could be a useful tool in calculating motorcycle ΔV or corroborating motorcycle ΔV calculations from crush or other methodologies. Certain parameters critical to calculation of motorcycle ΔV must be considered, including the appropriate effective mass to use for the motorcycle/rider combination. This study used crash test data to determine a method of applying parameter values to accurately calculate motorcycle ΔV in a motorcycle-vehicle collision.In this study, three crash tests were performed in which a motorcycle with a dummy rider traveling in the range of 42 to 51 mph collided into the right front corner of a vehicle traveling between 5 and 16 mph. In all three tests, both the vehicle and motorcycle were instrumented with triaxial accelerometers and triaxial rate gyros. The first test involved a 2002 Kawasaki ZRX1200R traveling at 42.2 mph into the right…
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Calibration and Validation of GISSMO Damage Model for A 780-MPa Third Generation Advanced High Strength Steel

Ford Motor Company-Tau Tyan, Krishnakanth Aekbote
United States Steel Corporation-Guofei Chen, Lu Huang, Todd M. Link
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0198
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To accurately evaluate vehicle crash performance in the early design stages, a reliable fracture model is needed in crash simulations to predict fracture initiation and propagation. In this paper, a generalized incremental stress state dependent damage model (GISSMO) in LS-DYNA® was calibrated and validated for a 780-MPa third generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS), namely 780 XG3TM steel with a superior combination of high strength and excellent ductility. The fracture locus of the 780 XG3TM steel was experimentally characterized under various stress states including uniaxial tension, shear, plane strain and equi-biaxial stretch conditions. A process to calibrate the parameters in the GISSMO model was developed and successfully applied to the 780 XG3TM steel using the fracture test data for these stress states. The calibrated GISSMO fracture card for 780 XG3TM steel was then validated in simulations of wedge-bend tests, two notched tensile tests and axial crash tests of octagonal, 12-sided and 16-sided components. The predicted fracture locations, displacement at fracture and force-displacement curves agreed well with the test results. The study also demonstrates that 780…
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Evaluation of Near- and Far-Side Occupant Loading in Low- to Moderate-Speed Side Impact Motor Vehicle Collisions

Exponent Inc.-Megan Toney-Bolger, Sarah Sherman, Jessica Isaacs, Christina Garman, Alan Dibb
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1218
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Many side-impact collisions occur at speeds much lower than tests conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). In fact, nearly half of all occupants in side-impact collisions experience a change in velocity (delta-V) below 15 kph (9.3 mph). However, studies of occupant loading in collisions of low- to moderate-severity, representative of many real-world collisions, is limited. While prior research has measured occupant responses using both human volunteers and anthropometric test devices (ATDs), these tests have been conducted at relatively low speeds (<10 kph [<6.2 mph] delta-V). This study evaluated near- and far-side occupant response and loading during two side impacts with delta-V of 6.1 kph and 14.0 kph (3.8 mph and 8.7 mph). In each crash test, a Non-Deformable Moving Barrier (NDMB) impacted the side of a late-model, mid-sized sedan in a configuration consistent with the IIHS side-impact crash-test protocol. Two instrumented Hybrid III 50th-percentile male ATDs were positioned in the vehicle, one in the driver's seat and one in the right, front passenger seat.…
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Evaluation of Occupant Kinematics during Low- to Moderate-Speed Side Impacts

Exponent Inc.-Juff George, Mathieu Davis, Sarah Sharpe, Joseph Olberding, Stacy Imler, Robert Bove
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1222
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
While nearly 50 percent of occupants in side-impact collisions are in vehicles that experience a velocity change (delta-V) below 15.0 kph (9.3 mph), full scale crash testing research at these delta-Vs is limited. Understanding occupant kinematics in response to these types of side impacts can be important to the design of side-impact safety countermeasures, as well as for evaluating potential interactions with interior vehicle structures and/or with other occupants in the vehicle. In the current study, two full-scale crash tests were performed utilizing a late-model, mid-size sedan with disabled airbags. The test vehicle was impacted by a non-deformable moving barrier on the driver side at an impact speed of 10.0 kph (6.2 mph) in the first test and then on the passenger side at an impact speed of 21.6 kph (13.4 mph) in the second test, resulting in vehicle lateral delta-Vs of 6.1 kph (3.8 mph) and 14.0 kph (8.7 mph), respectively. As can occur in real-world collisions, the initial impacts to the vehicle were followed by subsequent lower severity contacts. In both tests, Hybrid…
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Biomechanics of Passenger Vehicle Underride: An Analysis of IIHS Crash Test Data

Vollmer-Gray Engineering Laboratories-Mohammad Atarod
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0525
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Occupant dynamics during passenger vehicle underride has not been widely evaluated. The present study examined the occupant data from IIHS rear underride crash tests. A total of 35 crash tests were evaluated. The tests were classified as full-width (n=9), 50% overlap (n=11), and 30% overlap (n=15). A 2010 Chevrolet Malibu impacted the rear underride guard of a stationary trailer at 35 mph. The trailer was filled with concrete blocks and attached to a 2001 Kenworth tractor. Several occupant kinematics and dynamics data including head accelerations, head injury criteria, neck shear and axial forces, neck moments, neck indices, chest acceleration, chest displacement, chest viscous criterion, sternum deflection rate, and left/right femur forces/impulses, knee displacements, upper/lower tibia moments, upper/lower tibia indices, tibia axial forces, and foot accelerations were measured. The vehicle accelerations, vehicle delta-Vs, and occupant compartment intrusions were also evaluated during these crash tests. The results indicated that the head and neck injury parameters were correlated with driver A-pillar rearward intrusion. The 30% overlap crashes showed significantly higher intrusion and head and neck injury values than…
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Evaluation of General Motors Event Data Recorder Performance in Semi-Trailer Rear Underride Collisions

Momentum Engineering Corp.-Nicholas Famiglietti, Ryan Hoang, Edward Fatzinger, Jon Landerville
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1328
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this study was to analyze the validity of airbag control module data in semi-trailer rear underride collisions. These impacts involve unusual collision dynamics, including long crash pulses and minimal bumper engagement [1]. For this study, publicly available data from 16 semi-trailer underride guard crash tests performed by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) were used to form conclusions about the accuracy of General Motors airbag control module (ACM) delta-V (ΔV) data in a semi-trailer rear underride scenario. These tests all utilized a 2009 or 2010 Chevrolet Malibu impacting a stationary 48’ or 53’ semi-trailer at a speed of 35 mph. Nine tests were fully overlapped collisions, six were 30% overlapped, and one was 50% overlapped [2]. The IIHS test vehicles were equipped with calibrated 10000 Hz accelerometer units. Event Data Recorder (EDR) data imaged post-accident from the test vehicles were compared to the reference IIHS data. For each test, root mean square error (RMSE), the percent error over time, and the difference between the EDR ΔV and the IIHS ΔV, was…
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Evaluation of Laminated Side Glazing and Curtain Airbags for Occupant Containment in Rollover

Exponent Inc.-Bruce Miller, Janine Smedley, Michael Carhart, Sarah Sharpe
Ford Motor Company-Ram Krishnaswami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0976
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
By their nature as chaotic, high-energy events, rollovers pose an injury risk to occupants, in particular through exposure to perimeter contact and ejection. While seatbelts have long been accepted as a highly effective means of retaining occupants, it has been suggested that technologies such as laminated safety glazing or rollover curtain airbags could alternatively provide effective occupant containment during rollovers. In this study, a full-scale dolly rollover crash test was performed to assess the occupant containment capacity of laminated side glazing and rollover curtain airbags in a high-severity rollover. This allowed for the analysis of unrestrained occupant kinematics during interaction with laminated side glazing and rollover curtain airbags and evaluation of failure modes and limitations of laminated glazing and rollover curtain airbags as they relate to partial and complete ejection of unrestrained occupants. The dolly rollover was performed with a 2010 Chevrolet Express at a nominal speed of 43 mph, with unbelted anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) positioned in the driver, right front passenger, and designated third, fourth, and fifth row seating positions. Vehicle dynamics and…
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A Human Body Model Study on Restraints for Side-Facing Occupants in Frontal Crashes of an Automated Vehicle

Joyson Safety Systems-Maika Katagiri, Sungwoo Lee
Joyson Safety Systems, NA-Jay Zhijian Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0980
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study is to investigate kinematics and responses of side-facing seated occupants in frontal crashes of an automated minivan using Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) simplified occupant models (50th%ile male and 5th%ile female), and to develop new restraint concepts to protect the occupants. The latest GHBMC M50-OS and F05-OS models (version 2.1) were further validated with the Postmortem Human Subject (PMHS) side sled tests [Cavanaugh 1990] and the PMHS far-side sled tests [Formen 2013], with detailed correlations of the kinematics and the injury measures. Robustness and biofidelity of the GHBMC human models, especially for the pelvis and knee body regions, were further improved. Using the improved M50-OS and F05-OS models, we evaluated the body kinematics and injury measures of the side-facing seated occupants in frontal crashes at severities ranging from 15 mph to 35 mph. Three restraint conditions were studied: 1) no restraint; 2) lap belt only; 3) lap belt and conceptual inflatable device. An additional parametric study on the restraint design parameters of the #3 restraint concept was performed to “optimize” the restraint…
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The Effect of FMVSS 301R on Vehicle Structure in Rear Impact

Collision Research & Analysis Inc.-Gregory Stephens
Exponent Inc.-Chantal Parenteau, Jennifer Yaek, Serge Gregory
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1226
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle structures are designed to manage impact forces and transfer crash energy. With the introduction of new rear impact requirements, the design of rear structures has evolved and the use of high strength steel has increased. This study objective was to assess the effect of new FMVSS 301 requirements on vehicle responses. NHTSA conducted 33 offset rear crash tests at 80 km/h with vehicles that pre-dated the newer FMVSS 301R requirements and 86 with vehicles that complied with the newer requirements, with a 2009-2015 model year range. The vehicles were grouped by size and the crush was tabulated. Overall, the struck-side maximum crush decreased in the newer model vehicles. Seven matches with pre and post 301R were identified based on make and model. The matched tests were reconstructed using video analysis and crush measurements of both the barrier and vehicle. Generalized vehicle stiffness was determined for each of the matched tests and indicated that vehicles generally became stiffer with new 301R requirements. The average stiffness was about two-times greater in the post-301R models than in…