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Numerical Simulation of the Early Flame Development Produced by an Advanced Radio Frequency Ignition System in an Optical Access Engine

Universita degli Studi di Perugia-Jacopo Zembi, Michele Battistoni, Carlo Grimaldi, Gabriele Discepoli, luca petrucci
Università degli Studi di Perugia-Federico Ricci
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0231
To be published on 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
In order to reduce engine emissions and fuel consumption, extensive research efforts are being devoted to develop innovative ignition devices, able to extend the stable engine operating range towards increasing lean conditions. Among these, radio frequency corona ignition systems, which produce a strong electric field at a frequency of about 1 MHz, can create discharges characterized by simultaneous thermal and kinetic effects. These devices can considerably increase the early flame growth speed, initiating the combustion process in a wide region, as opposed to the local ignition generated by traditional sparks. To explore the corona ignition behavior, experimental campaigns were carried out to investigate different operating conditions, in a constant volume calorimeter designed to measure the thermal deposited energy. The present work compares the combustion development generated by a traditional spark and the corona igniter through computational fluid dynamics simulations. First, simulations are carried out to reproduce the experimental results in the calorimeter, comparing the measured and predicted pressure traces in an inert environment. The validated approach is then applied in a second step to the…

Ultra-Lean Pre-Chamber Gasoline Engine for Future Hybrid Powertrains

FEV Europe GmbH-Knut Habermann
IFP Energies Nouvelles, Institut Carnot IFPEN TE-David Serrano, Jean-Marc Zaccardi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0104
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Lean burn gasoline spark-ignition engines can support the reduction of CO2 emissions for future hybrid passenger cars. Very high efficiencies and very low NOx raw emissions can be achieved, if relative air/fuel ratios (lambda) of 2 and above can be reached. The biggest challenge here is to assure a reliable ignition process and to enhance the fuel oxidation in order to achieve a short burn duration and a good stability for the combustion. This article aims at introducing an innovative combustion system fully optimized for ultra-lean operation and very high efficiency. Thereto, a new cylinder head concept has been realized with high peak firing pressure capability and with a low surface-to-volume ratio at high compression ratios. 1D and 3D simulations have been performed to optimize the compression ratio, charge motion and intake valve lift. Numerical calculations also supported the development of the ignition system. Stable ignition and fast flame propagation were achieved thanks to a centrally located active pre-chamber which allows to control the air/fuel ratio independently of the air/fuel ratio in the main combustion…

Performance and Emissions of an Advanced Multi-Cylinder SI Engine Operating in Ultra-Lean Conditions

Renault SA-Cédric LIBERT
University of Naples “Federico II”-Fabio Bozza, Daniela Tufano, Enrica Malfi, Luigi Teodosio, Vincenzo De Bellis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0075
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Along the design process of a new engine, the calibration phase at the test bench usually involves a relevant percentage of the overall time-to-market. Each control variable, in fact, needs to be properly selected to optimize the performance and emissions, complying with thermal and mechanical stresses limits of the engine. This issue is still more critical for advanced engine architectures, which include additional control variables, such as valve phasing, turbocharger control, EGR level, etc. The aim of this work is the development of a numerically performed calibration procedure, applied to a prototype multi-cylinder Spark Ignition (SI) engine, designed to operate at very lean mixtures. To this aim, an active Pre-Chamber ignition system is considered. The required air flow rate is indeed provided by a Low-Pressure (LP) variable geometry turbocharger group, coupled to a high-pressure e-compressor. A Variable Valve Timing (VVT) device is also selected to reduce pumping losses at low load and for knock control at high-load. For the above engine, seven control variables have to be fixed in each operating condition, namely the Air/Fuel…

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of a Pre-Chamber Turbulent Jet Ignition Combustion System

Istituto Motori CNR-Francesco Catapano, Paolo Sementa
Politecnico di Bari-Elia Distaso, Riccardo Amirante, Egidio Cassone, Pietro De Palma, Paolo Tamburrano
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0018
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The growing demand for more efficient and less polluting internal combustion engine has pushed the development of non-conventional ignition systems. One of the most promising techniques appears to be the so-called Pre-Chamber initiated Turbulent Jet Ignition Combustion system in which a jet of hot combusting gasses is employed to initiate the combustion in the main chamber. In the present study, the combustion process related to this ignition system has been experimentally investigated in an optically accessible single cylinder Spark-Ignition engine. The pre-chamber was composed of a gas injector and a miniaturized spark-plug, embedded in a small annular chamber connected to the cylinder through a 4 holes pipette. A small amount of methane is injected within the pre-chamber for initiating the combustion. The flame reaches the combustion chamber through the four narrow orifices and rapidly consumes a homogeneous mixture of port injected gasoline and air. Wide open throttle conditions and various engine speeds were considered. The combustion process evolution and engine’s performance were analyzed in terms of 2D-digital imaging measurements as well as pressure and heat…

Experimental Studies of Gasoline Auxiliary Fuelled Turbulent Jet Igniter at Different Speeds in Single Cylinder Engine

Brunel University-Khalifa Isa Bureshaid, Hua Zhao
Mahle Powertrain Ltd-Michael Bunce
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0105
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI) is a pre-chamber ignition system for an otherwise standard gasoline spark ignition engine. TJI works by injecting chemical active turbulent jets to initiate combustion in a premixed fuel/air mixture. The main advantage of TJI is its ability to ignite and burn completely very lean fuel/air mixtures in the main chamber charge. This occurs with a very fast burn rate due to the widely distributed ignition sites that consume the main charge rapidly. Rapid combustion of lean mixtures leads to lower exhaust emissions due to more complete combustion at lower combustion temperature. This research investigates the effectiveness of the TJI system on combustion stability, lean limit and emissions in a single cylinder spark engine fuelled with gasoline at different speeds. The combustion and heat release process was analysed and exhaust emissions measured. Results show that the effect of TJI system on the lean-burn limit and exhaust emissions varied with engine speeds. The lean limit was extended by increasing engine speed, to λ = 1.71 with 1200 rpm, followed by λ = 1.69…

SAE 17.6 Cubic Inch Spark Plug Rating Engine

Ignition Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2203_201906
  • Current
Published 2019-06-11 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Standard defines the standard engine to be used in determining spark plug preignition ratings. The engine is known as the SAE 17.6 Cubic Inch Spark Plug Rating Engine.


Gasoline Fueled Pre-Chamber Ignition System for a Light-Duty Passenger Car Engine with Extended Lean Limit

SAE International Journal of Engines

Technische Universitat München, Germany-Andreas Stadler, Maximilian Wessoly, Sebastian Blochum, Martin Härtl, Georg Wachtmeister
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-03-0022
Published 2019-06-07 by SAE International in United States
In this work, a light-duty research engine based on a passenger car engine is equipped with an in-house developed pre-chamber (PC) ignition system replacing the conventional spark plug. By using such kind of ignition system, the combustion in the main chamber is enhanced by radical seeding through jets travelling from the pre-chamber to the main chamber. These radicals serve as high-energy ignition sites for the mixture in the main combustion chamber leading to enhanced burn rates and combustion speed. In contrast to conventional spark-ignited combustion starting from the spot of the electrode gap, an extended lean misfire limit and a mitigated knocking tendency are achieved. The presence of a gasoline direct injector inside the PC enables the system to operate in both passive and active mode. The injection of a small fuel amount allows separating the air-to-fuel equivalence ratio of the pre-chamber and the main chamber. By this, an overall lean mixture is ignited by providing a stoichiometric mixture near the PC spark plug. In this study, different orifice nozzles of the PC are investigated…
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Conceptual Investigations on Full Optical Accessibility to Large-Bore Medium-Speed Engines

SAE International Journal of Engines

TUM LVK, Germany-Stephan Bernhard Karmann, Maximilian Prager, Georg Wachtmeister
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-03-0020
Published 2019-05-15 by SAE International in United States
Optically accessible engines are an essential tool to investigate the combustion process in internal combustion engines via optical and laser optical methods. These methods can be applied to analyze the mixing formation, injection, combustion, and emission formation in situ for a better understanding of the combustion process. The derived findings result in new potentials for increased efficiency and reduced emissions. While the application for passenger car- and truck-size engines is quite common, the application of such an optically accessible engine is rather rare for large-bore engines driving ships or power plants due to their huge scale. The following sections show a conceptual design study to make a large-bore dual-fuel (DF) engine with a bore of 350 mm and stroke of 440 mm fully optically accessible according to the Bowditch principle. As the layout was based on an already existing and working engine of the same principle but half the bore, numerical investigations of the critical parts of the presented large-scale fully optical engine were carried out to consolidate the feasibility of the design study. On…
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Misfire Generator Functional Requirements

Vehicle E E System Diagnostic Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2901_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-11 by SAE International in United States
The intent of the specification is to present a functional set of requirements which define the user and hardware interfaces while providing sufficient capability to meet the misfire patterns for compliance demonstration and engineering development. Throughout this requirement, any reference to “ignition or injector control signal” is used interchangeably to infer that the effected spark ignition engine’s ignition control signal or the compression ignition engine’s injector control signal is interrupted, timing phased, or directly passed by the misfire generator. For spark ignition engines, the misfire generator behaves as a spark-defeat device which induces misfires by inhibiting normal ignition coil discharge. It does so by monitoring the vehicle’s ignition timing signals and suspends ignition coil saturation for selected cylinder firing events. The misfire generator will thereby induce engine misfire in spark ignited gasoline internal combustion engines; including rotary engines. For compression ignition engines, the misfire generator behaves as a fuel injection-defeat device which induces misfire by inhibiting the normal fuel injection pulses. It does so by monitoring the injection pulses signal and suspending the injection pulses…
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A Quasi-Dimensional Model of Pre-Chamber Spark-Ignition Engines

FEV Engine Technology-Knut Habermann
University of Naples-Fabio Bozza, Vincenzo De Bellis, Daniela Tufano, Enrica Malfi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent pollutant and CO2 emission standards require the car manufacturers to investigate innovative solutions to further improve the fuel economy of their fleets. Among these techniques, an extremely lean combustion has a large potential to simultaneously reduce the NOx raw emissions and the fuel consumption of spark-ignition engines. Application of pre-chamber ignition systems is a promising solution to realize a favorable air/fuel mixture ignitability and an adequate combustion speed, even with very lean mixtures.In this work, the combustion characteristics of an active pre-chamber system are experimentally investigated using a single-cylinder research engine. Conventional gasoline fuel is injected into the main chamber, while the pre-chamber is fed with compressed natural gas. In a first stage, an experimental campaign was carried out at various speeds, spark timings and air-fuel ratios. Global engine operating parameters as well as cylinder pressure traces, inside main combustion chamber and pre-chamber, were recorded and analyzed.Based on the available experimental data, a phenomenological model of this unconventional combustion system with divided combustion chambers was developed and validated. The model was then implemented…
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