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Effect of Two-point Ignition on Knocking in Spark-assisted HCCI Combustion using an Optically Accessible Engine

Nihon University-Kojiro Yoshida, Takuma Furusho, Yosuke Abe, Masaya Iimura, Takafumi Imai, Kazutoshi Hoshi, Akira Iijima
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0562
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
This study investigated the effect of the ignition positions in a two-point ignition system on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. Focus was put on controlling the ignition timing, and changes in combustion behavior due to the ignition positions were observed on the basis of in-cylinder combustion visualization and pressure analysis. Experimental results showed that misfire occurred under a condition where the temperature rise time was short and combustion became unstable. In contrast, combustion was stable under a condition where the rise time was sufficiently long and autoignition developed along the cylinder wall. As a result, knocking intensity was reduced by stable combustion.
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Effects of operation temperature on exhaust emissions in a spark ignition system using pre-chamber stratified system

Universidade Federal de Lavras-Carlos Eduardo Castilla Alvarez
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-Marcelo Augusto Maia Pires, Vinícius Rückert Roso, Vinícius Faria Duarte, Nathália Duarte Souza Alvarenga Santos, Ramón Molina Valle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0130
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Atmospheric pollution is the major public health issue in many cities around the world. Internal combustion engines (ICE) and industries are common sources of pollutants that aggravate this situation. Aiming to overcome this problem, increasingly restrictive legislation on combustion pollutant emissions has been formulated and new technologies are being developed to ensure compliance with such restrictions. In this scenario, the lean mixtures appear as a possible alternative, but also bring some inconveniences such as combustion instabilities. Pre-chamber ignition systems (PCIS) enable a more stable combustion process due to high kinetic, thermal and chemical energy of the gases from the pre-chamber (PC), which pass through nozzles and begin the combustion process of the air-fuel mixture contained in the main combustion chamber (MC). However, some challenges still have to be overcome in the development of these systems, one of the main ones being hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. Therefore, the main goal of this investigation is to evaluate the effect of operating temperature on the pollutants emissions from an ICE with stratified pre-chamber ignition system (SPCIS) and to verify…
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Exhaust Emission Analysis of a Spark Ignition Engine Operating with Hydrogen Injection in a Pre-Combustion Chamber

Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais-Fausto Torres Magalhães Avelar
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-Vinícius Faria Duarte, Carlos Eduardo Castilla Alvarez, Marcelo Augusto Maia Pires, Nathália Duarte Souza Alvarenga Santos, Ramon Molina Valle, Vinícius Rückert Roso
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0121
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Due to the large negative impact of combustion gas emissions on air quality and the more stringent environmental legislation, research on internal combustion engines (ICE) are being developed to reduce emissions of pollutant gases to the atmosphere. One of the research fronts is the use of lean mixtures with the pre-chamber ignition system (PCIS). This system consists of a pre-chamber (PC) connected to the main chamber by one or more interconnecting holes. A spark plug initiates combustion of the mixture present in the pre-chamber, which is propagated as gas jet into the main chamber, igniting the lean mixture present therein. The gas jets have high thermal and kinetic energy, which promote faster combustion duration, making the system less prone to knock and with lower cyclic variability of the IMEP, enabling the lean limit extension. The pre-chamber system can be assisted with a supplementary liquid or gaseous fuel injection, enabling the charge stratification. In this context, this paper aims to evaluate the reduction in exhaust emissions from an ICE adapted with a stratified PCIS operating with…
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A Framework for the Active Control of Corona Ignition Systems

University of Windsor-Linyan Wang, Qingyuan Tan, Shui Yu, Xiao Yu, Xiang Chen, Ming Zheng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2157
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Corona ignition is a promising technology that has been demonstrated to be capable of improving the reliability of lean combustion. However, arcing is unavoidable during corona discharge. The high current surge during arcing can cause excessive damage to the corona ignition system. In this work, a control framework is proposed to help reduce and prevent arcing from happening in a corona ignition system. Experimental results are demonstrated to show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
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Electrical Waveform Measurement of Spark Energy and its Effect on Lean Burn SI Engine Combustion

Tongji University-Liguang Li
University of Windsor-Xiao Yu, Hua Zhu, Ming Zheng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2159
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The conventional transistor coil ignition system with coil-out energy up to 100 mJ might not be sufficient to establish a self-sustained flame kernel under lean combustion with strong in-cylinder flow motion. Further increase of the discharge current will decrease the voltage across the spark gap, which will affect the calculation of the energy delivered to the spark gap. In this paper, the relationship between the discharge current and gap voltage is investigated, and it is discovered that the spark energy doesn,t increase monotonously with the increase of the discharge current. However, engine test results still indicate a positive impact of discharge current amplitude on the engine performance.
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Expansion of external EGR effective region and influence of dilution on boosted operation of a downsized turbocharged GDI engine

Brunel University London, Centre of Advanced Powertrain and-Ray Shimura, Hua Zhao, Xinyan Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2252
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Engine downsizing is an effective technology to lower automotive CO2 emissions. However, the high load low speed regions are plagued with knocking combustion that are usually overcome by retarding the ignition. This interferes with the efficiency gains due to very late combustion. This paper reports the use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on a Ford Ecoboost 1l downsized gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engine to improve efficiency by optimising combustion phasing unlocked by the improved knock resistance with EGR dilution. Further ignition system upgrades are tested for impact towards further efficiency improvements. 75mJ (standard) and 120mJ (high energy) ignition systems were compared. The experimental results showed that the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) can be improved by 5.6% with EGR dilution at 25%. When considering combined effects of EGR and high energy ignition upon engine fuel economy, the BSFC gain improves to 7.9%.
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Tests for Snowmobile Switching Devices and Components

Snowmobile Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J68_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice covers standardized basic tests, test methods, and requirements applicable to electromechanical switching devices which may be used on snowmobiles as defined in SAE J33.
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Experimental and Numerical Investigations of the Early Flame Development Produced by a Corona Igniter

Università degli Studi di Perugia-Federico Ricci, Jacopo Zembi, Michele Battistoni, Carlo Grimaldi, Gabriele Discepoli, Luca Petrucci
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
In order to reduce engine emissions and fuel consumption, extensive research efforts are being devoted to develop innovative ignition devices, able to extend the stable engine operating range towards increasing lean conditions. Among these, radio frequency corona ignition systems, which produce a strong electric field at a frequency of about 1 MHz, can create discharges characterized by simultaneous thermal and kinetic effects. These devices can considerably increase the early flame growth speed, initiating the combustion process in a wide region, as opposed to the local ignition generated by traditional sparks. To explore the corona ignition behavior, experimental campaigns were carried out to investigate different operating conditions, in a constant volume calorimeter designed to measure the deposited thermal energy. The present work compares the combustion development generated by a traditional spark and the corona igniter through computational fluid dynamics simulations. First, simulations are carried out to reproduce the experimental results in the calorimeter, comparing the measured and predicted pressure traces in an inert environment. The validated approach is then applied in a second step to the…
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Heater and Accessories, Aircraft Internal Combustion Heat Exchanger Type

AC-9 Aircraft Environmental Systems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS8040C
  • Current
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers combustion heaters and accessories used in, but not limited to, the following applications: a Cabin heating (all occupied regions and windshield heating) b Wing and empennage anti-icing c Engine and accessory heating (when heater is installed as part of the aircraft) d Aircraft deicing
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Experimental and Numerical Analysis of a Pre-Chamber Turbulent Jet Ignition Combustion System

Istituto Motori CNR-Francesco Catapano, Paolo Sementa
Politecnico di Bari-Elia Distaso, Riccardo Amirante, Egidio Cassone, Pietro De Palma, Paolo Tamburrano
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0018
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Recent needs of reducing pollutant emissions of internal combustion engines have pushed the development of non-conventional ignition systems. One of the most promising techniques appears to be the so-called pre-chamber turbulent jet ignition combustion system in which a jet of hot combusting gases is employed to initiate the combustion in the main chamber. In the present study, the combustion process related to this ignition system has been experimentally investigated in an optically accessible single cylinder spark-ignition engine. The pre-chamber was composed of a gas injector and a spark-plug, embedded in a small annular chamber connected to the cylinder through a four-hole pipette. A small amount of methane is injected within the pre-chamber for initiating the combustion. The flame reaches the combustion chamber through four narrow orifices and rapidly consumes a homogeneous mixture of port injected methane and air. Wide open throttle condition at an engine speed of 2000 rpm was considered. The combustion process evolution and engine’s performance were analyzed in terms of 2D-digital imaging measurements as well as pressure and heat release rate traces.…
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