Your Selections

Icing and ice detection
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

Magazine

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Prevention of Snow Accretion on Camera Lenses of Autonomous Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Michael Robertson, Haiping Hong, Tommy Tran, Sunil Patil, Venkatesh Krishnan
University of Toledo-Behrouz Mohammadian, Mehdi Sarayloo, Jamie Heil, Hossein Sojoudi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0105
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the rapid development of artificial intelligence, the autonomous vehicles (AV) have attracted considerable attention in the automotive industry. However, different factors negatively impact the adoption of the AVs, delaying their successful commercialization. Accretion of atmospheric icing, especially wet snow, on AV sensors causes blockage on their lenses, making them prone to lose their sight, in turn, increasing potential chances of accidents. In this study, two different designs are proposed in order to prevent snow accretion on the lenses of AVs via air flow across the lens surface. In both designs, lenses made of plain glass and superhydrophobic coated glass surfaces are tested. While some researchers have shown promise of water repellency on superhydrophobic surfaces, more snow accretion is observed on the superhydrophobic surfaces, when compared to the plain glass lenses. In the experiments, snow is formed using a novel snow gun inside a walk-in cold room connected to a wind tunnel that can reach wind speeds of up to 40 mph. It is observed that the air flow over the lens significantly reduces the…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Application of Extended Messinger Models to Complex Geometries

Georgia Institute of Technology-Avani Gupta, Lakshmi Sankar
NASA John Glenn Research Center-Richard Kreeger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0022
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Since, ice accretion can significantly degrade the performance and the stability of an airborne vehicle, it is imperative to be able to model it accurately. While ice accretion studies have been performed on airplane wings and helicopter blades in abundance, there are few that attempt to model the process on more complex geometries such as fuselages. This paper proposes a methodology that extends an existing in-house Extended Messinger solver to complex geometries by introducing the capability to work with unstructured grids and carry out spatial surface streamwise marching.For the work presented here commercial solvers such as STAR-CCM+ and ANSYS Fluent are used for the flow field and droplet dispersed phase computations. The ice accretion is carried out using an in-house icing solver called GT-ICE. The predictions by GT-ICE are compared to available experimental data, or to predictions by other solvers such as LEWICE and STAR-CCM+. Three different cases with varying levels of complexity are presented. The first case considered is a commercial transport airfoil, followed by a three-dimensional MS(1)-317 swept wing. Finally, ice accretion calculations…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
new

Sensor Uses Microwaves to Determine Real-Time Ice Accumulation

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36195
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A sensor detects the precise moment when ice begins to form on a surface. Due to their high sensitivity, low power, ease of fabrication, and planar profile, microwave resonators were chosen for the device.

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Ice and Rain Minimum Qualification Standards for Pitot and Pitot-static Probes

AC-9C Aircraft Icing Technology Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS5562
  • Current
Published 2020-02-11 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes minimum ice and rain performance criteria for electrically-heated pitot and pitot-static probes intended for use on the following classes of fixed-wing aircraft and rotorcraft. The classes of fixed-wing aircraft are defined by aircraft flight envelopes and are shown in Figure 1. The flight envelopes generally fall into the classes as shown below: The user of this standard must evaluate the aircraft level installation requirements for the probe against the class definition criteria to ensure adequate coverage for the application. It may be necessary to step up in class or modify the test conditions in order to meet the applicable installation requirements. NOTE: Class 2 is divided into two subgroups identified as either Class 2a or Class 2b. Class 2a probe applications typically include aircraft that operate within the mid to lower end of the Class 2 altitude range and that only use probe output to display basic airspeed and/or altitude. As such, Class 2a probes do not have to test ice crystals at an altitude-capable icing tunnel. Class 2b…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Application of Factor Analysis in the Determination of Carburetor Icing Tendency in Aviation Gasoline, RON 97, RON 98, RON 100, and the Blends in Lycoming O-320 Engine

Royal Malaysia Police-Kumar Thanikasalam
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)-Mohsin Rahmat, Abdul Majid Zulkifli, Abdul Ghafir Mohammad Fahmi, Manickam Wash Ananth
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-6000
Published 2020-02-04 by SAE International in United States
Carburetor icing (CI) was the most commonly cited factors in general aviation accident category with 1,019 (34%) accidents. The objective of the study is to measure the CI tendency of selected fuels by the application of factor analysis (FA). All the test fuels were characterized based on chemical and physical properties of the fuels. Gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of the tested fuels were categorized based on hydrocarbon types and basic fuel properties. The study considered sixteen variables for CI assessment, using the selected and calculated fuel properties. Twenty-three aviation fuels from literatures were collected and, using FA, model equations explaining the CI tendency of the aviation fuels were derived, and their respective factor scores were calculated. The model was applied to the 14 fuels in this study, and their respective factor scores were calculated. All the fuels were ranked using the factor score from the best to worst. Brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the fuels was derived experimentally. FA results showed that FA explain 94.246% of the variance for CI. Best CI tendency was shown…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Compensating the Effects of Ice Crystal Icing on the Engine Performance by Control Methods

Central Institute of Aviation Motors-Oskar Gurevich, Sergei Smetanin, Mikhail Trifonov
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft equipment is operated in a wide range of external conditions, which, with a certain combination of environmental parameters, can lead to icing of the engine internal elements. Due to icing, the engine components performance characteristics change what leads to decrease in thrust, gas dynamic stability, durability, etc. Safe aircraft operation and its desired performance may be lost as a result of such external influence. Therefore, it is relevant to study the possibilities of reducing the icing effect with the help of a special engine control. The focus of this paper is to determine control methods of an aircraft gas turbine engine addressing this problem. The object of the study is a modern commercial turbofan with a bypass ratio of about 9. In this paper analysis of the effect of ice crystal icing on the engine components performance is conducted. To perform simulation of the engine performance under such impact, degraded components characteristics was introduced into physics-based turbofan model. Control algorithms for this model were developed applied to various regulated variables used in the setpoint…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Aircraft Ground Deicing/Anti-Icing Processes

G-12M Methods Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS6285C
  • Current
Published 2019-08-20 by SAE International in United States
This document establishes the minimum requirements for ground-based aircraft deicing/anti-icing methods and procedures to ensure the safe operation of aircraft during icing conditions on the ground. This document does not specify the requirements for particular aircraft models. The application of the procedures specified in this document are intended to effectively remove and/or prevent the accumulation of frost, snow, slush, or ice contamination which can seriously affect the aerodynamic performance and/or the controllability of an aircraft. The principal method of treatment employed is the use of fluids qualified to AMS1424 (Type I fluid) and AMS1428 (Types II, III, and IV fluids). All guidelines referred to herein are applicable only in conjunction with the applicable documents. Due to aerodynamic and other concerns, the application of deicing/anti-icing fluids shall be carried out in compliance with engine and aircraft manufacturer's recommendations.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available

Preventing Ice Buildup on Electric Aircraft

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34869
Published 2019-08-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Fuel economy is one of the biggest challenges facing the aviation industry. To overcome these challenges, researchers are working on next generation aviation systems.

Phase-Switching Liquids as Anti-Icing Materials

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34755
Published 2019-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Techniques to prevent frost and ice formation on surfaces rely heavily on heating or on liquid chemicals that need to be repeatedly reapplied because they easily wash away. Even advanced anti-icing materials have problems functioning under conditions of high humidity and subzero conditions.

Aircraft Engine Icing Event Avoidance and Mitigation

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34738
Published 2019-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Innovators at NASA’s Glenn Research Center have developed a new means of avoiding and mitigating icing events for aircraft flying above 14,000 feet, dramatically improving aviation safety and reducing operating costs.