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Development of Dedicated Lubricant for Hydrogen Fueled Spark Ignition Engine

Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-K A Subramanian
Indian Oil Corporation Limited-Sauhard Singh, Verinder Kumar Bathla, Reji Mathai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2511
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Hydrogen has low ignition energy ensures easy ignition of the ultra-lean mixture of H2+air also. The flame speed of hydrogen is about five times higher than methane and gasoline which allows hydrogen fuelled IC engines to have relatively reduced cyclic variations than that of with methane and gasoline. High flame speed also helps to make the combustion closer to constant volume which enhances the thermal efficiency of hydrogen fuelled IC engine. High octane number of hydrogen makes it suitable for its application in Spark ignition (SI) engines. Since the hydrogen combustion in spark ignition engine generates water which can interfere with the lubricant performance, different lubricant is to be developed for this purpose. In this background, the present work is aimed at the development of dedicated lubricant for hydrogen fuelled SI engine. This paper presents the various parameters required for evaluating different lubricants for hydrogen fuelled genset. Existing CNG genset has been converted into hydrogen genset with modification in intake manifold assembly, engine hardware system, ECU modification with adequate modification in exhaust system. State of…
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A novel approach on range prediction of a hydrogen fuel cell electric truck

VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-C Venkatesh Chandrasekar, L R Amruth Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2514
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A novel approach on range prediction of a hydrogen fuel cell electric truck C.Venkatesh - Manager - Product Development, Sustainable Mobility & Advanced Technologies Abstract: A novel approach on range prediction of a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle Abstract: Today's growing commercial vehicle population creates a demand for fossil fuel surplus requirement and develops highly polluted urban cities in the world. Hence addressing both factors are very much essential. Battery electric vehicles are with limited vehicle range and higher charging time. So it is not suitable for the long-haul application. Hence the hydrogen fuel cell based electric vehicles are the future of the commercial electric vehicle to achieve long range, zero emission and alternate for reducing fossil fuels requirement. The hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicle range, it means the total distance covered by the vehicle in a single filling of hydrogen into the onboard cylinders. And here the prediction of the driving range is essential based on optimal parameters (vehicle acceleration, speed, trip time etc.) before the start of the trip. If the driver starts the…
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Unsettled Issues Concerning the Use of Fuel Cells in Electric Ground Vehicles

H2SG Energy Pte Ltd.-Bart Kolodziejczyk
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019002
Published 2019-10-29 by SAE International in United States
Hydrogen fuel is rapidly emerging as a clean energy carrier solution that has the potential to decarbonize a variety of industries, including, or predominantly, the transportation industry. Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), which electrochemically combine stored hydrogen with atmospheric oxygen to efficiently generate electricity while producing only water vapor and small amounts of heat, are heralded to be a game-changing technology. The so-called hydrogen economy has the potential to displace traditional fossil fuel-based economy, with the transportation industry being the first mover in the hydrogen space.Technological advances made in the last decade in the areas of hydrogen generation and fuel cell technology have enabled the current uptake of hydrogen-based solutions for vehicle applications. Reduced costs, climate change, and carbon tax mechanisms are driving many governments, manufacturers, and consumers toward hydrogen-powered vehicles. The major drawbacks of hydrogen compared to the other competing clean-energy technologies (e.g., battery power), is the high cost of hydrogen refueling and FCEVs. However, application of the economy of scale will enable further cost reduction and broad international uptake of hydrogen in automotive…
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Combustion Characteristics of Ammonia in a Modern Spark-Ignition Engine

Université D'Orléans-Charles Lhuillier, Pierre BREQUIGNY, Christine Rousselle
Vrije Universiteit Brussel-Francesco Contino
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Ammonia is now recognized as a very serious asset in the context of the hydrogen energy economy, thanks to its non-carbon nature, competitive energy density and very mature production, storage and transport processes. If produced from renewable sources, its use as a direct combustion fuel could participate to the flexibility in the power sector as well as help mitigating fossil fuel use in certain sectors, such as long-haul shipping. However, ammonia presents unfavorable combustion properties, requiring further investigation of its combustion characteristics in practical systems. In the present study, a modern single-cylinder spark-ignition engine is fueled with gaseous ammonia/air mixtures at various equivalence ratios and intake pressures. The results are compared with methane/air and previous ammonia/hydrogen/air measurements, where hydrogen is used as combustion promoter. In-cylinder pressure and exhaust concentrations of selected species are measured and analyzed. Results show that ammonia is a very suitable fuel for SI engine operation, since high power outputs were achieved with satisfying efficiency by taking advantage of the promoting effects of either hydrogen enrichment or increased intake pressure, or a…
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Electromagnetic Characteristic Comparison of Superconducting Synchronous Motor Characteristics for Electric Aircraft Propulsion Systems

IHI Corporation-Hitoshi Oyori
The University of Tokyo-Yutaka Terao, Yusuke Ishida, Hiroyuki Ohsaki
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the comparison of electromagnetic characteristics of two different superconducting-motor structures for electrified aircraft propulsion systems. Future electrified aircraft demand higher output (over 16 kW/kg) and higher efficiency (> 98%) for their motors in comparison with current ones. To satisfy the demands, two kinds of superconducting motors are dealt in this study: one is partially superconducting motors (PSCMs), made of superconducting field coils and copper armature windings; the other is the fully superconducting motors (FSCMs) made of superconducting field/armature windings. They are cooled at 20 K with liquid hydrogen. We designed these two motors with finite element method to obtain the output density of 16-20 kW/kg for future electrified propulsion systems. We selected 3.0- and 5.0 MW superconducting motors, considering the application to aircraft for almost 180 passengers and 44 MW rated power for take-off. Also, we evaluated the motor weight using two kinds of cryostat materials: stainless steel (SUS) and fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP). The results show that the 5.0 MW PSCM using FRP achieved the output density of 16.9 kW/kg and the…
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Performance and Emissions of an Ammonia-Fueled SI Engine with Hydrogen Enrichment

Universite D'Orleans-Pierre BREQUIGNY, Christine Rousselle
Université D'Orleans-Charles Lhuillier
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
While the optimization of the internal combustion engine (ICE) remains a very important topic, alternative fuels are also expected to play a significant role in the reduction of CO2 emissions. High energy densities and handling ease are their main advantages amongst other energy carriers. Ammonia (NH3) additionally contains no carbon and has a worldwide existing transport and storage infrastructure. It could be produced directly from renewable electricity, water and air, and is thus currently considered as a smart energy carrier and combustion fuel. However, ammonia presents a low combustion intensity and the risk of elevated nitrogen-based emissions, thus rendering in-depth investigation of its suitability as an ICE fuel necessary.In the present study, a recent single-cylinder spark-ignition engine is fueled with gaseous ammonia/hydrogen/air mixtures at various hydrogen fractions, equivalence ratios and intake pressures. A small hydrogen fraction is used as combustion promoter and might be generated in-situ through NH3 catalytic or heat-assisted dissociation. The in-cylinder pressure and exhaust concentrations of selected species are recorded and analyzed. Results show that ammonia is a very suitable fuel for…
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Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Dual Fuel Lean Flames Using Local Burning Velocity and Critical Chemical Timescale

SAE International Journal of Engines

Alstom, Switzerland-Naresh K. Aluri
Kingston University, UK-Siva Muppala
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-04-0025
Published 2019-07-02 by SAE International in United States
Addition of hydrogen to hydrocarbons in premixed turbulent combustion is of technological interest due to their increased reactivity, flame stability and extended lean extinction limits. However, such flames are a challenge to reaction modelling, especially as the strong preferential diffusion effects modify the physical processes, which are of importance even for highly turbulent high-pressure conditions. In the present work, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) modelling is carried out to investigate pressure and hydrogen content on methane/hydrogen/air flames. For this purpose, four different subclosures, used in conjunction with an algebraic reaction model, are compared with two independent sets of experimental data: (1) Orléans data consists of pressures up to 9 bar, with addition of hydrogen content by up to 20% in hydrogen/methane mixture, for moderate turbulence intensities. 2) The Paul Scherrer Institute data includes same fuels with higher volume proportion of hydrogen (40%), at much higher turbulent intensities at 5 bar. The first model Model I is based solely on the increased reactivity of the hydrogen/methane mixture under laminar conditions. It shows that the increase of unstretched laminar…
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Groove Design - Metal Face Seal

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1108A
  • Current
Published 2019-06-06 by SAE International in United States
Groove designs presented herein are applicable for use with machined or formed metal seals which are similar in configuration to those shown in figure 3, which operate under internal pressure or in vacuum service and which have been specifically qualified or recommended by the purchaser or the manufacturer for use with this AIR. They are also applicable for use with metal o-rings (e.g., MS9142, MS202 thru MS9205) where interchangeability with machined or formed metal seals is desired. For metal o-ring groove designs where inter-changeability is not a requirement refer to ARP 674.
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HYDROGEN BOOM!

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: June 2019

Ryan Gehm
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP06_05
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

Nikola reveals Two and Tre fuel-cell trucks and its H2 fueling roadmap, as well as battery-electric military and powersports vehicles.

On-highway Class 6-8 trucks are Nikola's main business and engineering focus, but the Arizona-based startup is expanding its product range to include powersports and military sectors to demonstrate its technology's adaptability. In addition to the Nikola Two and Tre hydrogen fuel-cell trucks for North America and Europe, respectively, the manufacturer revealed a battery-electric all-terrain vehicle, an autonomous-capable military vehicle and a personal-watercraft concept to about 2,000 attendees of the Nikola World opening event in Scottsdale, Ariz., near the company's Phoenix headquarters.

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EDITORIAL: Diesel's doing just fine, thank you

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: June 2019

Editor-in-Chief-Ryan Gehm
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP06_08
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

Alternative propulsion features prominently in this issue, starting from the cover shot of Nikola's sleek fuel-cell electric Class 8 tractor, the Two, and continuing into the annual Executive Viewpoints series of articles, in which experts discuss the challenges and opportunities in a range of technology areas, including biomethane and hybrid power systems.

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