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Unsettled Issues Concerning the Use of Fuel Cells in Electric Ground Vehicles

H2SG Energy Pte Ltd.-Bart Kolodziejczyk
  • Research Report
  • EPR2020002
To be published on 2020-05-13 by SAE International in United States
Lately, the idea of using hydrogen in automotive applications is gaining significant momentum. However, the concept of using clean hydrogen fuel generated from water via electrolysis is nothing new. Because of numerous challenges, previously hydrogen has never managed to become a mainstream industrial or automotive fuel. A decade ago, an attempt to introduce hydrogen for mobility failed miserably and for good reasons. Back then, the fuelcell technology, which efficiently converts hydrogen and atmospheric oxygen into electricity, was not as advanced as it is today. In addition, the fuel cell prototypes were bulky and expensive. After the first failed wave of hydrogen-based economy implementation followed by another ten years of development, hydrogen is back, and it seems that this time it is here to stay. The decade of research allowed for improvements in materials, components, and performance of entire fuel cell systems. In addition, new manufacturing tools and techniques have been developed to reduce system costs. Today’s fuel cell systems use a fraction of platinum catalysts compared to fuel cells ten years ago, yet their performance…
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Investigation of the operating conditions on the water and thermal management for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell by one-dimensional model

Tongji Universtiy-Xuhui Wang, Yaqian Dong, Sichuan Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0856
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Water and thermal management is an essential issue that influences performance and durability of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Water content in membrane decides its ionic conductivity and membrane swelling favors the ionic conductivity, resulting in decreases in the membrane’s ohmic resistance and improvement in the output voltage. However, if excessive liquid water can’t be removed out of cell quickly, it will fill in the pores of catalyst layer (CL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) then flooding may occur. It is essential to keep the water content in membrane at a proper level. In this work, a transient isothermal one-dimensional model is developed to investigate effects of the relative humidity of inlet gas and cell temperature on performance of a PEMFC. Comprehensive physical and chemical phenomenon inside the cell is included, especially the mass transfer of hydrogen, oxygen, vapor and liquid water in gas channels, GDL and CL and non-frozen membrane water in ionomer. Phase change between vapor and liquid water is also considered. The cell’s performances at the conditions of the different…
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Hydrogen Fuel cell vehicle for Mexico City

Oxford Brookes University-Stephen Samuel
UNAM-Rogelio Gonzalez-Oropeza
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1169
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The search for alternative fuel for transport vehicles and also replacement of internal combustion engines in order to reduce the harmful emissions have been forcing the vehicle manufacturers to develop, design and propose technology solutions for meeting the stringent legislative targets. Mexico’s commitment for de-carbonisation of transportation sector and meeting the environmental goals is shaping its policy towards this sector and favours the move towards electrification of the vehicles. Therefore, as an interim solution, the presence of hybrid vehicle is increasing in Mexico City. The aim of the present work is to numerically evaluate the possibility of replacing the internal combustion engines in the existing hybrid vehicles with the Hydrogen fuel cell. This work numerically modelled a Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle based on Toyota MIRAI and validated the fuel economy performance of the vehicle using experimental data. This validated model was used to estimate the fuel economy for real-world drive cycles generated in 2019 from Mexico City. It considered three different drive cycles representing real-world driving in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico.…
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Hydrogen Fuel Quality for Fuel Cell Vehicles

Fuel Cell Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2719_202003
  • Current
Published 2020-03-18 by SAE International in United States
This standard provides background information and a hydrogen fuel quality standard for commercial proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles. This report also provides background information on how this standard was developed by the Hydrogen Quality Task Force (HQTF) of the Interface Working Group (IWG) of the SAE Fuel Cell Standards Committee.
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EUROCAE/SAE WG80/AE-7AFC Hydrogen Fuel Cells Aircraft Fuel Cell Safety Guidelines

SAE EUROCAE Fuel Cell Task Group
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR6464
  • Current
Published 2020-02-05 by SAE International in United States
This document defines the technical guidelines for the safe integration of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Systems (FCS), fuel (considered to be liquid and compressed hydrogen storage types only), fuel storage, fuel distribution and appropriate electrical systems into the aircraft. Editorial Note: Today PEM systems and fuel storage represent the most mature FCS technology and currently forms the basis for this standard. Other types of fuel cell systems and fuels (including reforming technologies and electrolyzers), may be covered by a further update to this document.
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RANS simulation of a multicomponent underexpanded gaseous jet mixing – effects of composition and injection conditions

Technion - Israel Institute of Technology-Andy Thawko, Leonid Tartakovsky
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0515
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Fuel injection and mixing processes determine quality of the subsequent combustion in a DI engine, and description of these processes is vital to optimize the engine performance. Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes approach was applied as a cost-effective tool to simulate the mixing process of a multicomponent gaseous fuel jet of various compositions typical for alcohol reformates. To learn about the physics of reformate mixing, a hydrogen-rich multicomponent jet behavior in a constant-volume chamber was investigated at conditions typical for ICE. The CFD model was validated using a reference case from the published literature. Various Impact of the gaseous jet composition, injection pressure and nozzle diameter on its behavior were studied. The important new finding shows that rising the injection pressure or increasing the nozzle diameter won't affect the jet wall impingement timing for bore sizes typical for light-duty vehicle ICEs. Furthermore, it is shown that the integral parameters of a multicomponent gaseous jet in ICE are mainly determined by the molar weight of the injected gas mixture even with high molecular diffusivity species in the mixture like…
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Development of Hydrogen Powered Fuel Cell e-Snowmobiles

BRP-Rotax GmbH & Co KG-Walter Hinterberger, Nigel Foxhall
HyCentA Research GmbH-Patrick Pertl, Martin Aggarwal, Alexander Trattner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0555
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In the highly innovative and holistic flagship project HySnow (Decarbonisation of Winter Tourism by Hydrogen Powered Fuel Cell Snowmobiles), funded by the Austrian Climate and Energy Fund, the decarbonization of winter tourism is being demonstrated. Within this project, two prototype e-snowmobiles have been developed including the adaption of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM-FC) system for the low temperature and high-performance targets and the integration of the drivetrain into the vehicle.In this paper the drivetrain development process of the prototype e-snowmobiles will be presented with the aim to derive specifications for the drivetrain components as PEM-FC system, hydrogen storage system, electric drive, battery and power electronics. Based on typical use cases for snowmobiles overall vehicle specifications and requirements are defined. Associated driving cycles are investigated and used as input for the development process. Subsequently, analyses regarding possible drivetrain topologies based on technical and economical vehicle requirements are carried out. In parallel, vehicle implementation concepts based on standardized development processes are performed. The development and the design process are verified by verification and optimization loops.The…
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H2-Engine Operation with EGR Achieving High Power and High Efficiency Emission-Free Combustion

KEYOU GmbH-Daniel Thomas Koch, Alvaro Sousa, Dominik Bertram
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2178
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Using hydrogen as a fuel to power internal combustion engines is a practical and effective solution to achieve zero impact mobility. The product of hydrogen combustion is water vapour. It does not emit climate-damaging greenhouse gas CO2 and health-damaging pollutants such as CO, HC or NOx. The impact into the environment is negligible. This allows therefore zero impact mobility, as long as hydrogen fuel being produced from renewable energies and water. Hydrogen combustion strategies take the avoidance of NOx formation is a priority parameter to control.The idea of using hydrogen in combustion engines to power vehicles is not new and has been successfully demonstrated in the recent past by companies such as BMW, MAN and Ford.The Start-up company KEYOU is bringing hydrogen engines technology to a new level now by presenting a new combustion concept that is applied ‘add-on’ to existing Diesel engines. The result is an attractive clean engine solution to power clean vehicles, especially in the heavy-duty vehicle sector, where current clean solutions (such as battery electric or fuel cell electric) penalize customers…
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Unsteady High-Speed Flow in the Tank for Fuel Cell Vehicle on Filling the Gas

Kyushu University- ANYOJI, Masayuki, AOKI, Toshiyuki
Soken, Inc.- MIYOSHI, Shinji, MITSUISHI, Yasushi, SHIMOMURA, Tetsuya
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2262
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In the high-pressure tank for Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV), the shock wave might be occurs during filling of the hydrogen gas because of the high-pressure ratio. Therefore, the temperature sensor in the high-pressure tank might be affected by the shock wave. In this work, we investigated the effect of unsteady flow including shock wave by visualizing around the exit of filling pipe in the Schlieren method. As the result of visualizing the filling pipe exit, it confirmed that pressure wave following the barrel shock wave occurred at high pressure ratio.
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Hydrogen as a Combustion Enhancer for Highly Efficient Ultra-Lean Spark-Ignition Engines

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

IFP Energies nouvelles, Institut Carnot IFPEN TE-Jean-Marc Zaccardi, Guillaume Pilla
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-2258
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Performance of lean burn gasoline spark-ignition engines can be enhanced through hydrogen supplementation. Thanks to its physicochemical properties, hydrogen supports the flame propagation and extends the dilution limits with improved combustion stability. These interesting features usually result in decreased emissions and improved efficiencies which is of the utmost importance for future SI engines targeting ultra-lean conditions at λ ≥ 2 and brake thermal efficiencies above 50%. Compared to previous studies of hydrogen supplementation, this article aims at demonstrating how hydrogen can support the combustion process with a modern combustion system optimized for extreme dilution rates and high efficiency.Experimental investigations performed with a single cylinder engine are reported and show that the minimal amount of hydrogen required to reach λ = 2 is in the range of 2 to 4% of the total intake volume flow rate. At low load, NOx emissions can be lowered down to 33 ppm at λ = 2 and results also show that a10-fold decrease in NOx emissions is possible when the dilution rate increases from the lean limit without hydrogen…
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