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Investigation of the operating conditions on the water and thermal management for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell by one-dimensional model

Tongji Universtiy-Xuhui Wang, Yaqian Dong, Sichuan Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0856
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Water and thermal management is an essential issue that influences performance and durability of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Water content in membrane decides its ionic conductivity and membrane swelling favors the ionic conductivity, resulting in decreases in the membrane’s ohmic resistance and improvement in the output voltage. However, if excessive liquid water can’t be removed out of cell quickly, it will fill in the pores of catalyst layer (CL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) then flooding may occur. It is essential to keep the water content in membrane at a proper level. In this work, a transient isothermal one-dimensional model is developed to investigate effects of the relative humidity of inlet gas and cell temperature on performance of a PEMFC. Comprehensive physical and chemical phenomenon inside the cell is included, especially the mass transfer of hydrogen, oxygen, vapor and liquid water in gas channels, GDL and CL and non-frozen membrane water in ionomer. Phase change between vapor and liquid water is also considered. The cell’s performances at the conditions of the different…
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Development of A New High Orientation Paint System to Achieving Outstanding Real Metallic Designs

Toyota motor corporation-Takao Tsukimori
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0899
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
High metallic silver colors using thin, smooth aluminum flake pigments are typically adopted for the luxury grades by each car manufacturer. Regarding the paint formulation for these types of colors, low non-volatile(N.V.) content and high aluminum flake pigment content are generally known to be necessary to achieve high metallic appearance designs. However, poor distribution of the aluminum flake pigments can cause mottling. In addition, a high concentration of aluminum flake pigments can result in a weak coating. Therefore, current paint systems are limited in the degree of high metallic appearance design that is possible. As a countermeasure to those problems, we investigated whether cellulose nanofiber (CNF) dispersion liquid can function as both the coating binder and rheology control agent in a new type of waterborne paint system. CNF is an effective rheology control agent because it forms strong hydrogen bonds with other fiber surfaces when it is dispersed for waterborne paint. For example, viscosity versus shear rate testing of an aqueous solution of 0.4wt% CNF and less than N.V. 5wt% showed a response curve similar…
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An Intricate Comparison of Existing and Future Automobile Industry Applications between the Hybrid Materials : Metal-Organic Frameworks and Covalent Organic Frameworks

A.K Farmaan
KPIT Technologies GmbH-Padmanaban Dheenadhayalan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0776
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This quantitative research study was conducted to illustrate the relationships between Metal-Organic Frameworks and Covalent Organic Frameworks. Research on hybrid materials has been going on for decades and the results are quintessential. In modern times, surplus researches are being undertaken to keep the material more efficient and long-lasting for a suitable price to industrialize. To overcome the influence of the essential factors, MOF’s and COF’s play a substantial role in its properties and applications for critical fields of engineering. Conventional materials are limited to their manufacturing methods and equipment. This paper illustrates a predominant case where the use of the modern materials in various applications like the gas storage tank, high-tech battery technology, catalyst for multiple chemical reactions, gas purification reactions, efficient semiconductors, and supercapacitors are observed. The Foreseen applications in the automobile industry of MOF materials are manipulated in such a way that they can be incorporated in the catalytic converter as exhaust materials to reduce the NOx production, COF materials which can be used as the base storage tank and surge tank material…
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History and Prospects for Electric Vehicles & Electric Bikes: Pathway to Sustainable Carbon Free Energy & Transportation

Electric Battery Bicycle Company-Frank E. Jamerson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0974
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Electric Transportation Revolution (ETR) began with the General Motors EV1 project and Yamaha Japan Pedal Assist System (PAS) electric bike in the 1990s. ETR historical development will be presented. Worldwide EB sales are 40 million with 300 million on the road, China mainly. EV sales may, or may not, follow the EB experience. Mandates and government incentives influence the EV market, customer demand drives EB growth. The EPA CO2 endangerment finding is forcing the auto industry to invest in EVs to help limit Man Made Carbon Dioxide Climate Change (MMCDCC), which is based on theoretical computer models that calculate global temperature. Measured temperature data used to validate these models has been challenged and so reported. Historical climatology data shows that Natural Climate Change, NCC, is more likely the CC cause. Known periodic variations of sun’s orbit changes solar radiance and causes NCC. Around 550 million years ago CO2 level was 7,000ppm, and continuously changed to today’s 400ppm. Mankind survived the Little Ice Age of 1400-1750 and extreme drought of the 1930s. More CO2 in…
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Hydrogen Fuel cell vehicle for Mexico City

Oxford Brookes University-Stephen Samuel
UNAM-Rogelio Gonzalez-Oropeza
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1169
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The search for alternative fuel for transport vehicles and also replacement of internal combustion engines in order to reduce the harmful emissions have been forcing the vehicle manufacturers to develop, design and propose technology solutions for meeting the stringent legislative targets. Mexico’s commitment for de-carbonisation of transportation sector and meeting the environmental goals is shaping its policy towards this sector and favours the move towards electrification of the vehicles. Therefore, as an interim solution, the presence of hybrid vehicle is increasing in Mexico City. The aim of the present work is to numerically evaluate the possibility of replacing the internal combustion engines in the existing hybrid vehicles with the Hydrogen fuel cell. This work numerically modelled a Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle based on Toyota MIRAI and validated the fuel economy performance of the vehicle using experimental data. This validated model was used to estimate the fuel economy for real-world drive cycles generated in 2019 from Mexico City. It considered three different drive cycles representing real-world driving in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico.…
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Controlling strategy for the performance and NOx emissions of the hydrogen internal combustion engines with a turbocharger

Beijing Institute of Technology-Qinghe Luo
Univ of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign-Chia-Fon Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0256
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Hydrogen fuel is a future energy to solve energy crisis and environmental pollution. Hydrogen internal combustion engines can combine the advantage of hydrogen without pollution and the basic structure of the traditional engines. However, the power of the port fuel injection hydrogen engines is smaller than the same volume gasoline engine because the hydrogen will occupy the volume of the cylinder and reduce the air mass flow. The turbocharger can increase the power of hydrogen engines but also increase the NOx emission. Hence, a comprehensive controlling strategy to solve the contradiction of the power, BTE and NOx emission is important to improve the performance of hydrogen engines. This paper show the controlling strategy for a four-stroke, 2.3L hydrogen engine with a turbocharger. The controlling strategy divides the operating conditions of the hydrogen engine into six parts according to the engine speeds and loads. Solving the main contradiction of the power, BTE and NOx emission at different operating condition is the key of the controlling strategy. This paper also show the power, BTE and NOx emission…
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A novel dual fuel engine diesel-hydrogen featuring high pressure cryogenic liquid hydrogen injection and super-turbocharging

Alberto Boretti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0331
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The development of high-power density high efficiency internal combustion engines (ICEs) fueled with hydrogen, in a dual fuel with diesel injection ignition direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI), design, calls for much better dedicated injectors. These injectors would have to work higher pressures, with cryogenic fluids, delivering substantial amounts of fuel flow energy within brief time frames, with high speed of actuation. High pressure direct injectors were proposed in the past to work with gaseous fuels up to 200 bars, delivering up to 23 g/s of hydrogen and effective minimum passage areas of 0.8 mm2. The adoption of injection pressures of 600 bars, coupled to the cryogenic delivery of the liquified hydrogen at 113 K, allow much larger flow rates per unit effective flow area, thus allowing much larger fuel energy flows with smaller injectors, that are lighter and much faster actuating. Simulations are presented for a dual duel diesel-liquified hydrogen engine featuring two injectors per cylinder, one for the diesel, and one for the hydrogen. The hydrogen injector is one of these new generation…
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Research on Fast Filling Strategy of Large Capacity On-Board Hydrogen Storage Tank for Highway Passenger Cars

Tongji Univ-xian Wu, Jitian Liu, Guoming Deng
Tongji Univ.-Jianwang Shao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0855
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In order to study the fast filling problem of large-capacity on-board hydrogen storage tank for highway passenger cars, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation model of 134L large-capacity hydrogen storage tank was established. By simulating different pre-cooling temperatures and mass flow rates, the temperature distribution and thermal transmission in the tank were observed. Due to the large ratio of length to diameter of the hydrogen tank, the temperature distribution is extremely uneven during the whole filling process, and the high temperature area is mainly concentrated in the tank tail. And the heat transfer between the gas and the tank wall is not obvious under the low and constant mass flow rate. The temperature rise process during the whole filling process under different mass flow conditions was simulated to satisfy the highest safe temperature limit. A time-delayed filling strategy based on the control of mass flow rate and a suitable multi-stage filling strategy based on the hydrogen supply status of the actual hydrogen refueling station are respectively proposed. That will be helpful to provide the theoretical…
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Experimental and kinetic investigation of pressure and temperature effects on burning characteristics of n-Heptane/air/hydrogen up to near lean explosion limits

Beijing Institute of Technology-M Zuhaib Akram, Fushui Liu, Han Wu, H M Shahzaib Hussain
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0343
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Incomplete-combustion and misfire are the hurdles in diesel engines to run on ultra-lean mixture, whereas high thermal efficiency has been achieved at lean mixture. The burning characteristics of n-heptane with 0% and 30% hydrogen was studied at λ=0.8-2.0, 393K-453K and 100kPa-300kPa up to near lean explosion limits. The flame appeared spherically at 37-mJ ignition energy (IE) and excess air coefficient between 0.8 and 1.5, but further lean mixture, ≥1.6, ignited at 3000-mJ. The higher IE was the cause of unstable and distorted flame, and wrinkles at λ=1.6-1.8. The buoyancy appeared at λ ≥1.8, 393K and 100kPa. The highest burning velocity of 19.83 cm/s was observed by Chemkin at λ=1.8 under buoyancy effect. The thermal instability under impact of initial pressure and temperature was higher at lean mixture than stoichiometric mixture. The ultra-lean mixtures from λ=1.8 to λ=1.6 at 393K, λ=1.9 to λ=1.7 at 423K and λ=2.0 to λ=1.8 at 453K were under the impact of buoyancy when initial pressure was increased from 100kPa to 300kPa (higher initial pressure, more λ under buoyancy effect). The change…
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Effect of O3, H2, and CO addition on the laminar burning velocity of Haltermann gasoline

FARHA KHAN, Ossama Mannaa
Aramco Research Center-Vincent Costanzo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0290
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Laminar burning velocity was measured in a constant volume combustion vessel to study the effect of different additives (Ozone, hydrogen and carbon monoxide) − Haltermann gasoline blended fuel at lean and stoichiometric condition (pressure of 1 and 358 K temperature). During the first stage, single additives (O3, H2, and CO) were added to Haltermann gasoline at different equivalence ratio. Later blends of additives (H2-CO, O3-H2, O3-CO, and O3-H2- CO) were added to Haltermann gasoline to study the variation in laminar and turbulent burning velocity as compared to base fuel. In laminar burning velocity measurements, the addition of Ozone was not always leading to enhancement to the laminar flame speed of Haltermann gasoline rather increment exists only at stoichiometric conditions. A similar trend was noticed during carbon monoxide addition. Hydrogen kinetics was playing the dominant role by enhancing the laminar flame speed even in the presence of other the two additives, viz. O3 and CO.