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Controlling Strategy for the Performance and NOx Emissions of the Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines with a Turbocharger

Beijing Institute of Technology-Qinghe Luo
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign-Chia-Fon Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0256
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Hydrogen fuel is a future energy to solve the problems of energy crisis and environmental pollution. Hydrogen internal combustion engines can combine the advantage of hydrogen without carbon pollution and the main basic structure of the traditional engines. However, the power of the port fuel injection hydrogen engines is smaller than the same volume gasoline engine because the hydrogen occupies the volume of the cylinder and reduces the air mass flow. The turbocharger can increase the power of hydrogen engines but also increase the NOx emission. Hence, a comprehensive controlling strategy to solve the contradiction of the power, BTE and NOx emission is important to improve the performance of hydrogen engines. This paper shows the controlling strategy for a four-stroke, 2.3L hydrogen engine with a turbocharger. The controlling strategy divides the operating conditions of the hydrogen engine into six parts according to the engine speeds and loads. Solving the main contradiction of the power, BTE and NOx emission at different operating condition is the key of the controlling strategy. This paper also shows the power,…
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H2-Engine Operation with EGR Achieving High Power and High Efficiency Emission-Free Combustion

KEYOU GmbH-Daniel Thomas Koch, Alvaro Sousa, Dominik Bertram
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2178
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Using hydrogen as a fuel to power internal combustion engines is a practical and effective solution to achieve zero impact mobility. The product of hydrogen combustion is water vapour. It does not emit climate-damaging greenhouse gas CO2 and health-damaging pollutants such as CO, HC or NOx. The impact into the environment is negligible. This allows therefore zero impact mobility, as long as hydrogen fuel being produced from renewable energies and water. Hydrogen combustion strategies take the avoidance of NOx formation is a priority parameter to control.The idea of using hydrogen in combustion engines to power vehicles is not new and has been successfully demonstrated in the recent past by companies such as BMW, MAN and Ford.The Start-up company KEYOU is bringing hydrogen engines technology to a new level now by presenting a new combustion concept that is applied ‘add-on’ to existing Diesel engines. The result is an attractive clean engine solution to power clean vehicles, especially in the heavy-duty vehicle sector, where current clean solutions (such as battery electric or fuel cell electric) penalize customers…
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Attainment of High Thermal Efficiency and Near-zero Emissions by Optimizing Injected Spray Configuration in Direct Injection Hydrogen Engines

Okayama University-Nobuyuki Kawahara, Eiji Tomita
Tokyo City University-Masakuni Oikawa, Yasuo Takagi, Yuji Mihara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2306
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The authors have previously proposed a plume ignition and combustion concept (i.e., PCC combustion), in which a hydrogen fuel is directly injected to the combustion chamber in the latter half of compression stroke and forms a richer mixture plume. By combusting the plume, both cooling losses and NOx formation are reduced. In this study, thermal efficiency was substantially improved and NOx formation was reduced with PCC combustion by optimizing such characteristics as direction and diameter of the jets in combination with combustion of lean mixture. Output power declined due to the lean mixture, however, was recovered by supercharging while keeping NOx emissions at the same level. Thermal efficiency was further improved by slightly re-optimizing the jet conditions. The results showed that the hydrogen engine can attain near-zero emissions of NOx reduced to the single-digit ppm level with high thermal efficiency close to 50 percent and can thus be truly called a near-zero emission engine.
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Hydrogen-Diesel Engine: Problems and Prospects of Improving the Working Process

Bauman Moscow Technical University-Revaz Kavtaradze
Institute of Machine Mechanics-Tamaz Natriashvili
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The diesel engine with direct injection of hydrogen gas has clear advantages over the hydrogen engine with forced ignition of a hydrogen-air mixture. Despite of this, the concept of hydrogen-diesel engine has not investigated until now. In the paper, a detailed study of the working process of hydrogen-diesel engine carried out for the first time. Based on the results of the experimental studies and mathematical modeling, it has established that the behavior of thermo-physical processes in the combustion chamber of hydrogen-diesel engine, in a number of cases, differs fundamentally from the processes that take place in the conventional diesel engines. There have been identified the reasons for their difference and determined the values of the operating cycle parameters of hydrogen diesel engine, which provide the optimal correlation between the indicator values and the environmental performance. For a single-cylinder hydrogen-diesel engine MAN (S/D=300/240 mm/mm) the concentration of nitrogen oxides in combustion products is: [NOx] = 920 ppm, the mean effective pressure pe,=9.0 bar, and the indicator efficiency of hydrogen diesel engine ηi=0.48. Overall, it can be…
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Hydrogen Fueled ICE, Successfully Overcoming Challenges through High Pressure Direct Injection Technologies: 40 Years of Japanese Hydrogen ICE Research and Development

Yamane Hydrogen Energy Research Lab.-Kimitaka Yamane
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
After some 40 years of practical research and testing in Japan, the technology for a high pressure direct injection hydrogen internal combustion engine (ICE) with near-zero emissions free from CO2 was successfully developed by the author. Four fundamental challenges to make a hydrogen car a competitive alternative to both electric and traditional fossil fuel vehicles were successfully met. (1) Hydrogen’s lack of lubrication destroys the sealing surface of the injector nozzle. (2) Injectors must be of very small size to be installed onto the engine head where the four valves are located on each cylinder. (3) Multi-injection requires high dynamic response. (4) Liquid hydrogen tank’s internal pump would fail when bringing liquid hydrogen (LH2) to the required high pressure levels due to frictional heat. Technology solutions by this author to these challenges result in a hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicle, delivering high specific power, and brake thermal efficiency of 40% or higher, using direct injection of hydrogen fuel. The hydrogen ICE solution using high pressure LH2 pumps, hydraulically-operated common-rail-type small gaseous hydrogen (GH2) injectors with…
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Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance of an SI Engine Fueled with Methanol-Gasoline and Ethanol-Gasoline Blend with Hydrogen Boosting

Delhi Technological University-Ashish Jaiswal, Tarun Mehra, Monis Alam, Jatin Agarwal, Harshil Kathpalia
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Dependency and increase in use of fossil fuels is leading to its depletion and raises serious environmental concerns. There are international obligations to reduce emissions and requirements to strengthen security of fuel supply which is pressuring the automobile industry to use cleaner and more sustainable fuels. Hydrogen fits these criteria as it is not just an abundant alternative but also a clean propellant and Hydrogen engines represent an economic alternative to fuel cells. In the present investigation, EGR has been used on hydrogen boosted SI engine running on gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends to determine the additional advantages of the same compared to pure gasoline operation and gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends without EGR. The engine selected for experimental analysis is a single cylinder, air cooled spark ignition engine that has been modified for hydrogen injection in the intake manifold prior to the port with the injection timing being held constant throughout the experiment. The fuels were selected according to the individual advantages that these alcohols offer on blending and the effect of hydrogen addition on the…
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Development of Hydrogen Fuelled Low NOx Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Exhaust after Treatment

SAE International Journal of Engines

Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-Jayakrishnan Krishnan Unni, Divesh Bhatia, Viresh Dutta, Lalit Mohan Das
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Srinivas Jilakara, GP Subash
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-26-0074
Published 2017-01-10 by SAE International in United States
Air pollution caused by vehicular tail pipe emissions has become a matter of grave concern in major cities of the world. Hydrogen, a carbon free fuel is a clean burning fuel with only concern being oxides of nitrogen (NOx) formed. The present study focuses on the development of a hydrogen powered multi-cylinder engine with low NOx emissions. The NOx emissions were reduced using a combination of an in-cylinder control strategy viz. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and an after treatment method using hydrogen as a NOx reductant. In the present study, the low speed torque of the hydrogen engine was improved by 38.46% from 65 Nm to 90 Nm @ 1200 rpm by operating at an equivalence of 0.64. The higher equivalence ratio operation compared to the conventional low equivalence ratio operation lead to an increase in the torque generated but increased NOx as well. The back fire at higher equivalence ratios was prevented by cold EGR operation while maintaining conditions to prevent water condensation. The spark timing was varied between 2°-15° BTDC and the variation…
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Optimisation of Expansion Ratio of an Advanced Compressed Air Engine Kit

Akshay Kumar, Ashraya Gupta
Delhi Technological University-Ketan Kamra
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Worldwide, research is going on numerous types of engines that practice green and alternative energy such as natural gas engines, hydrogen engines, and electric engines. One of the possible alternatives is the air powered car. Air is abundantly available and can be effortlessly compressed to higher pressure at a very low cost. After the successful development of Compressed Air Engines, engineers shifted their focus in making this technology cost effective and feasible. This led to advancement in the field of pneumatics that is advanced Compressed Air Engine Kit (used for conversion of a small-two stroke SI engine to Compressed Air Engine) where its frugality and compatibility is kept at high priority. This research is in continuation with our previous project of development of an advanced Compressed Air Engine kit and optimisation of injection angle and injector nozzle area for maximum performance. Compressed Air Engine Kit demonstrated significant imperative results in performance testing which fuelled the need for optimizing various parameters such as injection angle, injection pressure and injector nozzle area. Most of the optimization was…
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Development of a Dedicated Hydrogen Port Injection Kit for Small Engines

Delhi Technological University-Dhruv Gupta, Vasu Kumar, Soumya Roy, Naveen Kumar
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
The danger posed by climate change and the striving for securities of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts. Man's energy requirements are touching astronomical heights. The natural resources of the Earth can no longer cope with it as their rate of consumption far outruns their rate of regeneration. The automotive sector is without a doubt a chief contributor to this mayhem as fossil fuel resources are fast depleting. The harmful emissions from vehicles using these fuels are destroying our forests and contaminating our water bodies and even the air that we breathe. The need of the hour is to look not only for new alternative energy resources but also clean energy resources. Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future to meet the stringent emission norms. The use of the hydrogen as fuel in the internal combustion engine represents an alternative use…
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Port Injection of Water into a DI Hydrogen Engine

Ford Motor Co.-Brad A. Boyer
University of Michigan-Matthew Younkins, Margaret S. Wooldridge
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines have potential for high thermal efficiencies; however, high efficiency conditions can produce high nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx) that are challenging to treat using conventional 3-way catalysts. This work presents the results of an experimental study to reduce NOx emissions while retaining high thermal efficiencies in a single-cylinder research engine fueled with hydrogen. Specifically, the effects on engine performance of the injection of water into the intake air charge were explored. The hydrogen fuel was injected into the cylinder directly. Several parameters were varied during the study, including the amount of water injected into the intake charge, the amount of fuel injected, the phasing of the fuel injection, the number of fuel injection events, and the ignition timing. The results were compared with expectations for a conventionally operated hydrogen engine where load was controlled through changes in equivalence ratio. With water injection into the intake air charge, the NOx emissions were reduced by 87% with a 2% penalty in fuel consumption. At a threshold of 90 parts per million (ppm) of…
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