Your Selections

Hybrid electric vehicles
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

Magazine

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Simulation Analysis of the Scavenging Process of a Uniflow and Loop Scavenging Concept

Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics,-Stefan Sturm, Michael Lang, Stephan Schmidt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0549
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The two-stroke engine, as a today unconventional concept in automotive applications, has a great potential for a relaunch in the fast-growing market of Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) or Range Extender Electric Vehicle (REX) [2, 3, 4, 8, 9]. An efficient scavenging to remove the in-cylinder burnt gases and to fill the cylinder with fresh charge, performed at the same time is one of the major challenges, as losses of fresh air and fuel towards the exhaust line should be avoided when operating a lambda = 1 concept necessary for a 3-way catalyst aftertreatment system.A prior study [1] of different gas exchange designs for two-stroke engines concludes that two possible concepts cover this purpose. In this paper, 3D-CFD simulation is used to compare these two different scavenging concepts, a uniflow and a loop scavenging type with control elements for the gas exchange process. As boundary conditions, it is assumed that both concept types have nearly the same displacement, are used with an external scavenging blower and have a lubrication system like a conventional oil sump…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Battery cell modeling for energy and power estimations in a battery pack applied to a HEV

Juliana C M S Aranha, Felipe Lima Marques, Thiago Chiachio CPqD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0243
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
In this paper we present the concept of cell battery modeling and its importance to the battery management system of a HEV. A review of possible equivalent circuits to model the battery electric behavior is made and we present the proposed equivalent circuit to this application. This model takes into consideration the temperature, current and state of charge conditions in which the battery is being used, without adding equations to state-space model. Then, we discuss the laboratory tests that need to be performed to provide information for the models. A test procedure is presented in 6 different scenarios. Finally, the results of the application of this methodology for a NMC battery cell are showed. The maximum RMSE found between real and estimated voltage by the model was 1.0041e-4. A state of charge estimation using this model showed a 1.995e-6 mean squared error.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Pulsating Heat Pipe Automotive Application

Magneti Marelli Sistemas Automotivos, Universidade Estadual-Rafael Beicker Barbosa de Oliveira, Sergio Gradella Villalva, Luiz Paulo Rodrigues Filho, Fernando Luiz Windlin, Guilherme Henrique Mayer Alegre, Rogério Gonçalves do Santos
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0227
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
It is proposed a study to evaluate PHP (pulsating heat pipes) device application in battery thermal management systems for HEV (hybrid-electric vehicle) and EV (electric vehicle). Firstly, it is necessary to understanding Li-ion (lithium ion) batteries for HEV/EV, the electrical energy supply state-of-the-art. The analyzed aspects were battery framework and configuration; working principles and mechanisms; and market penetration and potential. Secondly, the adverse effects of temperature over such batteries were discussed. After understanding the case study, a battery modeling survey was performed in order to later evaluate BTMSs (battery thermal management systems). Well comprehended case study and battery modeling, then, it was possible to examine current automotive battery cooling and heating solutions. Finally, PHP was evaluated as a possible BTMS regarding technical and commercial aspects, explaining what would be the requisites in order to attend automobile heat dissipation demands and the challenges for embedding it.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Balancing Strategy for a Battery Applied in HEV Based on Bi-directional Flyback Converter and Outlier Detection

CPQD – Research and Development Center in Telecommunications-Felipe L. R. Marques, Juliana C. M. S. Aranha, Fernando F. Padela, Maria de Fátima N. C. Rosolem, Raul F. Beck
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0242
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Dissipative cell balancing generates heat during its operation. Current techniques do not guarantee optimal balance of battery pack energy, requiring a high-cost Battery Management System (BMS) solution and wasting energy in the form of heat. Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles uses the combustion engine to recharge the battery. Therefore, this feature requires a BMS balancing system capable of optimizing battery capacity and still be energy efficient. In this way, a non-dissipative balancing system would be interesting, especially if an algorithm works with the former non-dissipative balancing method, which efficiently determines which cells are unbalanced. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to perform non-dissipative balance of lithium-ion cells. This method considers which cells inside a certain range are considered balanced and cells outside this range are considered unbalanced. The range is given by the median of the cells terminal voltage summed with a threshold defined by experimental tests. Due the non-dissipative method presented herein is conceived through Flyback topology, the cells above this range are discharged and their extra energy is employed to charge the lowest…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Analysis of the economic, technological and environmental feasibility of hybridization and electrification of the national fleet of light vehicles

Cento Federal de Educação Tecnológica – CEFET MG-Fernando Antonio Rodrigues Filho, Letícia Morato Torres
Instituto Federal de Minas Gerais – IFMG-Thiago Augusto Araújo Moreira
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0283
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Vehicles powered by internal combustion engines correspond to 99.7% of the global fleet. Unfortunately, most of them runs with fossil fuels and contribute with over than 70% of CO and 20% of CO2 emitted to atmosphere. Global climate change has become a major issue and stringent legislation has been forcing the scientific community to seek a feasible solution for this issue. Renewable fuels, hybrid and electric vehicles have been pointed out as the answer for harmful greenhouse gases emissions. This paper demystifies the wrong belief that ICE will be totally replaced by electric vehicles in short and medium time. The zero emission vehicle (ZEV) terminology applied to EV must abolished since it is not true, as 65% of global electricity is generated from non-renewable sources. Despite of being more efficient, hybrid vehicles are still economically unfeasible. The low global fleet percentage of hybrid and electric vehicles associated with the current growth rate prove mathematically that their market share will not change significantly in short time. Those facts associated with the CO2-free status of renewable fuels…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation for Functional Verification of Multiple Control Units in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA)-Ferdinando Ferrara, Luigi Milia, Vito Braca, Paolo Poletto, Salvatore Esposito, Donato Amoroso, Mario D'Agostino, Giancarlo Di Mare
University of Sannio-Domenico Natella, Silvio Baccari, Francesco Vasca
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5093
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) platforms are widely used in the automotive industry for testing strategies and functionalities of electronic control units (ECUs). This paper describes the HIL testbed developed in Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) laboratories for the functional analysis of multiple control units in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). A case study including the ECUs dedicated to internal combustion engines (ICEs), transmissions, brakes, and electric motors (EMs) is being analyzed. Modeling construction procedures for the hardware (HW) and software components is described and their integration is characterized. HIL real-time simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed architecture for verifying the functionalities shared among the control units.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Understanding Base Oils and Lubricants for Electric Drivetrain Applications

Afton Chemical Corporation, Richmond, Virginia 23219, USA-Yungwan Kwak, Christopher Cleveland, Atanu Adhvaryu, Xinggao Fang
Afton Chemical Japan Corporation, Tokyo, Japan-Tsuneo Adachi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2337
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The penetration of hybridization and electrification (HEV and EV) technology into automotive powertrain designs is an evolving trend resulting from global regulations intended to reduce transportation-related emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants and to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. In many HEV and EV hardware designs, drivetrain fluids have contact with the integrated electric motor (e-motor), which requires electrical and thermal properties to be considered in addition to traditional fluid properties.This paper discusses new insights gained around electrical and thermal properties of drivetrain fluids, with a specific emphasis on understanding the critical impacts of base oils (BOs). Electrical and thermal properties data as a function of temperature for a range of BOs as well as automatic transmission fluids are shared. We found that BOs and their viscosities play a critical role in cooling performance, while additives play a critical role in electrical conductivity (EC). That being said, we also have observed that additives in BOs can modify cooling performance. We will demonstrate how each component in the additive package affects EC and in some cases…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Optimal Energy Management for Variable Fuel Quality in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Institute for Powertrains and Automotive Technology, Vienna-Bastian Beyfuss, Peter Hofmann, Bernhard Geringer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2219
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Efficiency of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) strongly depends on the implemented energy management strategy (EMS) that splits the drivers torque request onto internal combustion engine (ICE) and electric machine (EM). While in conventional vehicles overall efficiency decreases by using low quality fuel (in terms of octane rating), in HEV this effect can amplify itself. This is due to the restricted ICE operation to higher load areas, where the risk of engine-knock is increased.Since the EMS can set the ICE operation point flexible, the author suggests consideration of fuel quality (Research Octane Number RON) within the EMS to exploit the full fuel saving potential of HEV.This paper examines three different fuel qualities, with varying octane rating, on the engine test bench. Results show that the operation range of optimal ICE efficiency varies significantly between them. While high octane fuel allows a broader usable area for ICE operation in HEV, low octane fuel has a negative impact in knock relevant areas. However, this peril can be avoided by adapting the EMS.Test bench data is used to generate…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Study of New HILS Test Method with Combination of the Virtual Hybrid Electric Powertrain Systems and the Engine Test Bench

National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory-Nobunori Okui, Masayuki Kobayashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2343
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Fuel consumption rate (fuel economy) and exhaust gas emission regulations are being tightened around the world year by year. In Europe, the real driving emission (RDE) method for evaluating exhaust gas emitted from road-going vehicles was introduced after September 2017 for new types of light/medium-duty vehicles, in addition to the chassis dynamometer test using the worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure (WLTP). Further, the worldwide harmonized heavy-duty certification (WHDC) method was introduced after 2016 as an exhaust gas emission test method for heavy-duty vehicles. In each evaluation, the tests of vehicles and engines are initiated from cold states.Heavy-duty hybrid vehicles are evaluated using the vehicle simulation method. For example, the power characteristics of a engine model is obtained during engine warm operation. Therefore, various performances during cold start cannot be precisely evaluated by using simulator.In this study, we simultaneously control a real engine and vehicle simulation in real time, and examine a new evaluation technique for evaluating various performances by considering the engine temperature.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Development Strategy for 4th Generation PCU

Toyota Motor Corporation-Yuki Jojima
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2309
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed new Hybrid Vehicle (HV) and Plug in Hybrid Vehicles (PHV) from Compact class to Medium class. These vehicles incorporate newly developed hybrid systems for the improvement of fuel efficiency. The feature of these new generation power control unit is smaller, lighter, and higher efficiency than the previous generation. To adapt to various output systems, a development strategy of new generation Power Control Unit (PCU) was established.Based on the strategy, the development efficiency was improved. In this Paper, the strategy is described.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available