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Comparison of Particulate Emissions of a Range Extended Electric Vehicle under Different Energy Management Strategies

Tongji Univ-Yaxin Wang, Diming Lou, Ning Xu, Piqiang Tan, Zhiyuan Hu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1189
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Range extended electric vehicles achieve significant reductions in fuel consumption by employing as an energy source a small displacement combustion engine that is optimized for high efficiency at one, or a few, operating points. The present paper examines the impact of various energy management strategies on the particulate emissions from the auxiliary power unit (APU) of a range extended electric bus, including optimized auxiliary power unit (APU) on/off strategy, single-point strategy, two-point strategy, power-following strategy and equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy (ECMS). In addition, this paper also compares the particulate emissions of single energy storage system and composite energy storage system on single-point energy management strategy. The main conclusions in this paper are as follows: After optimizing the APU on/off strategy, the APU starts and stops frequently to make the cylinder temperature relatively low, which results in the reductions of both the particle mass (PM) and the particle number (PN). The application of two-point strategy and power-following strategy maximizes the output power of high load, and then the particulate emission presents significant increasing. With the…

Research on Vibration Characteristics of Permanent Magnet Motor of Electric Vehicle on different Control Strategies

Jilin University-Fangwu Ma, HongBin Yin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0166
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In order to solve the energy and environmental crisis, electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles have developed rapidly around the world. The permanent magnet motor (PMM) is an important part of electric vehicle power system, which greatly affects the comfort of electric vehicles. This paper develops a multiphysics coupling model for permanent magnet motors. The vibration characteristics of permanent magnet motor are analyzed based on the multiphysics coupling model. Firstly, the control strategy model of permanent magnet drive motor for electric vehicles is established, parameters of the input current of PMM under different control strategies are obtained. Secondly, an electromagnetic simulation model is established by using finite element software, and the radial electromagnetic force is calculated by Maxwell stress tensor method. Thirdly, a finite element model of the stator structure considering the anisotropy of the core and the winding material is established and verified by modal test. Finally, the electromagnetic force simulation model is coupled with the structural model to establish the motor vibration simulation model, and the influence of different control strategies on the…

Design of electric motor using coupled electromagnetic and structural analysis and optimization

Altair Engineering-Numair Mazgaonkar, Linus Francis Fernandes
Automotive Accessories-Mazharul Chowdhury
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0937
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle architecture in existing vehicles is changing continuously due to the need for increasing vehicle electrification. Electric motors have helped sustain this requirement. Traditional internal combustion engines are being replaced or coupled with traction motors or in-wheel motor systems in the full or hybrid electric vehicles. With the use of electric motor in a vehicle, several parts can be reduced. This leads to reduced packaging size and complexity. Also, CO2 emissions are reduced, and overall efficiency is increased. But the task of designing an electric motor which is which assembled in a vehicle could be quite complex. The design of an electric motor can affect the durability, and noise and vibration characteristic of the vehicle structure to which it is connected. The design of the vehicle structure to which the motor attaches should be able sustain the magnetic torque generated by the motor. Electromagnetic forces generated on the stator of an electric motor affect the vibration characteristic of the motor casings and structure to which it connects. In an internal combustion powered vehicle, engines contribute…

Features of modeling of processes of thermal preparation of the transport engine on the basis of thermal accumulators of a phase transition

Belarusian National Technical University-Heorgi Kukharonak
Donbassnation.acad.of civil eng. arch-Valery Aleksandrov
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0906
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The utilization of different types of energy in phase-transitional thermal accumulators and its further use for thermal development of different subsystems of hybrid vehicles enables to significantly increase their operational efficiency. The system of the combined utilization of thermal and electrical energy in phase-transitional thermal accumulators (TA) is offered. To charge TA, it uses thermal energy of exhaust gas, a coolant and motor oil of the internal combustion engine and electrical energy which is utilized by energy recovery system when braking the vehicle. It consists of consecutive stages of heat accumulation when charging TA from different energy sources of the hybrid vehicle, its storage and use for rapid heating of vehicle separate subsystems. The main heat and power characteristics of system components and heat accumulating materials used in phase-transitional TA have been justified. Schemes and designs of a physical model to utilize electrical energy using high-capacity condensers for charging phase-transitional TA have been offered. The results of experimental and computational studies show theoretical comparison of the main indicators of the developed system in charging phase…

Conceptual Design and Analytic Assessment of 48V Electric Hybrid Powertrain Architectures for Passenger Cars

Magneti Marelli SpA – Driveline Division-Matteo De Cesare, Enrico Brugnoni
University of Bologna-Nicolo Cavina
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0353
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To meet the requirements in relation to pollutants, CO2-emissions, performances, comfort and costs for 2025 timeframe, many technology options for the powertrain, that plays a key role in the vehicle, are possible. Beside the central aspect of reducing standard cycle consumption levels and emissions, consumer demands are also growing with respect to comfort and functionality. In addition, there is also the challenge of finding cost efficient ways of integrating technologies into a broad range of vehicles with different levels of hybridization. High degrees of electrification simultaneously provide opportunities to reduce the technology content of the internal combustion engines (ICE), resulting in a cost balancing compromise between combustion engine and hybrid technology. The design and optimization of powertrain topologies, functionalities, and components, require a complex development process. To face the complexity of goal, in this work a methodology of powertrain conceptual definition has been proposed with the aim of the design, objective assessment and optimization of the key parameters of an hybridized powertrains. A methodology able to define ICE, Transmission and Electric Traction Drive specifications has…

Feasibility Analysis of Taxi Fleet Electrification Using 4.9 Million Miles of Real-World Driving Data

National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Matthew Moniot, Clement Rames, Erin Burrell
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0392
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Ride hailing activity is rapidly increasing, largely due to the growth of transportation network companies (TNC’s) such as Uber and Lyft. However, traditional taxi companies continue to represent an important market share of hailed trips. Columbus Yellow Cab (CYC), a taxi company in Columbus, Ohio, allows traditional taxi hailing as well as on-request rides using an app. Data from CYC trips was provided to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to analyze the potential for electrification of their fleet, currently comprised entirely of gasoline and hybrid vehicles. CYC data contained information describing both GPS trajectories and taxi meter information. The data spanned a period of 13 months, containing approximately 70 million GPS points, 840 thousand trips, and 170 unique vehicles. A CYC taxi was found to have an average daily Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) of 154 miles with an annualized VMT of 29 thousand miles. Additionally, meter information facilitated an understanding of vehicle deadheading; 46% of miles traveled were driven without a passenger. A variety of scenarios were evaluated using CYC data and the Electric…

Development of Electric Oil Pump in Hybrid Vehicle based on BLAC Motor and AUTOSAR Platform

ETAS Korea-Hojeong Yoo
Hyundai & Kia Motor Corp.-Gyeongcheol Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0765
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Traditional hybrid vehicles operated two types of oil pump, mechanical for combustion engine and electrical for electric motor, to supply oil pressure for automatic transmission in each power source. New hybrid vehicles has only one electrical pump to reduce system volume and to improve fuel efficiency. Purposes of this study are to make standardization of firmware development process for Oil Pump Unit (OPU) and Electric Oil Pump (EOP) and to apply BLAC (BrushLess AC) motor instead of BLDC (BrushLess DC) motor. In old-fashioned non-Operating System (OS) firmware, it was convenient to calculate control timing for motor control, however the firmware was deeply dependent to specific MCU. In other words, much of efforts and time are needed if new MicroController Unit (MCU) were applied. In this study, new standard development process for MCU firmware can be built up based on AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR) platform by developing specific motor Complex Device Driver (CDD). In existing system, the OPU supplied with high-voltage from battery drives the BLDC motor driven with three-phase block commutation method through the…

Simulation Based Hybrid Electric Vehicle Components Sizing and Fuel Economy Prediction by Using Design of Experiments and Stochastic Process Model

Ricardo UK Ltd.-Ran Bao, James Baxter, Pascal Revereault
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0357
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this study is to evaluate the Fuel Economy (FE) over the driving cycle by applying the 48 Volt P2 technology to a vehicle with different components ratings (battery and electric machine) in the hybrid powertrain, using simulation and Design of Experiments (DoE) tools. A P2 architecture was selected for study based on an initial assessment of a wide number of possibilities, using the Ricardo “Architecture Independent Modelling (AIM)” toolset. This allows rapid evaluation of different powertrain options independently of a defined hybrid control strategy. For the vehicle with the selected P2 architecture, a DoE test matrix of battery capacity and electric machine power rating was created. The test matrix was then imported into the simulation environment to perform the driving cycle FE simulations. Then, a 48 V P2 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) FE emulator model was created and interrogated using model visualisation and optimisation methods. For the HEV without an on-board charger (i.e. no Plug-in capability), legislation strictly requires the HEV to complete the driving cycle with a balanced battery State-Of-Charge (SOC)…

HyPACE – Hybrid Petrol Advanced Combustion Engine – Advanced Boosting System for Extended Stoichiometric Operation and Improved Dynamic Response

BorgWarner Turbo Systems-Andrew Taylor
Jaguar Land Rover-Jonathan Hartland, James Harris
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0325
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The HyPACE (Hybrid Petrol Advanced Combustion Engine) project is a part UK government funded research project established to develop a high thermal efficiency petrol engine optimised for hybrid vehicle applications. The project combines the capabilities of a number of partners (Jaguar Land Rover, Borg Warner, MAHLE Powertrain, Johnson Matthey, Cambustion and Oxford University) with the target of achieving a 10% vehicle fuel consumption reduction, whilst still achieving a 90 to 100 kW/litre power rating through the novel application of a combination of new technologies. The donor engine for the project was Jaguar Land Rover’s new Ingenium 4-cylinder petrol engine which includes an advanced continuously variable intake valve actuation mechanism. The new HyPACE boosting system utilises a Borg Warner 48V eTurbo™ featuring a variable geometry turbine which enables the capability to both provide electrical assistance, to improve dynamic response when required, as well as being able to utilise waste exhaust gas energy to generate electricity. This paper presents results from a testing programme which demonstrates the capability of the new boosting system to extend the stoichiometric…

Modeling of Engine After Treatment System Cooling for Hybrid Vehicles

Linkoping Univ-Lars Eriksson
Linköping Univ.-Olov Holmer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0989
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The medium and heavy duty transport industry is currently showing a growing interest in hybrid powertrains. Currently, this technology is mainly used in buses but distribution trucks, both heavy and medium duty, are expected to become growing market segments. Hybrid trucks are potentially superior to conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) propelled trucks in a wide range of environmental areas like noise, CO2 and NOx emissions. However, since the hybrid vehicle is still partially powered by an ICE, an engine after treatment system (EATS) is necessary. Traditionally, the EATS is heated by the waste heat entering the tail pipe after the turbo. This is the most fuel efficient and practical way of bringing the EATS up to and maintaining operating temperatures of about 200 - 400 ̊C, where it's most efficient. However, in hybrid vehicles the ICE can be shut off to a larger extent than in conventional vehicles, and when the engine is off the EATS cools down. Eventually the EATS will drop below the desired temperature range making the EATS ineffective when the ICE…