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Modeling and Optimal Design of All-Wheel-Drive Hybrid Light Trucks

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Ford Motor Company, USA-Xiaowu Zhang
Robert Bosch LLC, USA-Nikhil Ravi
  • Journal Article
  • 08-08-01-0003
Published 2019-06-06 by SAE International in United States
Fuel economy and performance are both important in the design of hybrid pickup trucks. All-wheel drive is essential to ensure superior performance compared to two-wheel-drive designs. In this article, as a comprehensive extension work to the article published in ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference [1] on all-wheel-drive (AWD) hybrid truck, we investigate the modeling, design, and control problem of AWD hybrid vehicles and develop a methodology to identify optimal designs. This methodology 1) formulates an automated modeling process, 2) searches exhaustively through all possible AWD designs, and 3) employs a near-optimal energy management strategy, to obtain a family of designs with superior performance and fuel economy. A design case study for a hybrid Ford F-150 is conducted, to showcase this design process.
 
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Benefit of a Lightweight Frunk

Autoneum Management AG-Federico Di Marco, Flavio Pezzani, Andreas Daving, Luca Mazzarella
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Due to the increasing number of battery electric vehicles (BEVs), the engineering fields regarding driving comfort and NVH issues are becoming more and more challenging: many new factors affect the development of BEVs NVH package. The noise sources related to the powertrain are different from the traditional ones of internal combustion engines, for instance due to the presence of tonal components, strong harmonics and potential whining noise.To satisfy NVH specifications and the need for lightweight solutions to increase driving range, it is important to mask as much as possible the noise coming from the engine bay with materials both lightweight and acoustically performing. Moreover, for electric vehicles new interesting solutions are possible with the introduction of new components that do not find room under the hood of ICE or hybrid vehicles. These components, if properly designed, could lead to significant NVH benefits. The present paper reports the NVH effects of one of these new components, the frunk, a small compartment inside the engine bay, functionally similar to the trunk.In this paper, the design-by-simulation of a…
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Integrated Multi-Physics Simulation for Full-Vehicle Low Frequency NVH Optimization in HEVs

Ford Motor Company-Jack Liu
Gamma Technologies LLC-Llorenc Foraste Gomez, Jonathan Zeman
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The recent automotive industry trend towards electrification has created new challenges for NVH engineers. These challenges stem from new powertrain architectures and their complex interactions, the governing control strategies which aim to optimize energy management, and new unmasked sources of excitation. Additionally, vehicle manufacturers are attempting to reduce hardware testing in order to rapidly satisfy increasing production demand and to minimize its costs. Hence, to meet the above-mentioned challenges up front in the development process of Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEVs) while balancing competing design objectives of drivability, durability and NVH, a simulation-led design and optimization is required.NVH problems are often the result of mechanisms that originate through complex interactions between different physical domains (flow, electromagnetic, structural/mechanical, control logic, etc.) and the assembly of individual components into a complete system. Therefore, accurate system-level integrated models are becoming a requirement to solve modern NVH problems.Combining the optimal balance between simulation and experimental data, this article describes a joint effort between Ford and Gamma Technologies to develop a general methodology to perform full-vehicle low frequency NVH analysis. Using…
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Open-Access Testbench Data for NVH Benchmarking of E-Machines under Electromagnetic Excitations

EOMYS Engineering-Karine Degrendele, Jean Le Besnerais
L2EP-Emile Devillers, Michel Hecquet
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an experimental setup dedicated to the analysis of noise and vibration due to Maxwell magnetic forces in electrical machines, a significant NVH source in hybrid and electric vehicles traction motors. Both electromagnetic excitations and structural response of the electrical machine are simplified to provide the first public benchmark of e-NVH phenomenon (electromagnetic Noise, Vibration, Harshness).The paper first describes how the testbench is designed and tested in order to reduce as much as possible modelling and experimental uncertainties. A Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine topology used in EV/HEV applications is used to illustrate tooth modulation effect and interaction between radial and tangential force-induced vibrations, and designed to generate the resonance of several stator structural modes with simplified electromagnetic loading (open-circuit case). A larger air gap allows the insertion of a fine search-coil network to measure time and space distribution of the air-gap flux density and resulting Maxwell stress harmonics. Accelerometers are placed on stator tooth tips to capture tooth bending motion, as well as on the outer yoke of the stator. Besides vibration measurements,…
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Improved Measurement Procedures for Engine Noise Reduction with Advanced Microphones

GRAS Sound & Vibration-Jan Hansen, Per Rasmussen
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The acoustic environment inside the car is a primary comfort parameter. With the change from internal combustion engines (ICE) to electrical (BEV) or electrically assisted (HEV) propulsion systems, a renewed focus on old and new noise sources in the engine bay and the transmission paths to the cabin is required.A way to study this is by using a reverse transmission technique, placing a sound source in the receiver position in the cabin and measure the resulting sound pressure levels in the engine bay. Assuming reciprocity, the attenuation of transmission from sound sources in the engine bay to the cabin can be estimated. These measurements are cumbersome as they involve the placement of 20 or more microphones in the engine bay. This has traditionally been performed using off-the-shelf free-field measurement microphones.To optimize this procedure a new pressure-field microphone has been tested by Volvo Cars. The result has been a dramatic reduction in setup time; also, a new mounting method has increased accuracy and repeatability and made it possible to maintain the same baseline throughout a complete…
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Machine Learning Based Technology for Reducing Engine Starting Vibration of Hybrid Vehicles

Toyota Motor Corp.-Kento Shimode, Keisuke Ishizaki, Masashi Komada
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Engine starting vibration of hybrid vehicle with Toyota hybrid system has variations even in the same vehicle, and a large vibration that occurs rarely may cause stress to the passengers. The contribution analysis based on the vibration theory and statistical analysis has been done, but the primary factor of the rare large vibration has not been clarified because the number of factors is enormous. From this background, we apply machine learning that can reproduce multivariate and complicated relationships to analysis of variation factors of engine starting vibration. Variations in magnitude of the exciting force such as motor torque for starting the engine and in-cylinder pressure of the engine and timing of these forces are considered as factors of the variations. In addition, there are also nonlinear factors such as backlash of gears as a factor of variations. For the variation factor analysis, it is difficult to measure the physical quantities mentioned above from experiments, because of the high time load of installing measuring sensors and lack of measurement technology for some factors. On the other…
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Protecting high-voltage circuits

Automotive Engineering: June 2019

Lindsay Brooke
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP06_07
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

Yazaki readies a new solution for arc suppression in circuits of 48V or more.

As OEMs develop their next-generation electrical architectures aimed at new hybrid, EV and autonomous vehicles, engineers are focused on delivering systems that are even more robust and “fail-safe” than those used today. Handling more power safely is a given, experts say, as more power-gobbling heated seats, electric turbos, active suspensions, lidars, on-board data processors and other safety sensors are added.

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Ford amped for new phase of hybrid-electric offensive

Automotive Engineering: June 2019

Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP06_12
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

With the persistent auto-industry question of how soon battery electric vehicles will become mainstream options, Ford is preparing to widely deploy its fourth-generation hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) technology that Dave Felipe, the VP of powertrain engineering, said will result in a fuel-efficient, performance-rich HEV variant for “all mainstream models” in North America.

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Wireless Power Transfer for Light-Duty Plug-in/Electric Vehicles and Alignment Methodology

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2954_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-23 by SAE International in United States
The Recommended Practice SAE J2954 establishes an industry-wide specification that defines acceptable criteria for interoperability, electromagnetic compatibility, EMF, minimum performance, safety, and testing for wireless charging of light-duty electric and plug-in electric vehicles. The specification defines various charging levels that are based on the levels defined for SAE J1772 conductive AC charge levels 1, 2, and 3, with some variations. A standard for wireless power transfer (WPT) based on these charge levels enables selection of a charging rate based on vehicle requirements, thus allowing for better vehicle packaging and ease of customer use. The specification supports home (private) charging and public wireless charging. In the near term, vehicles that are able to be charged wirelessly under Recommended Practice SAE J2954 should also be able to be charged by SAE J1772 plug-in chargers. This Recommended Practice is planned to be standardized after the 2018 timeframe after receiving vehicle data. The contents, including frequency, parameters, specifications, procedures, and other contents of this Recommended Practice, are to be re-evaluated at that time to allow for additional developments and…
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Highly Decorative, Lightweight Flexible Solar Cells for Automotive Applications

Ritsumeikan University-Mikiya Inoue, Jakapan Chantana, Takashi Minemoto
Toyota Motor Corporation-Taizo Masuda, Yuki Kudo
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The strict CO2 emission limit for passenger cars have been set by US, EU, Japan, China and other countries. In order to meet the requirement, it is essential to develop an alternative power source for the future cars. Power generation by solar panels is a promising renewable energy candidate because the most environmentally friendly vehicles such as electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are equipped with large-capacity batteries that can be charged with electricity generated by solar panels. The requirements for the solar panels are paintable with desired color and to be lightweight. In this study, we developed a simple lift-off process for producing colorful and lightweight Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells for future automotive application. Our measurements show that the developed lift-off process can provide the lightweight solar panel that have nearly identical performance compared to that of the cell before the lift-off process. The colors were generated on the cells by coating the highly transparent automotive paint. We demonstrate a bright, uniform, and solid appearance on the solar cells with small output power reduction…
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