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An Immersive Vehicle-in-the-Loop VR Platform for Evaluating Human-to-Autonomous Vehicle Interactions

Clemson University-Roberto Merco, Manveen KAUR, Anjan Rayamajhi, Gianluca Papa, Pierluigi Pisu, Sabarish BABU, Andrew Robb, Jim Martin
Maserati-Marco Gavelli
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0143
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In this paper we present the virtual reality driving simulator currently in development by our institution. The platform is designed so to: allow for incorporating live real-world driving data into the simulation, enabling Vehicle-in-the-Loop testing of autonomous driving behaviors and providing a useful mean to evaluate the human factor in the autonomous vehicle context. Specifically, it will be used for the testing of the autonomous driving algorithm and for the evaluation of human response to specific autonomous behavior. Research for the development of analogous platform have been carried out in recent years. Among these, some try to introduce software simulation in the hardware loop by using a virtual sensor which senses the objects in the virtual environment as if perceived in the real vehicle. Their approaches represent a good step for the development of this new kind of simulators. However, limitation such as real-time data streaming and lack of immersive visualization in virtual reality still exist and need to be addressed. We defined a novel platform that allows for realistic virtual traffic scenario creation in…

The History of Human Factors in Seating Comfort at SAE’s World Congress

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Michael Kolich
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0405
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In many fields of technology, examinations of the past can provide insights into the future. This paper reviews the history of automotive seat comfort development and research as chronicled by SAE’s session titled “Human Factors in Seating Comfort”. Records suggest that “Human Factors in Seating Comfort” has existed as a separate session at SAE’s World Congress since the turn of the century. In that time there have been 149 papers published / presented. The history is fascinating because it reflects interests of the time which are driven by technology trends, customer wants and needs, and new theories. The list of contributors, in terms of authors and their affiliations, is also telling. It shows shifts in business models, strategies around collaboration, and career progressions of certain individuals. The paper ends with a discussion of what can be learned from this historical review and the major issues to be addressed. One of the more significant contributions of this paper is the reference list. It contains all 149 of SAE’s “Human Factors in Seating Comfort” papers in a…

Complexity As A Measure Of The Difficulty Of System Diagnosis in Next Generation Aircraft Health Monitoring System

Cobham Mission Systems Inc-John Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1357
To be published on 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
To develop the Next Generation Aircraft Health Monitoring System (NGAHMS), complexity as a measure of the difficulty of diagnosis, or troubleshooting, of a system is explored in this paper. The results presented can be applied to significantly improve safety and human factor design as an important as aspect of risk engineering and management. This is accomplished in system architecture design by quantifying the system structure’s effect on system complexity as well as the number of components which make up the system. For developing the NGAHMS to make flying even safer, more fuel efficient, and more predictable, model-based safety assessment methods such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Dependency Diagram (DD) with updated descriptions in SAE ARP4761A and ARP4754B can be used to minimize the average number of airborne inspections to find the Minimal Cut Set (MCS) causing an aircraft failure. Since, based on previous research, this average number of airborne inspections is proven to be lower-bounded by the entropy of cut set importance, the system complexity measure can be used to efficiently estimate how difficult…
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Novel Technique to Simulate Hood Closing Effort under Quasi-Static Condition and Its Strategic Correlation

General Motors Global Technical Center-Jon Evans
General Motors Technical Center India-Masani Sivakrishna
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Hood closing effort under quasi-static conditions, known as static latching, is an event where the hood latch moves from secondary position to primary latched position due to external force applied by the customer to the hood. When customers close the hood slowly, it may not get latched due to insufficient force transfer to the latch thus requiring additional effort. Recent vehicle designs have the hood latch mounted further rearward than typical from the hood leading edge due to architectural challenges. Pedestrian protection (PedPro) requirements drive hood designs with reduced stiffness above the latch resulting in poor load transfer from the customer to the latch. This often results in high customer effort during quasi-static hood closing events. This additional effort may cause undesirable permanent deformation on the hood outer panel. In absence of proper simulation procedures, design engineers must adjust the latch and hood bumper interfaces on a trial basis during vehicle builds, leading to potential gap and flushness issues on the vehicle. Poor closing effort can result in costly engineering changes late in the vehicle…
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Key Human Factors Drive Design for Disposables, Test Kits and IFUs

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33445
Published 2018-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Bring to mind your last straight-out-of-the-box experience with a disposable medical device of any kind. Without a doubt, everyone has experienced the same frustrations: ambiguous instructions printed too small to read easily, and difficult assemblies that simply don't match up with human capabilities. As an industry and a profession, medical product developers have vast knowledge on how human beings perceive and process information and on how human hands work. Surprisingly, not much of that knowledge manages to inform the design of medical disposables, test kits, and instructions for use (IFUs). With an eye toward higher functionality and usability in disposables, test kits, and IFUs, this article reviews fundamental factors critical to successful design plus common oversights that lead to design disasters.

Directory of Databases Part I - Whole Body Anthropometry Surveys

G-45 Human Systems Integration
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5145A
  • Current
Published 2018-11-02 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) lists whole body anthropometric surveys and provides current sources for the survey raw data and summary statistics.
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Relating Experimental Drive Distraction and Driving Performance Metrics to Crash Involvement - Definitions of Terms and Concepts

Driver Metrics, Performance, Behaviors and States Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3151_201810
  • Current
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
This Information Report provides functional definitions and discussions of key terms and concepts for relating the experimental evaluation of driver distraction to real-world crash involvement. Examples of driver distraction and driving performance metrics include those related to vehicle control, object and event detection and response (OEDR), physiological indicators, subjective assessments, or combinations thereof. Examples of real-world crash involvement metrics include the epidemiological effect size measures of risk ratio, rate ratio, and odds ratio. The terms and concepts defined in this document are not intended to contribute to methodologies for assessing the individual metrics within a domain; these are covered in other SAE documents (e.g., SAE J2944) and SAE technical reports. For any measure chosen in one domain or the other, the goal is to give general definitions of key terms and concepts that relate metrics in one domain to those in the other. Issues of repeatability and validity are discussed in relation to these methods and metrics for relating the two domains. However, the actual specification of a particular methodology for predicting crash involvement from…
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Aircraft Seat Design Guidance and Clarifications

Aircraft SEAT Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5526E
  • Current
Published 2018-08-23 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) documents a common understanding of terms, compliance issues, and design criteria to facilitate certification of seat installations specific to Part 25 aircraft. This ARP provides general guidance for seats to be installed in Part 23 aircraft and Parts 27 and 29 rotorcraft and does not specify specific designs or design methods for such certification.
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Air Force Research Laboratory

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-32520
Published 2018-08-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), headquartered at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio, was formed in October 1997 through the consolidation of four former Air Force laboratories and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

Integrated Ultra-Wideband Tracking and Carbon Dioxide Sensing System

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-29710
Published 2018-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Recent findings indicate that frequent, short-term crew exposure to elevated CO2 levels, combined with other physiological impacts of microgravity, may lead to a number of detrimental effects, including loss of vision. To evaluate the risks associated with transient elevated CO2 levels and design effective countermeasures, doctors must have access to frequent CO2 measurements in the immediate vicinity of individual crewmembers along with simultaneous measurements of their location in the space environment. To achieve this goal, a small, low-power wearable system that integrates an accurate CO2 sensor with an ultra-wideband (UWB) radio capable of real-time location estimation and data communication is proposed. This system would be worn by crewmembers or mounted on a free-flyer, and would automatically gather and transmit sampled sensor data tagged with real-time, high-resolution location information.