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An Immersive Vehicle-in-the-Loop VR Platform for Evaluating Human-to-Autonomous Vehicle Interactions

Clemson University-Roberto Merco, Manveen Kaur, Anjan Rayamajhi, Gianluca Papa, Pierluigi Pisu, Sabarish Babu, Andrew Robb, Jim Martin
Maserati-Marco Gavelli
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0143
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The deployment of autonomous vehicles in real-world scenarios requires thorough testing to ensure sufficient safety levels. Driving simulators have proven to be useful testbeds for assisted and autonomous driving functionalities but may fail to capture all the nuances of real-world conditions. In this paper, we present a snapshot of the design and evaluation using a Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control application of virtual reality platform currently in development at our institution. The platform is designed so to: allow for incorporating live real-world driving data into the simulation, enabling Vehicle-in-the-Loop testing of autonomous driving behaviors and providing us with a useful mean to evaluate the human factor in the autonomous vehicle context.
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The History of Human Factors in Seating Comfort at SAE’s World Congress: 1999 to 2018

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Michael Kolich
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0405
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In many fields of technology, examinations of the past can provide insights into the future. This paper reviews the last 20 years of automotive seat comfort development and research as chronicled by SAE’s session titled “Human Factors in Seating Comfort”. Records suggest that “Human Factors in Seating Comfort” has existed as a separate session at SAE’s World Congress since 1999. In that time there have been 148 unique contributions (131 publications). The history is fascinating because it reflects interests of the time that are driven by technology trends, customer wants and needs, and new theories. The list of contributors, in terms of authors and their affiliations, is also telling. It shows shifts in business models and strategies around collaboration. The paper ends with a discussion of what can be learned from this historical review and the major issues to be addressed. One of the more significant contributions of this paper is the reference list. It contains all 131 of SAE’s “Human Factors in Seating Comfort” published papers in a single location. These references represent the foundation…
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Complexity as a Measure of the Difficulty of System Diagnosis in Next Generation Aircraft Health Monitoring System

Cobham Mission Systems Inc-John Wang
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
To develop the Next Generation Aircraft Health Monitoring System (NGAHMS), complexity as a measure of the difficulty of diagnosis, or troubleshooting, of a system is explored in this paper. The results presented can be applied to significantly improve safety and human factor design as an important as aspect of risk engineering and management. This is accomplished in system architecture design by quantifying the system structure’s effect on system complexity as well as the number of components which make up the system. For developing the NGAHMS to make flying even safer, more fuel efficient, and more predictable, model-based safety assessment methods such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Dependency Diagram (DD) with updated descriptions in SAE ARP4761A and ARP4754B can be used to minimize the average number of airborne inspections to find the Minimal Cut Set (MCS) causing an aircraft failure. Since, based on previous research, this average number of airborne inspections is proven to be lower-bounded by the entropy of cut set importance, the system complexity measure can be used to efficiently estimate how difficult…
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The Navigator

Sam Abuelsamid
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP03_02
Published 2019-03-01 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Standard Practice for Human Systems Integration

G-45 Human Systems Integration
  • Aerospace Standard
  • SAE6906
  • Current
Published 2019-02-08 by SAE International in United States
This Human Systems Integration (HSI) Standard Practice identifies the Department of Defense (DoD) approach to conducting HSI programs as part of procurement activities. This Standard covers HSI processes throughout design, development, test, production, use, and disposal. Depending on contract phase and/or complexity of the program, tailoring should be applied. The scope of this standard includes prime and subcontractor HSI activities; it does not include Government HSI activities, which are covered in the DoD HSI Handbook. HSI programs should use the latest version of standards and handbooks listed below, unless a particular revision is specifically cited in the contract.
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Touch Interactive Display Systems: Human Factors Considerations, System Design and Performance Guidelines

G-10TDS Touch Interactive Display Systems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP60494
  • Current
Published 2019-02-06 by SAE International in United States
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) addresses direct touch interactive electronic display systems installed in the cockpit/flight deck for use by pilots. Direct touch refers to interactivity where the display screen is the input surface. This entire direct interactive electronic display system is referred to as the touch system throughout this document and covers those items related to direct interactive touch on display devices. In cases where only the display and touch device are being considered, this is referred to as the touch screen. The ARP covers system design guidelines as well as the considerations and recommendations for system performance and human factors. This ARP is intended to cover systems installed in 14 CFR Part 23, 25, 27, and 29 aircraft. As an ARP this document collects what are considered good practices by developers, users, and regulators of touch systems. The state of touch technology and the application of that technology is still evolving. As a result, it is premature to develop quantitative guidance for some key touch characteristics. In addition to the recommendations, this document…
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The Ergonomics of Wearable Designs: Part 1

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33734
Published 2019-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The wearable device product category is exploding in healthcare design. Wearing these sensory devices that continuously collect, measure and report the user's physiology, exercise behavior, lifestyle activity, and health status requires three key human factors in the design. In this two-part series on robotics and wearable devices, part 1 dives into wearable designs by taking a look at the research being done now that eliminates the device altogether.

 

Eye Tracking Technology

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33770
Published 2019-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Much debate surrounds the skills shortage burdening the manufacturing sector of aerospace and defense (A&D). Industry 4.0, the Baby Boomer retirement wave, and a lack of properly trained workers underpins this issue, and while it's widely acknowledged, there's no clearly defined way to address it.

 

Novel Technique to Simulate Hood Closing Effort under Quasi-Static Condition and Its Strategic Correlation

General Motors Global Technical Center-Jon Evans
General Motors Technical Center India-Masani Sivakrishna
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Hood closing effort under quasi-static conditions, known as static latching, is an event where the hood latch moves from secondary position to primary latched position due to external force applied by the customer to the hood. When customers close the hood slowly, it may not get latched due to insufficient force transfer to the latch thus requiring additional effort. Recent vehicle designs have the hood latch mounted further rearward than typical from the hood leading edge due to architectural challenges. Pedestrian protection (PedPro) requirements drive hood designs with reduced stiffness above the latch resulting in poor load transfer from the customer to the latch. This often results in high customer effort during quasi-static hood closing events. This additional effort may cause undesirable permanent deformation on the hood outer panel. In absence of proper simulation procedures, design engineers must adjust the latch and hood bumper interfaces on a trial basis during vehicle builds, leading to potential gap and flushness issues on the vehicle. Poor closing effort can result in costly engineering changes late in the vehicle…
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Graphical Symbols for Operator Controls and Displays on Off-Road Self-Propelled Work Machines

HFTC2, Machine Displays and Symbols
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1362_201812
  • Current
Published 2018-12-07 by SAE International in United States
SAE J1362 presents graphical symbols for use on operator controls and other displays on off-road work machines as defined in SAE J1116 plus mobile cranes but excluding agricultural tractors. Symbols for agricultural tractors are covered by ASABE S304, ISO 3767-1, and ISO 3767-2.
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