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Unsettled Domains Concerning Autonomous System Validation and Verification Processes

EllectroCrafts Aerospace-Fabio Alonso da Silva
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019012
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) face similar challenges regarding the regulation of autonomous systems powered by artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms that replace the human factor in the decision-making process. Validation and verification (V&V) processes contribute to implementation of correct system requirements and the development life cycle - starting with the definition of regulatory, marketing, operational, performance, and safety requirements. The V&V process is one of the steps of a development life cycle starting with the definition of regulatory, marketing, operational, performance, and safety requirements. They define what a product is, and they flow down into lower level requirements defining control architectures, hardware, and software. The industry is attempting to define regulatory requirements and a framework to gain safety clearance of such products. This report suggests a regulatory text and a safety and V&V approach from an aerospace engineering perspective assessing the replacement of the human driver from the decision-making role by a computational system. It also suggests an approach where aerospace guidelines can…
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Identifying Automated Driving Systems-Dedicated Vehicles (ADS-DVs) Passenger Issues for Persons with Disabilities

On-Road Automated Driving (ORAD) committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3171_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
It is expected that Level 4 and 5 automated driving systems-dedicated vehicles (ADS-DVs) will eventually enable persons to travel at will who are otherwise unable to obtain a driver's license for a conventional vehicle, namely, persons with certain visual, cognitive, and/or physical impairments. This information report focuses on these disabilities, but also provides guidance for those with other disabilities. This report is limited to fleet operated on-demand shared mobility scenarios, as this is widely considered to be the first way people will be able to interact with ADS-DVs. To be more specific, this report does not address fixed route transit services or private vehicle ownership. Similarly, this report is focused on road-worthy vehicles; not scooters, golf carts, etc. Lastly, this report does not address the design of chair lifts, ramps, or securements for persons who use wheeled mobility devices (WHMD) (e.g., wheelchair, electric cart, etc.), as these matters are addressed by other committees within SAE International.
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Soft Robotics Perception System

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35432
Published 2019-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A perception system for soft robots was developed that is inspired by the way humans process information about their own bodies in space and in relation to other objects and people. The system includes a motion capture system, soft sensors, a neural network, and a soft robotic finger. The goal is to build a system that can predict a robot’s movements and internal state without relying on external sensors, much like humans do every day. The work has applications in human-robot interaction and wearable robotics as well as soft devices to correct disorders affecting muscles and bones.

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Film Analysis Guides for Dynamic Studies of Test Subjects

Motor Vehicle Council
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J138_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-02 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended to provide guidelines for the identification of subjects used in dynamic tests. It establishes recommendations for location and description of target areas on test subjects or test devices, as well as recommendations for photographic calibration and timing.
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Photometric and Colorimetric Measurement Procedures for Airborne Electronic Flat Panel Displays

A-20A Crew Station Lighting
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP4260B
  • Current
Published 2019-09-17 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) contains methods used to measure the optical performance of airborne electronic flat panel display (FPD) systems. The methods described are specific to the direct view, liquid crystal matrix (x-y addressable) display technology used on aircraft flight decks. The focus of this document is on active matrix, liquid crystal displays (LCD). The majority of the procedures can be applied to other display technologies, however, it is cautioned that some techniques need to be tailored to different display technologies. The document covers monochrome and color LCD operation in the transmissive mode within the visual spectrum (the wavelength range of 380 to 780 nm). These procedures are adaptable to reflective and transflective displays paying special attention to the source illumination geometry. Photometric and colorimetric measurement procedures for airborne direct view CRT (cathode ray tube) displays are found in ARP1782. Optical measurement procedures for airborne head up displays (HUDs) can be found in ARP5287. Generally, the procedures describe manual single point measurements. The individual procedures may be readily incorporated into automated testing equipment…
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Safety-Relevant Guidance for On-Road Testing of SAE Level 3, 4, and 5 Prototype Automated Driving System (ADS)-Operated Vehicles

On-Road Automated Driving (ORAD) committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3018_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-04 by SAE International in United States
This document provides safety-relevant guidance for on-road testing of vehicles being operated by prototype conditional, high, and full (Levels 3 to 5) ADS, as defined by SAE J3016. It does not include guidance for evaluating the performance of post-production ADS-equipped vehicles. Moreover, this guidance only addresses testing of ADS-operated vehicles as overseen by in-vehicle fallback test drivers (IFTD). These guidelines do not address: Remote driving, including remote fallback test driving of prototype ADS-operated test vehicles in driverless operation. (Note: The term “remote fallback test driver” is included as a defined term herein and is intended to be addressed in a future iteration of this document. However, at this time, too little is published or known about this type of testing to provide even preliminary guidance.) Testing of driver support features (i.e., Levels 1 and 2), which rely on a human driver to perform part of the dynamic driving task (DDT) and to supervise the driving automation feature’s performance in real time. (Refer to SAE J3016.) Closed-course testing. Simulation testing (except for training purposes). Component-level testing.
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5 Ws of the Wearable Cooling and Heating Patch

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34922
Published 2019-08-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The patch — which serves as a personal thermostat — provides personalized cooling and heating at home, work, or on the go by cooling or warming the user's skin to a comfortable temperature and keeping it there as the ambient temperature changes.

Face-Tracking Robot

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34764
Published 2019-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A robot is being developed that tracks facial movements to perform human tasks. The robot resembles large, squiggly arms holding tiny cameras. Sitting in a rolling office chair across from one of the arms, the robot's developer, Nathan Huber, demonstrates how it works. Huber rolls from left to write, forward and back, and the robot's camera follows his movements. He programmed the robot to track objects in planes. First, it identifies the object and locates it on the X and Y axes. Then, with a spatial-tracking algorithm, the robot can determine how near or far an object is in order to grab it.

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Psychoacoustic Order Tonality Calculation

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

HEAD acoustics GmbH-Julian Becker, Roland Sottek
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-1466
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Quantifying tonalities in technical sounds according to human perception is a task of growing importance. The psychoacoustic tonality method, published in the 15th edition of the ECMA-74 standard, is a new method that is capable of calculating the perceived tonality of a signal. Other methods, such as Prominence Ratio or Tone-to-Noise Ratio do not consider several essential psychoacoustic effects. The psychoacoustic tonality is based on a model of human hearing and thus is able to model human perception better than other methods. The algorithm described in ECMA-74 calculates tonality over time and frequency. In practice, tonalities often originate from rotating components, for example, parts of an electric motor. In these cases, quantification of the tonality of orders is often more interesting than the tonality over frequency. In this paper, an extension of the psychoacoustic tonality according to ECMA-74 is presented. With this extension, it is possible to calculate the order tonalities by using the rotational speed characteristics of the measured signal in order to control the parameters of the auditory filter bank. Two of the…
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U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34636
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

In October 1962, the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Unit was established with a goal of providing specialized medical and physiological support to help close the gap between Army combat aviation needs and human capabilities, and to protect aviators from altitude, climate, noise, acceleration, impact, and other stressors in a growing hostile environment. In 1969, the Army re-designated the unit as the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL).